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o o OF o o 



NORTHEAST ARKANSAS, 



COMPRISINO 



A Condensed History of the State, a Number of Biographies of D'stinguished Citizens ^f 

the sanqe, a Brief Descriptive History of eacl^ of the Counties named herein, and 

numerous Biograpl^ical Sketches of the Prominent Citizens of such Counties. 



ILLUSTRATBD. 



Chicago, Nashville and St. Louis : 
THE GOODSPEED PUBLISHING CO. 

1889 







"NKEY, BiNDKR. 



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M^^"r 




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"HIS beautiful volume has been prepared in response to the popular demand 
for the preservation of local history and biography. The method of prep- 
aration followed is tiie most successful and the most satisfactory yet devised 
— the most successful in the enormous number of volumes circulated, and 
tlie most satisfactory in the general preservation of personal biograpliy 
and family record, conjointly with local history. The number of volumes 
now being distributed seems fabulous. Careful estimates place the number 
circulated in Ohio at 50,000 volumes; Pennsylvania, 00,000; New York, 75,000; 
Indiana, 40,(100; Illinois, 40,000; Iowa, 30,000; Missouri. 25,000; Kansas. 
20,000; Tennessee, 20,000; Kentucky, 25,000; Georgia, 20,000; Alabama, 20,000, 
and all the other States at the same proportionate rate. The entire State of 
Arkansas has as yet scarcely been touched by the historian, but is now being 
rapidly written. 

The design of the present extensive biographical and historical research is to 
gather and preserve in attractive form, while fresh with the evidence of tiuth, tlie enormous fund 
of perishing occurrence. In gathering the matter for the historical sketches of tlie counties, it 
was thought wisest, owing to the limited space, to collate and condense only the most valuable 
items, by reason of which such sketches are a credit to the book, and of permanent worth. 

In the preparation of this volume the Publishers have met with nothing but courtesj- and 
assistance from the public. Nothing promised is omitted, and much not promised is giv#Ji. 
About fifty pages of State history were guaranteed; over twice that number are given. Special 
care was employed and great expense incurred to render the volume accurate. In all cases tlie 
personal sketches wei-e submitted by mail, and in most instances were corrected and returned 
by the subjects themselves. Coming as they do from the most illustrious families of the State 
— all worthy citizens from the upper, middle and lower classes — they form in tiiemselves tlie 
most complete account of the Northeast Counties ever written, and their great value to future 
generations will be warmly acknowledged by all tlioughtful people. With many thanks to their 
friends for the success of such a diflicult enterprise, the Publishers res|)ectfully tender tliis fine 
volume to their patrons. 



THE PUBLISHERS. 



October, 18«y. 



I 






-^ 




CHAPTER I. 

(ieolog-y — Importance of (iculofjio Stiidj—Ari-a aud Cli- 
mate — Bouudarii's — Primiijal Streams of the State — 
The Mountain Systems — The Cfreat Springs — Diversity 
of Soils — Caves — The Mines, their Wonderful Deposits 
and Formations !»-] S 

CHAPTER II. 

Archajology — Kemains of Flint Arrow and Spear Heads, 
and Stone and Other Ornaments — Evidences of Prehis- 
toric People along the Mississippi — Mounds, etc., in 
Other Portions of the State — Local Archaeologists and 
tlicir Work — The Indians — Tribal and Race Character- 
istics — The Arkansas Tribes — The Cession Treaties — 
The Removal of IhcCherokecs, Creeks and Choetaws — 
An Indian Alarm — Assassination of the Leaders, etc., 
etc 19-2.3 

CHAPTER III. 

Discovery and Settlement — De Soto in Arkansas — Mar- 
quette and Joliet — La Salle, llenncjiin and Tonti — 
French and English Schemes of Conquest and Dreams 
of Power — Louisiana — The "Bubble" of .Tohn Law— 
The Early Viceroys and tiovernors — Proprietary Change 
of Louisiana — French and Spanish Settlers in .Vrkansas 
— English Settlers— .\ Few First Settlers in the Counties 
— The New Madrid Earthquake — Other Items of Inter- 
est 34-34 

CHAPTER IV. 

Organization — The Viceroys and tiovernors — The Attitude 
of the Royal Owners of Louisiana — The District Divided 
— The Territory of Arkansas Formed from the Territory 
of Missouri — The Territorial Government — The First 
Legislaturi' — The Seat of Government — Other Legisla- 
tive Bodies — The Due''. i— Arkansas Admitted to Slate- 
luiod — The Constitutional Conventions — The .Memor 
able Reeonstriietion Period— Legislative Attitude on 
the Question of Secession — The War of the Governors, 
etc., etc .34-44 

CHAPTER V. 

.Vdvunceinent of the State — .Misconceptions Removed — 
Effects of Slavery upon .\griculture — Extraordinary 
Improvements Since the War — Important Suirirestions 



— Comparative Estimate of Products — (irovvtii of the 
Manufacturing Interests— Wonderful Showing of Ar- 
kansas — Its Desirability as a Place of Residence — State 
Elevations 4.5-53 

CHAPTER VI. 

Polities — Importance of thi^ Subject — The Two Old Scliouls 
of Politicians — Triumph of the Jaeksonians — Early 
Prominent State Politicians — The Great (inestion of 
Secession — The Slate Voles to .Join the Confederacy — 
Horror of the War Period — The Rt^construelion Distress 
— The Baxter-Brooks Embroglio. . ,V.' :,.-, 



CHAPTER VII. 

Societies, Stale Institutions, etc. — The Kn Klii\ Klan — 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows — Ancient, Free and 
Accepted Masons — Grand Army of the Republic — Bu- 
reau of Mines — .\rkansas .\gricultural .Vssoeiatious — 
State Horticultural Society — The Wheel — The Slate 
Capital — The Capitol Building — State Libraries — State 
Medical Society— State Board of Health— Deaf Mute 
In.stitutc — School for the Blind — Arkansas Lunatic 
.Asylum — Arkansas Industrial University — The State 
Debt 56-(H 



CHAPTER VIII. 

The Bench and Bar — -Vn Analytic View ..r ilie Profession 
of Law — Spanish and Freni'h Laws — English Comii<yii 
Law — Th» Legal Circuit Riders — Territorial Laiv ami 
Lawyers — The Court Circuits- Early Court Odiecrs — 
The Supreme Court — Prominent Members of the Slate 
Bench and Bar — The Standard of the Execution of Law 
in the Stale ." «5-73 



CHAPTER IX. 

The Lat.- Civil War— ^lualytieal Vi.w ..f the Troublous 
Times — Passage of the Ordinance of Secession — The 
Call to .\rms — The First Troops to Take the Field— In- 
vasion of the State by the FcdiTal .\rmy— Sketch of (he 
Regiments — Names of OHIeer — (lutliue of Field Oper- 
ations— Cleburne and Yill — KxtracUi from Privale 
Memoranda— Evacuation of the Stale — Re-oceupation 
—The War of ISl'i— The Mexican War— Standard of 
American Generalship 7!V-X1 



CONTENTS. 



'^ 



CHAFTEB X. 

I'lililii- KiiUTi>risi'» — Till- Kijal Kstate Bank nf Arkiin^iis — 
S(ati; Koiuls and Ollur Ui:;liH!iys — Tlio Milihiiy Knads 
— NaviK.itiou within tlic Stale frcmi tlie Kiirliisl Tinus 
to the Piesrut — Dcmdrucf of Stale Navigation — Stfani- 
hout Kaoiujr — Ai-c-idcnt» to Boats— The Rise and (irowlli 
of tlie Itailroad Systems — A Sketeli of the Diflferi'nt 
I/iM'-:, — otijer I in port lint Conflideration» s:J-8T 

CHAPTEK XI. 

The Counties of Hie State— Tlieir Foriniitii>n and I'liaiiires 
of Boundary Lines, ete. — Tlieir C'ciiinty Seats and Otlier 
Items of Interest Coneernin:; them — Defunel C"ouu(ies 
— New Counties — I'opulalion of all Hie Counties ol the 
Stale at every fieiieral Census S7-!ia 

CHAPTER XII. 

Kiliieatiou — Tile Mental I'yiu- I 'oiisi4lere<l — Territorial 
Siliools, Laws and Funds — Coiistilutiunal Provisions 
for Kdiieation — l.ejrislntive Provisions — Projrrcs.s sinee 
the War — Tlie State Superintendents — Statistics — 
Vrkansas Literature — The Arkan-iiw TravliT f»H-'.l7 

CHAPTER XIII. 

The Chiirelii's of Arkansas'^ .\ppearnnee of (lie Mission 
uries— Chiireh Missions Kstaldislied in the Wilderness 
—The Leadin;;- Protestant Denominations — Eeelcsiasti- 
eal Statisties— General Outlook from a Relij^ious 
Standpoint 98-101 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Names Illustrious in Arkansas History— Prominent Men- 
tion of Noted Individuals- .\inhiiise H. Sevier— Will- 
iam K. WoodnitT — .lohii Wilson— .hdin Hemphill — 
.laeol. Barkniaii— Dr. Bowii — Sandy Faulkner— Samuel 
11. Ileinpstead— Trent, Williams, Sliiiin Families, and 
I »i hers— The Coiiways— Koherl Crittenden— Arehiliald 
Yell — .JiidiCe David Walker— Gen. G. D. Koyston — 
.Iiulf;c James W. Bates 103-112 

CHAPTER XV. 

<ireene County— Physical Features— Slreams—ForesLs— 

Iv'ndof Soil — AK'rieulturnl Proihiets — Stock Interests 

Keiil and Personal Property— Population— Railways — 
Kra of Settlement — .\ Noted Hunter— .\els of the Coun- 
ly Board— County Seat and Biiildinj,'s—Offieers— Polit- 
ical Outlook— Lejfal Matters- Military Affairs— Mnnic- 
ipalities— Schools— Chnrches-Bi.ijrraphy 113-188 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Clay I'ounty — Location and Description — Drainaire — Tim- 

her— Soil — Natural Kcsources— Live Stock — Taxation 

Population— Railroads— Set tleiiienl— County Orsraniza- 
lion— Chause of Name— The County Divided— Piililic 
Huildinss — County Olllcers — Politics— The Courts— 
i-ettal Kxeciitioiis— The Civil War— Towns and Villajjes 
—Newspapers— Edurallon and Keligion— Bioirrapliical 
.Sketches 18»-26!S 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Fulton County — Us Foriuatiou, Oi';;;uni/'.atiou and OHiccrs 
— Its Capital and Biiildinv:.* — P(ditical Record — The 
Bench and Bar — Situation of the I'ouuty — Important 
Statistics for the Instruction of Imtniirrants — Real and 
Personal Taxation — Airirrcijatc Pojinlation — Educa- 
tional and Rcliirioiis .Vdvanccmcnl — Selected Family 
Rciords — The (ireal Keliellion — .Municipal Ortfaniza- 
tions 2,59-30» 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Craighead County — Location ami l)e>eri|ition — Streams 
and Drainage — Timlier and Soil — Resources- and Pro. 
ductions — Live Stock— Properly, Rial and Personal — 
Population — Railroads — Settlement — County Organiza- 
tion—County Scut — County Buildings — Local Olticers 
—Politics — The Courts — The Civil War— Towns and 
Villages — County Biograjihy — Education — Religion — 
I ither Items . . ;W.»-:«a 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Randoljih County— The Pioneers— The County Formed and 
Organized — Seal of .Justice — Buildings — Local Officer- 
— Elections — Natural History — Wafer-courses — Miner 
als. Soil, etc.— Wood Supply -Vegetable and Other 
Products — Statisties — Taxables— The Censius- Public 
Highways — The Great War — Law and Lawyers — In- 
struction — Morals — Towns and Villages — Selected 
Biography 384^^145 

CHAPTER XX. 

Mississigipi County — Location, Boundary, Topography, 
etc.— The Expedition of De Soto into Mississipjii 
County — Towns— Settlements by Local Names — Secret 
Societies— Military .\ffairs of the County— The Lpris- 
ing of the t'olored People — Offlcers of the County — 
Public Buildings— Popnlation— Local Statistics— Coun- 
ty Organization— Levies-Schools and Churches — Se- 
lected Biographical .Sketches 445-570 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Poinsett County— Tile Re<-ords of the Courts— Formation 
of the County and Selection of the Seal of Law— List 
ofLocal Officers- Election Statistics— Centers of Popii 
lation — Societies, etc. — Local Instruction — Moral Or 
gaMizalions- The Soiitlieni Confederacy— The County 
Bounded — Its Topograjihy and Geology — Its Wonderful 
Soil and its Products— Population— Railroads— Names 
of Early Settlers- Private and Family Records .S7(M;-il 

CHAPTER XXII. 

Indeiieudence County— Formation and Organiziition— 
Public Structures— Catalogue of Officials— The Fran- 
chise— Administration of Law— The Coming of the Pio. 
neers- Location of the County- Its Water-courses- 
Numerous Personal and Business Sketches— Timber 
and -Mines— Lands and Crops- Census Returns — Rail- 
roads— Religion- (irow 111— Towns— Popular Instruction 
— War Record— Facts and Statisties 62I-72« 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

Shiirp County — Loiatiou and Toi)oyrai>liy — Tlic Walir 
Supply — MiiHTuN, Tiiiihcr and Soil — Products — Valua- 
tion of Property — Piil)lic' i[i?;liways — Population — 
Erection of tlie County — TlU' Leyal Center — County 
Buildiujfs — Days of the Pioneers — Law and Equity 
Practiced — Tlie Strvif^ffle ovi'r Slavery and Secession — 
Villages Located and Ueseribed — Sclmol Statistics— 
Cliureli Peo])Ie — Catalogue of County Officers — Per- 
sonal and Business Meuuiranrta — Elections 739-761 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

Lawrence County — Period of Settlenu^nt — The Mound 
Builders — Boundary of the County — Topography — 
Rivers orCreeks — Tiuiiier, Soil and Products — Minerals 
and Other Resources — Live StocU — Taxaliles — Popula- 
tion — Railroads — Legal Matters — The Civil War- 
School Affairs — Church Strengtli — The County Cre- 
ated — Its Otiicers, Buildings and Seat of .fustici — 
Political Statistics — Towns and Villages — Personal 
Notices 763-831 



CHAPTER XXV. 

•Taikson Counly— Act of Creation— Seat of .lusliee Lu 
cated— County Structures- OHlcial Catalogue— Voli's 
and Voters— The War of 18l)l-er.— The Administration 
of .lustice — Church Deuoniinalions Represented — 
School Matters Outlined— Names oftlic Early Settlers— 
Tlie County Located— Topography— Streams— Tiniher 
—Soil— Resources — Property Valuation — Railroads- 
Population— Towns and Villages — Personal Memoirs 

h:«-!M(1 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

Izard County— The Arrival of Ihe Selller.s— Circuit and 
Probate Courts — Military Memoirs— The County 
Formed— The County Seat Located— Public Buildings 
Erected— Election 'Returns— Church Organizations- 
Towns and Village?— Educational Development— The 
County Bounded— Statistics Showing its Desirability 
as a Place of Residence — Population— Biography. .'.II7-!»K| 




mMMMIM- 



-4-+- 



Elisha Baxter 

.lohu B. Driver 

W. II. Cate 

S. S. Semmes 

G. W. Hurley 

II. C. Dunavant. . 

J. A. Lindsay 

Oapt. Dan Matthews. 

J. L. Aberncthy 

A. L. Cissell 

.1. W. Parish 

L. .V. Morris 

•lames Rutherford . , 

W. K. Harrison 

D. C. Montgomery. . . 

W. D. Jones 

T. D. Culberhouse . . 
Dr. Elliott Hickman 

K. M. Wayland 

.lames K. Jernigan.. 



. between 



H7-i>8 
133-l'i;i 
14(;-147 
170-171 
I'.l4-ia5 
31K-319 
242-343 
•2tit^3U7 
3!tO-3tll 
314-31.T 
3;i8-339 
3(;3-3(>3 
3'.Mi-;W7 
43(1-431 
444-145 
4ti,s-4t);t 
4(l3-4!t3 
.5II>-517 
.540-541 



John K. (iihsou 

H. M. McVeigh 

James T. Henderson.. 

B. A. Bugg. 

T. L. Musgrave .... 
William T. lluddleston 

J. W. Rhodes 

F. G. McOavock 

B. F. Jone.s 

W. J. Erwlu. 
E.J. McGavock 
J. H. MeGavovk . 

1). L. Ferguson 

V. Y. Cook 

R. W. Friend 

J. F. Davis 

Lieut. E. M. Ayres 

J. W. I'zzell 

Elliot H. Fletcher 

W. A. Townsend 



.between .iii4-.)0.. 
.5HK-r)Sfl 
tlia-613 
63(>-«37 
(J(KMi6I 
l»m5S.5 
70»rO!l 
T.V2-'iXi 
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780-781 
804-805 
838-829 
.K53-853 
870-877 
!HX)-901 
m.^-'.lUi 
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A 




ISTORY o OF 




ANSflS.e^ 



• > ♦ < » 



iiitf 11 1. 



Geology-Impoutance of Geologic Study— Area and Climate— Boundakies-Piuncipal Streams 
OF THE State— The Mountain Systems— The Great Springs- Diversity of Soils- 
Caves— The Mines, theiu WoNDf:RrrL Deposits and Formations. 



Such Iik'ssings Nature pours, 
O'erstocked mankiml enjoys bin half her stores.- 




-Young. 



HE matter of first iinpor- 
tancG for every civilized peo 
pie to know is tbo economic 
geology of the country they 
inhabit. The rocks and the 
climate are the solution in 
the end of all problems of 
life, as they are the prime sources 
from which all that human beings 
can possess comes. The measure of 
each and every civilization that has 
adorned the world is in exact de- 
gree with the people's knowledge 
^r^ )iC?l^oi the natural laws and the envi- 
t- S/^\ii ronments about them. 
jj^ /^v^tfiTj, The foundation of civilization 

^ ^ rests upon the agriculturists, and 

nothing can be of more importance to this class 
than some knowledge of what materials plants are 
composed, and the .source from whence they de- 
rive existence; the food upon which plants live 
and grow; how they are nourished or destroyed; 
what plant food is ajipropriated by vegetation 
itself, without man's aid or intorveutiun, through 
the natural operations in constant action. The 



schools will some day teach the children these use- 
ful and fiiiulainental lessons, and then, beyond all 
peradventure, they will answer very completely 
the lately propounded question: " Are the public 
schools a failure?" Tiie knowledge of the ele- 
mentary principles of the geology of this country 
is now the demand of the age, made upyon all na- 
tions, in all clinies. 

The character of vegetation, as well as the 
qualities of the waters and their action upon vege- 
table and animal life, is primarily determined 
by the subjacent rocks on which the soil rests. 
Earth and air are but the combinations of The 
original gases, forming the solids, liquids and the 
atmosphere surrounding the globe. The soil is 
but the decomposed rocks — their ashes, in other 
words, and hence is seen the imperative necessity of 
the agriculturist understanding something of the 
rocks which lie beneath the laud he would success- 
fully cultivate. He who is educated in the simple 
fundamental principles of geology — a thing ea-sier 
to learn than is the difference in the oaks and pines 
of the forest — to him there is a clear comprehension 
of the life-giving qujilities stored in the surface 
rocks, as well as a knowledge of the minerals to be 






-*fv*" 



10 



HISTOKY OF ARKANSA.S. 



found in their compauj'. A youth so educated 
possesses incomparable advantages over his school 
companion in the start of life, ^ho has coneeui rated 
his energies on the classics or on metaphysical sub- 
jects, whether they enter the struggle for life as 
farmers, stock raisers, miners or craftsmen. It 
is as much easier to learn to analyze a rock, min- 
eral or soil, than to learn a Greek verb, as the one 
is more valuable to know than the other. All true 
knowledge is the acquirement of that which may 
aid in the race of life, an education that is so prac- 
tical that it is always helpful and useful. 

The geology of Arkansas therefore, so far as 
given in this chapter, is in fact but the outline of 
the physical geography of one of the aiost interest- 
ing localities of the continent, and is written 
wholly for the lay reader, and attempted in a 
manner that will reach his understanding. 

Within the boundary lines of the State are 53,- 
045 square miles, or 33,948,800 acres. It haa 
3,868,800 more acres of land than the State of 
New York, and multiplies many times the com- 
bined natural resources of all the New England 
States. It has 2,750 miles of navigable rivers. 

It had a population in 1880, as shown by the 
census, of 802.525. Of these there were 10,350 
foreigners and 210,606 colored. In 1820 the Ter 
ritory had a population of 14,255; in 1830, of 30,- 
338; in 1840, of 97.554; in 1850. of 209,897; in 
1860, of 435,450; in 1870, of 481,471. (This 
was the Civil War decade.) In 1885 the popula- 
tion had advanced about 200,000 over the year 
1880, or was near 1,000.000. In 1887 it reached 
the figures of 1,260,000, or an increase of more 
than a quarter of a million in two years, and there 
is reason to believe this increa.sed ratio will pass 
beyond the two million mark in the next census. 
At least, an increase of one hundred per cent in 
the ten years is indicated. Keeping in miud that 
there are no great populous cities in the State, it 
will be known that this has been that healthy in- 
crease of population which gives glowing promises 
for the future of the State. Here the agricultural 
districts, and the towns and cities, have kept even 
pace, while in some of the leading States of the 
Mississippi Valley the gi-eat cities have grown 



while the rural population has markedly decreased. 
These are serious problems to reflective minds in 
those States where the cities are overgrowing and 
the country is declining. Happily, Arkansas is 
troubled with no such indications of the disturbed 
natural distribution of its people. The State, 
since it emerged from the dark and evil days of 
civil war and reconstruction, has not only not been 
advertised in regard to its natural resources, but 
has been persistently slandered. The outside world, 
more than a generation ago, were plaiTsibly led 
to believe the energy of its citizens was justly 
typified in the old senseless ballad, "TheArkan- 
saw Traveler," and the culture and refinement of 
its best people are supposed to be told in the 
witty account of Judge Halliburton's " Fir.st Piano 
in Arkansas." The ruined hopes, the bankrupted 
fortunes and the broken hearts that are the most 
recent history of the Western deserts, form some of 
the measure the poor people are jiaying for the de 
ceptions in this regard that have been practiced 
upon them. These silly but amusing things have 
had their effect, bat they were pleasant and harm- 
less, compared to tli ■ latest phase of pretexts for 
persistent publications of the cruelest falsehoods 
ever heaped upon the heads of innocent men. But, 
in the end, even this will do good; it is to be seen 
now among the people. It will put the people of 
the State upon their mettle, resulting, if that is 
not already the fact, in giving it the most orderly, 
law abiding, peaceful and moral people of any 
equal district of the Union. 

The State is in the central southern portion of 
the great Mis.sissippi Valley, and in climate, soil, 
rocks, minerals and water may well bo designated 
as the capital of this " garden and granary of the 
world," with resources beneath the surface that 
are not, taken all together, surpassed on the globe. 
Its eastern line is the channel of the Mississippi 
River "beginning at the parallel 36" of north lati- 
tude, thence west with said parallel to the middle 
of the main channel of the St. Francois (Francis) 
River; thence up the main channel of said last men- 
tioned river to the parallel of 36° 30' of north lati 
tude; thence west with the last mentioned parallel, 
or along the southern line of the State of Missouri, 



^ 



^ 9 



>_ 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



11 



to the southwest corner of said State; thence to be 
bounded on the \v((st to the north bank of Red 
River, as designated by act of Congress and treat- 
ies, existing January 1, 1837, defining the western 
limits of the Territory of Arkansaw, and to be 
bounded west across and south of Red River by 
the boundary line of the State of Texas as far as 
the northwest corner of the State of Louisiana; 
thence easterly with the northern boundary line of 
said last named State to the middle of the main 
channel of the Mississi])|n River; thence up the 
middle of the main chHUU(>l of said last mentioned 
river, including an island in said river Imown as 
Belle Point Island, and all other land as originally 
surveyed and included as a part of the Territory, or 
State of Arkansas, to the 36° of north latitude, to 
the place of beginning."* 

The State includes between its north and south 
boundary lines the country lying between parallel 
of latitude 33° north, and parallel of latitude 36° 
30 ' north, and between its east to west lines the 
country between longitude 90° and a little west of 
longitude 94° 30'. Its geographical position on 
the continent assures the best conditions of tem- 
perature, salubrity and rainfall, this being shown 
by the absence of the intense heat and the cold 
storms of the higher latitudes and the drouths of 
the west. 

From the meteorological reports it is learned 
that the average rainfall in the State during June, 
July and August is sixteen inches, except a narrow 
l)elt in the center of the State, where it is eighteen 

*Tlie above dpscriptivo boundary lines are in the au- 
thoritative language of lUe 8tate Constitutional Conven- 
tion. To understand the south and west lines necessitates 
a referencelo tlie treatiesand acts of Congress. The fol- 
lowing would simplify the descriptive part of the west 
and south lines: Beginning at the southwest corner of 
jNIissouri, or in the center of Section 19, Township 31. 
Range 34 west of the fifth principal meridiiin line, thence 
in a straight line south, bearing a little east to strike the 
cast line of Section 4. Township 8 nmlli, liange 32 west; 
thence in a straight line south, bearing a little west to 
where the line strikes Red River in Section 14, Townshi)) 
13 south, Range 33 west; thence along said river to the 
southwest corner of Section 7, Township 14 south. Range 
28 west; thence south lotlie northwest corner of thcnortli- 
east quarter of Section 18, Township 20 south. Range 28 
west; thence east along the 33-' of latitude to the middle 
of the channel of the Jlississippi River; thence up said 
river to the place of beginning. The State lines run 
with the lines of latitude and I he meridional lines, and 
not with the government suivcy lines. 



inches, and a strip on the western portion of the 
State, where it is from eight to fourteen inches. 
Accurate observations covering fifteen years give 
an average of seventy-five rainy days in the year. 

Of twenty-three States where are reported 134 
destructive tornadoes, four were in Arkansas. 

The annual mean temperature of Los Angeles, 
Gal., is about 1° less than that of Little Rock. 

The watershed of the State runs from the 
north of west to the southeast, from the divide of 
the Ozark Mountain range, except a few streams 
on the east side of the State, which flow nearly 
parallel with the Mississippi River, which runs a 
little west of south along the line of the State. 
North of the Ozark divide the streams betir to a 
northerly direction. 

Of the navigable rivers within its Ijorders the 
Arkan.sas is navigable 505 miles; Bartholomew 
Bayou, 68 miles; Black River, 147 miles; Current 
River, 63 miles; Fourche La Favre River, 73 
miles; Little Missouri River, 74 miles; Little Red 
River, 48 miles; Little River, 98 miles; Missis- 
sippi River, 424 miles: Ouachita River, 134 miles; 
Petit Jean River, 105 miles; Red River, 92 miles; 
Saline River, 125 miles; St. Francis River, 180 
miles; White River. 619 miles. 

These streams flow into the Mississippi River 
and give the State an unusual navigable river 
frontage, and they run so nearly in parallel lines 
to each other and are distributed so e(juiilly as to 
give, especially the eastern half and the southwest 
part of the State, the best and cheapest transjjorta- 
tion facilities of any State in the Union. These 
free rivers will in all times control the extortions of 
transportation lines that are so oppressive to the 
people of less favored localities. 

The Arkansas River passes diagonally across 
the center of the State, entering at Fort Smith, and 
emptying into the Mississippi at Napoleon. 

South of this the main stream is the Ouachita 
River and its tributaries; the Saline River, which 
divides nearly eqtially the territory between the 
Arkansas and Ouachita Rivers; and the Little Mis- 
souri on the southwest, which divides the territory 
between the Ouachita and Red Rivers. North of 
the Arkansas, and about equally dividing the ter 



"~® 



to 



12 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



ritory between tbe Mississippi and the Arkansas 
Rivers, is White River, running nearly southeast. 
Its main tributary on the west is Little Red River, 
and on the northeast Black River, which enters the 
State from Missouri, and flows southwesterly and 
empties into the White at Jacksonport, Jackson 
County. Another important tributary is Cache 
River, which flows a little west of south from Clay 
County, emptying into the White near Clarendon. 

Eel River is in the northeast comer of the 
State and partially drains Craighead County. 
Eleven Points, Currant, Spring and Strawberry 
Rivers are important tributaries of Black River. St. 
Francis River flows from Missouri, and from 36° 
30' north latitude to 30° north latitude it forms 
the boundary line between Missouri and Arkansas, 
and continuing thence south empties into the Mis- 
sissippi a few miles above Helena. 

Main Fork of White River rises in Madison 
County and flows northwest in and through ^\■ash- 
ingtou County iuto Benton County; thence north- 
east into Missouri, returning again to Arkansas in 
Boone County. Big North Fork of White River 
rises in the south central part of Missouri, flows 
southward, and forms its junction in Baxter County, 
Ark. La Grue River is a short distance south of 
White River; it rises in Prairie County and joins 
the White in Desha County. Middle Fork of 
Saline River rises in Garland County and flows 
southeast. Rolling Fork of Little River rises in 
Polk and passes south through Sevier County. 
Cassatot River also rises in Polk and passes south 
through Sevier County. Clear Fork of Little 
Missouri rises in Polk County and passes south- 
east. East Fork of Poteau River rises in Scott 
County and runs nearly due west into the Indian 
Territory. L'Augnille River rises in' Poinsett 
County and flows through Cross, St. Francis and 
Lee Counties, and empties into the St. Francis 
within a few miles of the mouth of the latter. Big 
Wattensaw River rises in Lonoke County and runs 
east into Prairie County, and empties into White 
River. Muddy Fork of Little Missouri River rises 
in Howard County and runs southeast. Yache 
Grass River runs north through Sebastian County 
and empties into the Arkansas River east of Fort 



Smith. Terre Noir River runs from northwest to 
the southeast in Clark County and empties into 
Ouachita River. Sulphur Fork of Red River en- 
ters the State fi-om Texas, about the center of the 
west line of Miller County, and running a little 
south of east empties into Red River. Sabine River 
flows south through the central southern portions of 
the State, and empties into the Ouachita River near 
the south line of the State. 

There are numerous creeks forming tributa- 
ries to the streams mentioned, equally distributed 
over the State, which are fully described in the re- 
spective counties. Besides these water-courses 
mention should properly be made of the nineteen 
bayous within the State's borders. 

The Ozark Mountains pass through the north- 
ern portion of Arkansas, from west to east, and 
form the great divide in the watersheds of the 
State. Rich Mountains are in tbe central western 
part, and run east from its west line, forming the 
dividing line between Scott and Polk Counties, 
and also between Scott and Montgomery Counties, 
and run into Yell County. 

South and east of the Rich Mountains are the 
Silver Leaf Mountains, also running east and west 
fi'om Polk County, through Montgomery to Gar- 
land County. These are the mountain formations 
seen about Hot Springs. Sugar Loaf Mountain 
is in Cleljurne County, and receives its name from 
its peculiar shape. It is in the northern central 
part of the State. Another mountain of the same 
name, containing the highest point in the State, is 
in Sebastian County, and extends into the Indian 
Territory. Boston Mountains are in the northwest- 
ern part of the State, running east and west in 
Washington, Crawford and other counties. These 
include the main mountainous formations. There 
are many points in these ranges that have local 
names. 

It would require volumes to give a complete 
account of the variety of the innumerable springs 
which I^urst forth with their delicious waters — 
warm, hot and cold, salt, mineral and medicated. 
The fame of some of the medical, and the Hot 
Springs of Arkansas, are known throughout the 
civilized world, and pilgrims from all nations come 



-^ 



J, 



HISTORY OF AliKANSAS. 



13 



to be washed aiul healed iu them. They were 
known to and celebrated by the prehistoric peoples 
of America; and the migrating buffaloes, ages and 
ages ago, came annually from the land of the Da- 
kotas to the spring waters of Arkansas. The in- 
stincts of the wild beasts antedate the knowledge 
of man of the virtues and values of the delicious 
waters so bountifully given to the State-. Nearly 
all over its territory is one wonder after another, 
tilling every known range of springs and spring 
waters, which, both in abundance of flow and in 
medicinal properties, mock the world's previous 
comprehension of the possibilities of nature in this 



respect. 



af,rU 1-T- l\ 



'ft,()^m:C- 



When De Soto, in June, \'i\:'l, discovered the 
Mississippi River and crossed into (now) Arkansas, 
and had traveled north into the territory of Mis- 
souri, he heard of the "hot lakes" and turned 
about and arrived in time where is now Hot Springs. 
Even then, to the aborigines, this was the best- 
known spot on the continent, and was, and had 
been for centuries, their great sanitarium. The 
tribes of the Mississippi Valley had long been in 
the habit of sending here their invalids, anci even 
long after they were in the possession of the whites 
it was a common sight to see the camp of repre- 
sentatives of many different tribes. The whites 
made no improvement in the locality until 1807. 
Now there is a flourishing city of 10,000 inhab- 
itants, and an annual arrival of visitors of many 
thousands. The waters, climate, mountain air and 
grand scenery combine to make this the great 
world's resort for health and pleasure seekers, and 
at all seasons of the year. The seasons round, with 
rarest exceptions, are the Mav and October months 
of the North. 

In the confined spot in the valley called Hot 
Springs there are now known seventy -one springs. 
In 1800 the State geologist, D. D. Owen, only 
knew of forty. Others will no doubt be added to 
the list. These range in temperature from 93° 
to 150° Fahrenheit. They discharge over 500,000 
gallons of water daily. The waters are clear, taste- 
less and inodorous; they come from the sides of the 
ridge pure and sparkling as the ])ellucid Neva; holjl- 
ing in solution, as they rush up hot and bubbling 



from nature's most wonderful alembic, every valua- 
ble mineral constituent. In the cure, especially of 
nearly all manner of blood and chronic diseases, 
they are unerjualed, and their wonders have be- 
come mainly known to all the world by the liv- 
ing and breathing advertisements of those who 
have proven in their own persons their wonderful 
curative powers. To reach Hot Springs and be 
healed, is the hope and aspiration of the invalid, 
when all other remedies have failed. And it is 
but just now that the pleasure seeker, the tourist, 
the scientist, and the intelligence and culture of 
the world are beginning to understand that this 
is one of the world's most inviting places to see 
and enjoy. 

But the marvels of the district are not confined 
to the immediate locality of Hot Springs. Here 
is indeed a wide district, with a quantity and variety 
of medical springs that are simply inapproachable 
on the globe. Going west from Hot Springs are sys- 
tems of springs running into Montgomery County 
a distance of forty miles. As continued discov- 
eries of other springs in Hot Springs are being 
made, and as these widely distributed outlying 
springs are comparatively of recent disclosure, it 
may be assumed that for many years to come new 
and valuable springs will become celebrated. 

In Carroll County, in the northwest part of 
the State, are Eureka Springs, only second to Hot 
Springs in the wide celebrity of fame as healing 
waters. They, too, may well be considered one of 
the world's wonders. There are forty-two of these 
springs within the corporate limits of the city that 
has grown up about thorn. They received no pub- 
lic notice until 1879, when with a bound they 
became advertised to the world. Their wonderful 
cures, especially in cases of rheumatism, cancer, 
dyspepsia and other, if not nearly all, chronic 
diseases, have bordered on the marvelous, if not 
the miraculous. 

In White County are the noted White Sulphur 
Springs, at Searcy, and the sulphur and chalyb 
eate springs, known as the Armstrong and the 
Griffin Springs, and the medical springs — Blan- 
chard Springs — in Union County; the Ravenden 
Springs, in Randolph County, and the Sugar Loaf 



•* 4— 



14 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Springs, in Cleburne County; the very recently dis- 
covered Lithia Springes, near Hope, in Hempstead 
County, pronounced by a leading medical journal, 
in its January issue, 1889, to be the most remark- 
able discovery of this class of medical waters of 
this century. These are some of the leading springs 
of the State which possess unusual medicinal 
properties. By a glance at the map it will be seen 
they are distributed nearly equally all over its ter- 
ritory. Simply to catalogue them and give accom- 
panying analyses of the waters would make a pon- 
derous volume of itself. In the aliove list have 
been omitted mention of the fine Bethseda Springs 
in Polk County, or the fine iron and chalybeate 
springs near Magnolia; Bussoy's Springs, near 
Eldorado, Union County; Butler's Saline Chalyb- 
eate Springs, in Columbia County; the double 
mineral spring of J. I. Holdernist, in Calhoun 
County; a large number of saline chalyljeatc 
springs in Township 10 south. Range 23 west, in 
Hempstead County, called Hubbard's Springs; or 
Crawford's Sulphur Springs; or those others in 
Section 16, Township 12 south, Range 10 west; or 
Murphy's or Leag's Mineral Springs, all in Brad- 
ley County; or Gen. Royston's noted chalybeate 
springs in Pike County, and still many others that 
are known to possess mineral qualities, though no 
complete examination of them has yet been made. 

Si)(>cial mention should not be omitted of the 
Mountain Valley Springs, twelve miles northwest 
of Hot Springs. The fame of these springs has 
demanded the shipment of water, lately, to distant 
localities in vast and constantly increasing quan- 
tities. The knowledge of them is but compara- 
tively recent, and yet their wonderful healing 
qualities are already widely known. 

Innumerable, apparently, as are the health 
springs of Arkansas, they are far surpassed by 
the common springs found nearly all over the 
State. 

Mammotli Spring is in J^ilton County, and is 
unrivaled in the country. The water boils up 
from an opening 120 feet in circumference, and 
Hows uninterruptedly at the rate of 9.001) barrels a 
minute. From the compression of so large an 
amount of carbonic acid held in solution, the whole 



surface of this water basin is in a continual state of 
effervescence. Spring River, a bold stream, is 
produced by this spring, and gives an unlimited 
amount of water power. 

The general division of the surface of the State 
is uplands and lowlands. It is a timber State, 
with a large number of small prairies. East and 
near Little Rock is Lonoke Prairie, and other 
small prairies are in the southwest part. In its 
northeast portion are some large strips of prairie, 
and there are many other small spots bare of tim- 
ber growths, but these altogether compose only a 
small portion of the State's surface. 

The variety and excellence of soils are not sur- 
passed by any State in the Union. The dark 
alluvial prevails in nearly all the lowlands, while 
on many sections of the uplands are the umber red 
soils of the noted tobacco lands of Cuba. About 
two-thirds of the State's surface shows yellow pine 
growth, the great tall trees standing side by side 
with the hardwoods, walnut, maple, grapevines, 
sumac, etc. A careful analysis of the soils and 
subsoils of every county in the State by the 
eminent geologist, Prof. D. D. Owen, shows this 
result: The best soils of Iowa, Wisconsin and 
Minnesota are inferior to the best soils of Arkan- 
sas in fertilizing properties. The following re- 
ports of State geologists tell the story: 





Ark. 


Minn. 


Iowa. 


Wis, 


Organic ami Volatile Matter. . 

Alumnia 

Carbonate Lime 


14,150 6,334 

8.7151 5.585 
21.865 fiflO 


6,028 

3.288 

940 


6.580 

4,610 

665 













In fertilizing qualities the only comparative 
results to the Arkansas soils are found in the blue 
limestone districts of Central Kentucky. 

Analysis of the soils shows the derivative geo- 
logical formation of soils, and their agricultural 
values; their losses by cultivation, and what soils 
lying convenient will repair the waste. Arkansas 
County, the mother of counties in the State, lying 
in the southeast, shows the tertiary formations. 
Benton County, at the opposite northwest corner, 
has the subcarboniferous. The tertiary is found 



^ Kj 



A 



It. 



HISTORY OF AKKAXSAS. 



15 



in Newtou County; Chirk, Hempstead and Sevier 
show the cretaceous; Conway, Oawlord, Johnson, 
Ouachita, Perry, Polk. Pope, Priiirie, Pulaski, 
Scott, Van Bureu, White, Garland and Montgom- 
ery, the novaculite, or whetstone grit; Greene, 
Jackson, Poinsett and Union, the quaternary. In 
addition to Benton, given above, are Independence, 
Madison, Monroe, Searcy and Washington, subcar- 
boniferous. The lower silurian is represented in 
Fulton. Izard, Lawrence, Marion and Randolph. 
These give the horizons of the rock formations of 
the State. The State has 28, 000, 000 acres of 
woodland — eighty-one and one-half per cent of her 
soil. Of this twenty-eight per cent is in cleared 
farms. 

If there be drawn a line on the map, beginning 
a few miles west of longitude 91°, in the direction 
of Little Koek, thence to the north boundary line 
of Clark County, just west of the Iron Mountain 
Railroad, then nearly due west to the west line of 
the State, the portion north of this line will be the 
uplands, and south the lowlands. The uplands 
correspond with the Paleozoic, and lowlands with 
the Neozoic. 

The granitic axis outbursts in Pulaski, Saiine, 
Hot Springs, Montgomery, Pike and Sevier Coun- 
ties, and runs from the northeast to the southwest 
through the State. In Northern Arkansas the dis- 
turbance shows itself in small faults, gentle folds 
and slightly indurated shales; but nearer the gran- 
ite axis, greater faults, strata with high dip and 
talcose slate, intersected with quartz and calcite 
veins, become common. These disturbances are 
intimately connected with, and determine to some 
extent, the character of the mineral deposits of 
the State. The veins along the granite axis were 
filled probably with hot alkaline waters depositing 
the metalliferous compounds they contained. 

Almost every variety of land known to the 
agriculturist can be found, and, for fertility, the 
soils of the State arc justly celebrated. Comj)Osed 
as they are of uplands and lowlands, and a variety 
of climate, Ihey give a wide range of products. 
In the south and central portions are produced the 
finest cotton in the markets, while the uplands 
yield fruits in abundance and variety. No place | 



in the great valley excels it in variety of garden 
vegetables, small and orchard fruits, grasses, 
grains, and other field crops. Among agriculturists 
in Arkansas, truly cotton has been king. It is 
grown upon lands that would produce a hundred 
bushels of corn to the acre. All over the State a 
bale of cotton to the acre is the average — worth at 
this time $50. Per acre it is about the same labor 
to raise as corn. In the varied and deep rich 
soils of the State are produced the vegetation - 
fruits, vegetables and plants — of the semi-tropic re 
gions, and also the whole range of the staple prod- 
ucts of the north. Cereals, fruits and cotton 
grow as well here as anywhere. In the uplands 
will some day be raised grapes and tobacco that 
will be world famous. 

That j)ortioii of the hilly lands in Clay, Greene. 
Craighead, Poinsett, St. Francis, Lee and Phillips 
Counties, known as Crowley's ridge, has a soil and 
vegetable growth distinctive from any other por- 
tion of the State. Its principal forest growth is 
yellow poplar, which is found in immense size. 
With this timb(>r are the oak, gum, hickory, wal- 
nut, sugar and maple. The soil is generally of a 
light yellowish or gray color, often gravelly, very 
friable and easily cultivated, producing abundant 
crops of cotton, corn, oats, clover, timothy and rett 
top, and is most excellent for fruits. 

The prevailing soil is alluvial, with more or 
less diluvial soils. The alluvial soils, especially 
along the streams, are from three to thirty feet 
deep, and these rich bottoms are often miles in 
width. There are no stronger or more producUve 
lands than these anywhere, and centuries of cul- 
tivation create no necessity for fertilizers. 

The swamp lands or slashes as a general thing 
lie stretched along between the alluvial lauds and 
second bottoms. They are usually covered with 
water during the winter and spring, and are too 
wet for cultivation, though dry in the summer and 
fall. They can be easily reclaimed by draining. 

The second bottoms are jjrincipally on the east- 
ern side of the State, extending from the slashes to 
the hills. The soil is mostly gray color, sometimes 
yellowish, re.sting u]>on a subsoil of yellowish or 
mulatto clay. The rich, black lauds prevail largely 



r'^ 



."^^^—^ 



ll£ 



lu 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



ill Hempstead, Little River. Sevier, Nevada, Clark, 
Searcy, Stone, Izard and Independence Counties. 

In the mountainous range of the Ozarks, in 
Independence County, are remarkable cave forma- 
tions. They are mostly nitre caves and from these 
and others in the southeast and west of Batesville, 
the Confederacy obtained much of this necessity. 
Near Cushman, Independence County, are the won- 
derful caves. The extent and marvelous beauty of 
formations are in the great arched room, the 
"King's Palace." This cave has been explored 
for miles under the earth, and many wonders and 
beauties are seen on every hand. On the side of 
the mouth of one of the caves in this vicinity a 
strong spring leaps fi'om the mountain's side and 
into the cave, and the rumbling of the rushing 
waters beneath the earth can be heard quite a dis- 
tance. The notable saltpetre caves are in Marion. 
Newton, Carroll, Independence, Washington and 
Benton Counties. 

There are gold mines in Arkansas, yet no re- 
markable tinds that is, no marvelous wonders have 
as yet been uncovered. The universal diffusion 
of milky quartz in veins, seams and beds, as well 
as all the other geological tokens which lead on to 
fortune, are recent discoveries, and the intelligent 
gold hunters are here in abundance. Who can 
tell what the future may have in store? But 
should no rich paying gold fields ever be found, 
still in the resources of the State are ores of silver, 
antimony, zinc, iron, lead, copper, manganese, 
marble, granite, whet and honestone, rock-crystal, 
paints, nitre earths, kaolin, marls, freestone, 
limestone, buhr and grindstone and slate, which 
may well justify the bold assertion of that eminent 
geologist. Prof. D. D. Owen, in 1860, after care- 
fully looking over the State, ' ' that Arkansas is 
destined to rank as one of the richest mineral 
States in the Union." Its zinc ores compare 
favorably with those of Silesia, and its argentif- 
erous galena far exceeds in percentage of silver the 
average of such ores of other countries. Its 
novaculite (whetstone) rock can not be excelled in 
fineness of texture, beauty of color, and sharpness 
of grit. Its crystal mountains for extent, and 
their products for beauty, brilliancy and transpar- 



ency, have no rivals in the world. Its mineral 
waters are in variety and values equalled only by 
its mineral products. 

Anticipating the natural questions as to why 
the mines of Arkansas are not better developed, it 
will be sufficient to condense to the utmost Prof. 
Owen's words in reference to the Bellah mine in 
Sevier County: "It is the same vein that is found 
in Pulaski County, and runs northeast and south- 
west nearly through the State. Some years ago 
the Bellah mine was explored and six shafts were 
sunk. Three of the principal shafts were about 
thirty feet deep. The work was done under the 
supervision of Richard ^^'. Bellah, afterward of 
Texas. There was a continuous vein, increasing 
in thickness as far as he went. On the line other 
shafts were sunk from six to twelve feet deep, all 
showing the ore to be continuous. About five tons 
of ore were taken out. A portion of this was 
sent to Liverpool, England, to be tested, and the 
statement in return was ' seventy -three per cent 
lead, and 148 ounces of silver to the ton.' " Mr. 
Bellah wrote to Prof. Owen: "I am not willing 
to lease the mines: but I will sell for a reasonalile 
price, provided my brother and sister will sell at 
the same. I have put the price upon the mines, 
and value it altogether [4r)0 acres of land] at 
$10,000." Such was the condition of affairs at 
this mine when the war came. Substantially, this 
is the ante-bellum history of the Arkansas mining 
interests. Prof. Owen reports picking up from 
the debris of these deserted shafts ore that anal- 
yzed seventy-threo per cent lead and fifty-two and 
ono-lialf ounces of silver to the ton of lead. 

That these rich fields should lie fallow-ground 
through the generations can now be accounted for 
only from the blight of slavery upon the enter- 
prise and industry of people, the evils of a great 
civil war, and the natural adaptation of the soil and 
slavery to the raising of cotton. 

On the line of this vein, in Saline County, 
from very superficial explorations, were discovered 
veins bearing argentiferous lead and copper. 

Lead is found in about every county in North- 
ern Arkansas. These are a continuation of the 
Missouri lead ores. The richest argentiferous lead 



3>>. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



17 



ores reported are in Pulaski, Saline, Montgomery, 
Polk, Pike, Ashley and Sevier Counties, being 
found in the quartz and calcite gangues. It is as- 
sociated in the north of tho State with zinc, cop- 
per, and with antimony in Sevier County. 

One of the latest discoveries is the value of the 
antimony mines of Polk and Sevier Counties. A 
mine is being worked successfully for antimony, 
and the increase of silver is improving as the 
shaft goes down. At any hour in the progress of 
the work, according to the opinions of the best 
scientific mining experts, this shaft may reach one 
of the noted silver deposits of the world. In the 
Jeff Chirk antimony mine, at a distance of 100 
feet down, was found a rich pocket of silver. In 
every particular, so far, this mine is a transcript of 
that of the noted Comstock mine. The Comstock 
mine showed silver on the surface; so did the Sev- 
ier County mine; then it passed down 100 feet, 
following a vein of antimony; so has the Sevier 
mine; then in each has silver been found. 

There is an unchanging law which governs the 
rock and mineral formations. Nature never lies, 
and there is no doubt that the Arkansas mineral 
belt, through Montgomery, Polk, Howard and Sev- 
ier Counties, will prove to be one of the richest 
mining districts of the world. 

The antimony mine has been quite successfully 
worked the past two years. The Bob Wolf mine, 
Antimony Bluff mine, and Stewart Lode are being 
profitably worked. Capital and the facilities for 
reducing ores by their absence are now the only 
drawback to the mineral products of the State. 

Iron is found native in the State only in meteor- 
ites. The magnatite ore is found plentiful in Mag- 
net Cove. Lodestones from this place are shipjied 
abroad, and have a high reputation. This is one 
of the best iron ores, and the scarcity of fuel and 
transportation in the vicinity are the causes of its 
not being worked. The limonite iron ore is the 
common ore of all Northern Arkansas; immense 
deposits are found in Lawrence, where several 
furnaces are operated. In the southern part of the 
State is the bog iron ore. The brown hematite is 
found in Lawrence, Randolph. Fulton and other 
counties. Workable veins of manganese are found 



in Independence County. This valuable ore is im- 
ported now from Spain; it is used in making Spie- 
gel iron. 

Bituminous and semi- anthracite coal is found 
in the true coal measures of the uplands of Ar- 
kansas. That of the northwest is free from sul- 
phur. The semi -anthracite is found in the valley 
of the Ai-kansas River. These coal fields cover 
10,000 acres. There are four defined coal hori- 
zons — the subconglomerate, lower, middle and up- 
per. The coal fields of this State belong to the 
lowest — the subcarboniferous — in the shale or 
millstone grit less than 100 feet above the Archi 
medes limestone. In the Arkansas Valley these 
veins aggregate over six feet. The veins lie high 
in the Boston Mountains, dipping south into the 
Arkansas Valley. Shaft mining is done at Coal 
Hill, Spadra and many other points. It is shipped 
down the river in quantities to New Orleans. 

Aluminum, corundum, sapphire, oriental ruby, 
topaz and amethysts are found in Howard and 
Sevier Counties. Strontianite is found in Mag- 
net Cove — valuable in the purification of sugar. 
In the synclinal folds of Upjjer Arkansas common 
salt is easily obtained. Good salt springs are in 
Sevier County, also in Dallas and Hot Springs 
Counties. Chalcedony, of all colors, cornelian, 
agates, novaculite. honestone, buhrstone, varieties 
of granite, eight kinds of elegant marble, sand 
stones, white, gray, red, brown and yellow, are 
common in the grit horizon; flagstones, roofing 
and pencil slates, talc, kaolin, abound in Saline. 
Washington, St. Francis and Greene Counties. The 
potter's clay of Miller, Saline and Washington is 
extensively worked. "Rock oil" has been dis- 
covered in large pockets in Northwest Arkansas. 

In the development of its mineral resources the 
State is still in its infancy, so much so, indeed, 
that what will prove yet to be the great sources of 
wealth are not even now produced as a commer- 
cial commodity. In some respects this is most re- 
markable. For instance, Arkansas might supply 
the world, if necessity required, with lime and 
cement, can produce the best of each at the least 
cost, and yet practically all these consumed are 
imported here from other States. Years ago Prof. 



18 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



D. D. Owen called attention to the valuable marls 
in the southwest part of the State, but the great 
beds lie untouched and cotton planters send off for 
other fertilizers. So also of the great beds of 
gypsum that lie uncovered and imtoucbed. The 
outside world wants unlimited supplies of kaolin, 
fire-clays and such other clays as the State pos- 
sesses in ine.stimable quantities, and yet the thrifty 
people seem to be oblivious of the fact that here is 
the way to easy sources of wealth. 

People can live here too easily it seems. In 
this way only can a reason be found for not strik- 
ing boldly out in new fields of venture, with that 
vigor of desperation which comes of stern and 
hard necessity. Where nature is stubborn and uu 
yielding, man puts forth his supremest efforts. 

Magnet Cove probaljly furnishes more remark- 
able formations than any other district in the world. 
The "Sunk Lands" in the northeast part of the 
State, the result of the disturbance of the New 
Madrid earthquake 1811-12, present features of 
interest to both lay and scientific investigators. 
The curious spectacle of deep lakes, beneath which 
can be seen standing in their natural position the 
great forest trees, is presented: and instead of the 
land animals roving and feeding among them are 
the inhabitants of the deep waters. 

The natural abutments of novaculite rocks at 
Rockport, on the Ouachita River, with the proper 
outlying rocks on the opposite side of the river, are 
a very interesting formation. 

Cortes Mountain, Sebastian County, as seen 
from Hodges Prairie presents a grand view. The 
bare hard rock looks as though the waves in their 
mighty swells had been congealed and fixed into 
a mountain. It is 1,500 feet high. Standing Rock, 
Board Camp Creek, Polk County, is a conspicious 
and interesting landmark. It rises from out the 



crumbling shales, like an artificial piece of masonry, 
to the height of ninety feet. 

The Dardanello Rock as seen from the Arkan- 
sas River, opposite Morristown, is composed of fer- 
ruginous substance, and the great column dips at 
an angle of 40° toward the river. From one point 
on the southeast is the wonderful Dardanelle Profile. 
All the features of the face, with a deep-cut mouth 
slightly open as if in the act of listening to what 
one is going to say to it, and the outlines of the 
head, neck and shoulders, are faithfully produced. 
Its faithfulness of detail and heroic proportions 
are its strong characteristics. 

Sandstone Dam across Lee Creek, Crawford 
County, is a curious instance of nature's perfect 
engineering. The formation here possesses as 
much interest to the scientist as the noted Natural 
Bridge. 

Investigations of the Mammoth Spring lead to 
the conclusion that it has underground connection 
with Ha veil's Valley, Mo; that here the waters 
from many springs, some rising to the surface and 
others not rising, are as the head of a vast funnel, 
which pour down the subterranean channel and, 
finally meeting obstructions to further progress, are 
forced up through the solid rock and form the 
Mammoth Spring, a navigal)le subterranean river 
in short, whose charts no bold seaman will ever 
follow. 

North of Big Rock are the traces of a burnt 
out volcano, whose tires at one time would have 
lighted up the streets of Little Rock even better 
than the electric lights now gleaming from their 
high towers. 

The track of the awful cataclysm, once here 
in its grand forces, is all that is left; the energies 
of nature's greatest display of forces lost in the 
geological eons intervening. 



D X# 



^1 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



19 



;iliif 1-R 11. 



• > ■♦ < « 



Archaeology-Remains of Flint Aituow and Spear Heads and Stone and Otiikk Ornaments- 
Evidences OF Pre-iiistoeic People Along the Mississippi— Mounds, etc., in Otiikk Poiitions 
of The State— Local Archaeologists and their Work— The Indians-Ti;ii!ai, 
AND Race Characteristics- The Arkansas Tribes— The Cession Treaties 
—The Removal of the Cherokees, Creeks and Choctaws— An 
Indian Alarm— Assassination ok the Leaders, etc., etc 









Some lazy ages, lost in sleep and ease, 

No actions leave to busy chronicles; 

Such whose superior felicity but makes 

In story chasms, in epochas mistakes. — Drydeti. 



1^ 






^SJtW N the long gone agea, 
te'l'^^f reaches of time perhaps 
i^^W'i: ^"^'^ *° '°® measured by 
^■^ii geological periods, races 
of men have been here, 
grown, flourished, declined 
and passed away, raaiay not 
even leaving a wrack behind; others 
transmitting fossil traces, dim and 
crumbling, and still later ones, the suc- 
cessors of the earlier ones, who had no 
traditions of their predecessors, have 
left something of the measure of their 
existence in the deftly cut flints, broken 
pottery, adobe walls, or gi-eat earth- 
works standing in the whilom silent 
wilderness as mute and enduring mon- 
iimentsto their existence; man, races, civilizations, 
systems of religion passing on and on to that 
eternal silence — stormfully from the inane to the 
inane, the great world's epic that is being forever 
written and that is never writ. 

Arkansas is an inviting field for the iavestiga- 
tion of the archreologist, as well as the geologist. 
Races of unknown men in an unknown time have 
swarmed over the fair face of the State. Their 




restless activities drove them to nature's natural 
storehouses and the fairest climes on the continent. 
Where life is easiest maintained in its best form 
do men instinctively congregate, and thus commu- 
nities and nations are formed. The conditions of 
climate and soil, rainfall and minerals are the 
controlling factors in the busy movements of men. 
These conditions given, man follows the great 
streams, on whose bosom the rudest savages float 
their canoes and pirogues. 

Along the eastern part of the State are the most 
distinct traces of prehistoric peoples, whose hiero 
glyphics, in the form of earthworks, are the ii\pst 
legible to the archseologist. Here, earthworks in 
greatest extent and numbers are found, indicating 
that this section once swarmed with these barbaric 
races of men. 

In Lonoke County, sixteen miles southeast of 
Little Rock, and on the Little Rock & Altheimor 
branch of the St. Louis, Arkansas & Texas Rail- 
road, is a station called Toltec. It is located on 
the farm of Mr. Gilbert Knapp, and is near 
Mounds Lake. This lake is either the line of what 
was a bor.se-shoe bend in Arkansas River long ago, 
or is the trace of a dead river. The lake is in the 
form of a horse-shoe, and covers a space of abont 



^ 



20 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS 



three miles. The horse- shoe points east of north, 
and the heels to the southwest. Here is a great 
field of larfj^o and interesting mounds and earth- 
works. A little east of the north bend of the lake 
are two great mounds — one square and the other 
cone shaped. The cone shaped is the larger and 
taller, and is supposed to have been 100 feet high. 
while the other was about seventy-five feet in ele- 
vation. About them to the north and east are 
many small mounds, with no apparent fixed method 
in their location. These have all been denuded of 
their timber and are in cultivation, except the larger 
one above mentioned. Upon this is a growth of 
heavy timber, elms, hickory, and oaks with as high 
as 500 rings, and standing on an alluvial soil from 
eight to fifteen feet deep. Those large mounds 
are enclosed with an earth wall starting out from 
the bank of the lake, and circling at a considerable 
distance and returning to the lake, and keeping 
nearly an equal distance from the larger mound. 
The sloping base of each mound reaches the base 
and overlaps or mingles with the base of its neigh- 
bor. Around this big wall was once an outside 
ditch. The humus on the smaller mounds shows, 
in cultivation, a stronger and deeper alluvial .soil 
than the surrounding land. 

There are evidences in these mounds that while 
they were built by one nation, for objects now 
problematical, they have been used by other suc- 
ceeding peoples for other and different purposes, 
much after the manner that are now found farm- 
ers with well-kept gardens on the tops of the 
mounds, or stately residences, or on others grow- 
ing cotton and corn. In them human and ani- 
mal bones are seen, and there are indications that, 
while they were built for purposes of worship or 
war, when the builders passed away more than 
one race of their successors to the country used 
them as convenient bui'ial grounds. They were 
skillful stone workers and potters, and their mason's 
tools are frequently met with. Nearly every im- 
plement of the stone age is found in and about 
the mounds. 

M'-. Knapp, who has given the sul^ject consid- 
erable intelligent study, is so convinced that these 
works were made by the Toltec race that he has 



named the new station in honor of that people. 
On the line of this earth-wall mentioned are two 
deep pools that never are known to become dry. 

East of Toltec thirty or more miles, in Lonoke 
Prairie, are mounds that apparently belong to 
the chain or system which runs parallel with the 
river, through the State. The small mounds or 
barrows, as Jefferson termed the modern Indian 
burial places, are numerous, and distributed all 
over Arkansas. 

Wbat is pronounced a fortified town is found 
in well marked remains on St. Francis River. It 
was discovered by Mr. Savage, of Louisville. He 
reports "parts of walls, built of adobe Ijrick and 
cemented." On these remains he detected trees 
growing numbering 300 rings. He reports the 
brick made of clay and chopped or twisted straw, 
and with regular figures. A piece of first-class 
engineering is said to be traced here in a sap- 
mine, which had passed under the walls of the 
fortification. 

The bones and pottery and tools and arms of 
the prehistoric peoples of Arkansas are much more 
abundant than are found in any other spot in the 
United States. 

Mrs. Hobbs, living four miles southeast of 
Little Rock, has a very complete collection of the 
antiquities of the State. It is pronounced by 
antiquarians as one of the most valuable in the 
country. The Smithsonian Institute has offered 
her every inducement to part with her collection, 
but she has refused. It is hoped the State will 
some day possess this treasure, and suitably and 
permanently provide for its preservation. 

When the white man discovered and took pos- 
session of North America, he found tbe red man 
and his many tribes here, and under a total mis- 
apprehension of having found a new continent, he 
named this strange people Indians. The new world 
might have been called Columbia, and the people 
Columbians. Again, instead of being sparse tribes 
of indivitluals fringing the shores of the Atlantic 
Ocean there were 478 tribes, occupying nearly the 
whole of the north half of this western hemis- 
phere; some in powerful tribes, like the Iroquois; 
' some were rude agricultural and commercial peoples, 



5 "fy 



A 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



21 



somo living in houses of logs or stone, permanent 
residents of their localities; others warriors aiul 
hunters only, and still others migratory in their 
nature, pirates and parasites. One characteristic 
strongly marked them all — a love of liberty and 
absolute freedom far stronger than the instinct 
of life itself. The Indian would not be a slave. 
Proud and free, he regarded with contempt the 
refinements of civilization. He breathed the same 
free air as did the eagle of the crags, and would 
starve before he would do manual work, or, as he 
believed, degrade himself in doing aught but paint 
himself, sing his war songs and go forth to battle, 
or pursue the wild game or meet the savage wild 
beasts in their paths and slay them in regular com- 
bat. To hunt, fish and tight was the high mission 
of great and good men to his untutored mind, 
while the drudgery of life was relegated to the 
squaws and squaw-men. His entire economic 
philosophy was simply the attainment of his de- 
sires with the least exertion. In a short time he 
will have tilled his earthly mission, and passed 
from the stage of action, leaving nothing but a 
dim memory. From their many generations of 
untold numbers has come no thought, no inven- 
tion, no action that deserves to survive them a 
day or an hour. The Indians of to day, the few 
that are pure blood, are but the remnants, the use 
less refuse of a once numerous people, who were the 
undisputed possessors of a continent, but are now 
miserable, ragged and starving beggars at the 
back doors of their despoilers, stoically awaiting 
the last final scene in the race tragedy. And, like 
the cheerful sermon on the tombstone, who shall 
say that white civilization, numbers and power, will 
not in the course of time, and that not far distant, 
be the successors of the residue of wretches now 
representing the red race ? "I was once as you 
are, you will soon be as I am." A grim philos- 
ophy truly, but it is the truth of the past, and the 
great world wheels about much now as it has for 
ever. 

What is now Arkansas has been the possession 
of the following Indian tribes; no one tribe, it seems, 
occupied or owned the territory in its entirety, 
but their possessions extended into the lines, cov- 



ering a portion of the lands only, and then reach- 
ing many degrees, sometimes to the north, south 
and west: The Osages, a once numerous tribe, 
were said to own the country south of the Mis- 
souri River to Red River, including a large por- 
tion of Arkansas. The Quapaws, also a powerful 
nation, were the chief possessors, and occupied 
nearly the whole of the State, "'time out of mind;" 
the Cherokees were forced out of CJeorgia and 
South Carolina, and removed west of the Missis- 
sippi River in 183ft: the Hitchittees were removed 
from the Chattahouchee River to Arkansas. They 
speak the Muskogee dialect — were 600 strong when 
removed ; the Choctaws were removed to the west, 
after the Cherokees. In 1S12 they were 15.000 
strong. 

The Quapaws, of all the tribes connected with 
Arkansas, may be regarded as the oldest settlers, 
having possessed more of its territory in well de- 
fined limits than any of the others. In the early 
part of the eighteenth century they constituted a 
powerful tribe. In the year 1720 they were deci- 
mated by smallpox: reduced by this and other 
calamities, in 1S20, one hundred years after, they 
were found scattered along the south side of the 
Arkansas River, numbering only 700 souls. They 
never regained their former numerical strength or 
warlike importance, but remained but a liand of 
wretched, ragged beggars, about whose hunting 
grounds the white man was ever lessening and 
tightening the lines. 

January 5, 1819, Gov. Clark and Pierre Chou- 
teau made a treaty with the tribe by which was 
ceded to the United States the most of their terri- 
tory. The descriptive part of the treaty is in the 
following words: "Beginning at the mouth of the 
Arkansas River; thence extending up the Arkansas 
to the Canadian Fork, and up the Canadian Fork 
to its source; thence south to the big Red River, 
and down the middle of that river to the Big 
Raft; thence in a direct line so as to strike the 
Mississippi River, thirty leagues in a straight 
line, below the mouth of the Arkansas, together 
with all their claims to lands east of the Mississippi 
River and north of the Arkansas River. With the 
exception and reservation following, that is to say, 



« ^ 

r 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



ik 



that tract of country bounded as follows: Begin- 
ning at a point on the Arkansas River opposite the 
present Post of Arkansas, and running thence a 
due southwest coiuse to the V^'ashita River; thence 
n]i that river to the Saline Fork, to a point fi-om 
whence a due north course would strike the Arkan- 
sas River at the Little Rock, and theuce down the 
right bank of the Arkansas to the place of begin- 
ning. '' In addition to this a tract was reserved 
north of the Arkansas River, which the treaty says 
is indicated by ' ' marks on the accompanying 
map." This west line of the Quapaw reservation 
struck the river about where is now Rock Street. 

In November, 1824, Robert Crittenden, the first 
Territorial secretarj-, effected a treaty with the 
Quapaws at Harrington's, Ark., which ceded the 
aliove reservation and forever extinguished all title 
of that tribe to any portion of Arkansas. The 
tribe vsras then removed to what is now the Indian 
Territory. 

The other original uccujjauts or claimants to the 
Arkansas Territory were the Osages. Of these 
there were many tribes, and in 1830 numbered 
I. (100 strong, but mostly along the Osage River. 
Tlieir claim lapped over, it seems, all that portion 
of the Quapaw lands lying north of the Arkansas 
River. 

The title of the Osages was extinguished to 
what is now Arkansas by a treaty of November 10, 
1808, made at Fort Clark, on the Mis.souri River. 
By this treaty they ceded all the country east of a 
line running due south from Fort Clark to the Ar 
kansas River, and down said river to its confluence 
with the Mississippi River. These Indians occu- 
j)ied only the country along the Missouri and 
Osage Rivers, and if they were ever on what they 
claimed as their southern boundary, the Arkansas 
River, it was merely on expeditions. 

About 1818, Georgia and South Carolina com- 
menced agitating the subject of getting rid of the 
Indians, and removing them west. They wanted 
their lands and did not want their presence. At 
tirst they used persuasion and strategy, and finally 
force. They were artful in representing to the In- 
dians the glories of the .\rkansas country, both for 
game and rich lands. During the twenty years of 



agitating the subject Indians of the tribes of those 
States came singly and in small bands to Arkansas, 
and were encouraged to settle anywhere they might 
desire north of the Arkansas River, on the Osage 
ceded lands. The final act of removal of the In- 
dians was consummated in 1839, when the last of 
the Cherokees were brought west. Simultaneous 
vrith the arrival of this last delegation of Indians 
an alarm passed around among the settlers that the 
Indians were preparing to make a foray on the 
white settlements and murder them all. Many 
people were greatly alarmed, and in some settle- 
ments there were hasty preparations made to flee 
to places of safety. In the meantime the poor, 
distressed Cherokees and Choctaws were innocent 
i of the stories in circulation about them, and were 
i trying to adjust themselves to their new homes 
and to repair their ruined fortunes. The Chero- 
kees were the most highly civilized of all the tribes, 
as they were the most intelligent, and had mingled 
and intermarried with the whites until there were 
few of piire blood left among them. They had 
men of force and character, good schools and 
printing presses, and published and edited papers, 
as well as their own school books. These condi- 
tions were largely true, also, of the Chickasaws. 
The Cherokees and Chickasaws were removed west 
under President Jackson's administration. The 
Cherokees were brought by water to Little Rock, 
and a straight road was cut out from Little Rock 
to the corner of their reservation, fifteen miles 
al)ove Batesville, in Independence County, over 
which they were taken. Their southeast boundary 
line was a straight line, at the point designated 
above Batesville, to the mouth of Point Remove 
Creek. 

The nistory of the removal of the Cherokee 
Indians (and much of the same is true of the re- 
moval of the Chickasaws and Creeks), is not a jileas- 
ant chapter in American history. The Creeks of 
Florida had waged war, and when conquered Gen. 
Scott removed them beyond the Mississippi River. 
When the final consummation of the removal of the 
Cherokees was effected, it was done liy virtue of a 
treaty, said to have been the work of traitors, and 
unauthorized by the proper Indian authorities. At 



"*t^]« 



9 ^ 



<<j (a_ 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



28 



all events the artful whites had divided the head- 
men of the tribe, and procured their signatures to 
a treaty which di-ove the last of the uation beyond 
the Mississippi. The chief men in making this 
treaty were the Ridges, Boudinot, Boll and Rogers. 
This was the treaty of 183"). In June, 1839, the 
Ridges. Boudinot and Bell were assassinated. 
About forty Indians went to Ridge's house. Inde- 
pendence County, and cruelly murdered younc 
Ridge; they then pursued the elder Ridge and, over- 
taking him at the foot of Boston Mountains, as he 
was on his way to visit fi-iends in Van Buren, Ark., 
shot him to death. It seems there was an old law 
of the nation back in Georgia, by which any one 
forfeited his life who bartered any part of their 
lands. 

The Choctaws by treaty ceded to the United 
States all their claim to lands lying within the 
limits of Arkansas, October 20, 1820. 

On the 6th of May. 1828, the Cherokees ceded 
all claim to their lands that lay within the Territo- 
rial limit of Ai'kansas. 

This was about the end of Indian occupation 
or claims within the State of Arkansas, but not 
the end of important communication, and acts of 
neighborly friendship, between the whites and the 
Cherokees especially. A considerable number of 
Indians, most of them having only a slight mix- 
ture of Indian blood.remained in the State and be- 
came useful and in some instances higlily influ- 
ential citizens. Among them were prominent farm- 
ers, merchants and professional men. And very 
often now may be met some prominent citizen, 
who, after even an extended acquaintance, is found 
to be an Indian. Among that race of people 
they recognize as full members of the tribe all 
who have any trace of their blood in their veins, 
whether it shows or not. In this respect it seems 
that nearly all races differ from the white man. 
With the latter the least mixture of blood of any 
other color pronounces them at once to be not white. 

The Cherokee Indians, especially, have always 
held kindly intercourse with the people of Arkan- 
sas. In the late Civil ■\^'ar they went with the 



State in the secession movement without hesitation. 
A brigade of Cherokees was raised and Gen. Albert 
Pike was elected to the command. The eminent 
Indians in the command were Gen. Stand W'aitie 
and Col. E. C. Boudinot. Until 1803 the Indians 
were unanimous in behalf of the Southern cause, 
but in that year Chief Ross went over to the Fed- 
eral side, and thus the old time divisions in the In 
dian councils were revived. 

Col. Elias C. Boudinot was boi-n in Georgia, in 
August, 1835, the same year of the treaty remov- 
ing the Indians from that State. Practically, 
therefore, he is an Arkansan. He shows a strong 
trace of Indian blood, though the features of the 
white race predominate. He is a man of educa- 
tion and careful culture, and when admitted to the 
bar he soon won a place in the splendid array of 
talent then so greatly distinguishing Arkansas. A 
born orator, strong enough in intellect to think 
without emotion, morally and physically a hero, he 
has spent much of his life pleading for his people 
to be made citizens — the owners of their individ- 
ual homes, as the only hope to stay that swift de- 
cay that is upon them, but the ignorance of his 
tribe and the scheming of demagogues and selfish 
"agents," have thwartedhis efforts and practically 
exiled him from his race. 

A few years ago Col. Boudinot was invited to 
address Congress and the people of Washington 
on the subject of the Indian races. The masterly 
addi'ess by this man, one of the greatest of all the 
representatives of American Indians, will be fixed 
in history as the most pathetic epilogue of the 
greatest of dramas, the curtain of which was raised 
in 1492. Who will ever read and fully understand 
his emotions when he repeated the lines: 



Their liglit canoes have vanished 
From off the crested waves — 
Amid the forests where I hey roamed 
There rings no hunter's shout. 
And all their cone-like cabins 
Thai clustered o'er the vale. 
Have disappeared as withered leaves. 
Bc-f(ire the autumn gale. 



^^"T. 



Illicit HI. 



Discovery and Settlkjikxt— Ok >-ot<) in Akkansas— Marquktte and Joliet— La Salle, Hennepin 

AND TONTI— 1-KENClI AND ENGLISH SCHEMES OF CONQUEST AND DREAMS OF POWEU— LOUISIANA 

—The •• Hubble" of John Law— The Early Viceroys and Governors— Proprie- 
tary Change of Louisiana— French and Spanish Settlers in Ark- 
ansas—English Settlers— A Few First Settlers in the 
Counties— The New Madrid Earthquake- 
Other Items of Interest. 



Hail, memory, bail! In Uiy e.\haiistle.ss mine 
From age to age unnumbered treasures shine! 
Thought and her shadowy brood thy call obey. 
And place and time are subject to thy svmy.— Rogers. 




ERDINAND DE SOTO, the 
"' discoverer of the Missis- 
..o sippi, was the first civilized 
white man to put foot upon 
any part of what is now the 
State of Arkansas. He and 
?;!^-9^hi8 band of adventurous 
-^ % followers had forged their 

\ way over immense obstacles, through 
' the trackless wastes, and in the pleas- 
l^ ant month of June, 1541, reached th(> 
' Mississippi River at, as is supposed, 
Chickasaw Bluffs, a short distance be- 
low Memphis. He had sailed from 
San Lncan in April, 1538, with 600 
men, twenty officers and twenty four priests. He 
represented his king and church, and came to 
make discoveries for his master in Florida, a coun- 
trj' undefined in extent, and believed to be the 
richest in the world. 

His expedition was a daring and dangerous 
one, and there were but few men in the tide of 
time who could have carried it on to the extent 
that did this bold Spaniard. The worn and deci- 




mated band remained at the Chickasaw Bluffs to 
rest and recuperate until June 29, then crossing 
the river into Arkansas, and pushing on up the 
Mississippi River, through brakes and swamps and 
slashes, until they reached the higher prairie lands 
that lead toward New Madrid; stopping in their 
north course at an Indian village, Pacaha, whose 
location is not known. De Soto sent an expedition 
toward the Osage River, but it soon returned and 
rejiorted the country worthless.* He then turned 
west and proceeded to the Boston Mountains, at 
the head- waters of White River; then bending 
south, and passing Hot Springs, he went into camp 
for the winter on the Ouachita River, at Autamqua 
Village, in Garland County. In the spring he 

*It is proper to here state the fact that some local in- 
vestigators, and others wlio have studied the liistory of 
De Soto's voyaging thnnigli .Arkansas, do not believe that 
he reached and discovered the river as high up as Mem- 
phis. They think lie approached it a short distance above 
the moutli of Red Kiver. and from that point made his 
detour around Id Red River. Other.s in the State, who 
have also studied the sid)ject thoroughly, find excellent 
evidence of his presence in Arkansas along the Mississippi, 
particularly in Missi-ssippi County. See "History of 
Mississippi County. Ark." After examining the testi- 
mony carefully I incline to the account as given in the 
context as being the most probable. — Ed. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



25 



floated down the river, often lost in the bayous 
and overflows of lied Kivor, and tiually reached 
again the Mississippi. Halting here he made dil- 
igent inquiries of the Indians as to the month of 
the great stream, but they could give him no infor- 
mation. In June, one year from the date of his 
discovery, after a sickness of some weeks, he died. 
As an evidence of his importance to the expedition 
his death was kept a secret, and he was buried at 
night, most appropriately, in the waves of the 
great river that gave his name immortality. But 
the secrecy of his death was of no avail, for there 
was no one who could supply his place, and with 
his life closed the existence, for all practical pur- 
poses, of the expedition. Here the interest of the 
historian in De Soto and his companions ceases. 
He came not to possess the beautiful country, or 
plant colonies, or even extend the dominions of 
civilization, but simply to find the fabled wealth 
in minerals and precious stones, and gather them 
and carry them away. Spain already possessed 
Florida, and it was all Florida then, from the At- 
lantic to the boundless and unknown west. 

The three great nations of the old world had 
conquered and possessed — the Spaniards Florida, 
the English Virginia and New England, and the 
French the St. Lawrence. The feeblest of all 
these colonizers or conquerors were the English, 
and they retained their narrow foothold on the 
new continent with so little vigor that for more 
than a century and a half they knew nothing of 
the country west of them save the idle dreams and 
fictions of the surrounding savages. The general 
world had learned little of De Soto's gi-eat western 
discoveries, and when he was buried in the Missis- 
sippi all remained undisturbed from the presence 
or knowledge of civilized men for the period of 
182 years. 

Jacques Marquette, a French Jesuit priest, had 
made expeditions along the Northern lakes, pros- 
elyting among the Indian tribes. He had con- 
ceived the idea that there was a great western 
river leading to China and Japan. He was joined 
in his ambition to find this route, and the tribes 
along it. l)y Joliet, a man fired with tlie ambition 
and daring of the hold explorer. These two men. 



with five employes, started on their great adven- 
ture May 17, 1673. They found the Upper Mis 
sissippi liiver and came down that to the mouth 
of the Arkansas River, thence proceeding up some 
distance, it is supposed to near where is Arkansas 
Post. Thus the feet of the white man pressed 
once more the soil of this State, but it was after 
the lapse of many years from the time of De Soto's 
visit. Marquette carried into the newly disco veretl 
country the cross of Christ, while Joliet planted 
in the wilderness the tricolors of France. France 
and Christianity stood together in the heart of the 
great Mississippi Valley; the discoverers, founders 
and possessors of the greatest spiritual and tem- 
poral empire on earth. From here the voyagers 
retraced their course to the Northern lakes and 
the St. Lawrence, and published a report of their 
discoveries. 

Nine years after Marquett(> and Joliet' S expe- 
dition. Chevalier de La Salle came fi-om France, 
accompanied by Henry de Tonti, an Italian, filled 
with great schemes of empire in the new western 
world; it is charged, by soin(> historians of that 
day, with no less ambition than securing the whole 
western portion of the continent and wresting 
Mexico from the Spaniards. When Canada was 
reached. La Salle was joined by Lduis Hennepin, 
an ambitious, unscrupulous and daring Franciscan 
monk. It was evidently La Salle's idea to found 
a military government in the new world, reaching 
with a line of forts and military possession from 
Quebec, Canada, to at least the Gulf, if not, as 
some have supposed, extending through Mexico. 
He explored the country lying between the North- 
ern lakes and the Ohio River. He raised a fgrce 
in Canada and sailed through Green Bay, and, 
sending back his boat laden with furs, proceeded 
with his party to the head waters of the Illinois 
River and built Fort Creve Cceur. He detached 
Hennepin with one companion and sent him to hunt 
the source of the Mississippi. He placed Tonti in 
command of Creve Cceiu', with five men, and him- 
self returned to Canada in the latter part of 1681, 
where he organized a new party with canoes, 
and went to Chicago: crossing the long portage 
from there to the Illinois River, he floated down 



that stream to the Mississippi and on to the Gulf 
of Mexico, discovering the mouth of the Mississippi 
River April T). 1082, and three days after, with 
becoming pomp and ceremony, took possession, in 
the name of France, of the territory, and named it 
Louisiana, in honor of his king, Louis XIV. The 
vast region thus acquired by France was not, as it 
could not be, well defined, but it was intended 
to embrace, iu addition to much east of the 
Mississip])i River, all the continent west of that 
current. 

After this expedition La Salle returned to 
France, fitted out another expedition and set sail, 
ostensibly to reach the mouth of the Mississippi 
River and pass up that stream. He failed to find 
the river, and landed his fleet at Metagordo Bay, 
Texas, where he remained two years, when with a 
part of his force he started to reach Canada via 
Fort St. Louis, but was assassinated by one of his 
men near the Trinity River, Texas, March lU, 
1687, and his body, together with that of his 
nephew, was left on the Texas prairie to the beasts 
and buzzards. La Salle was a born commander 
of men, a great explorer, with vast projects of 
empire far beyond the comprehension of his 
wretched king, or the appreciation of his country- 
men. Had he been supported by a wise and strong 
government, France would never, perhaps, have 
been dispossessed of the greatest inter-continental 
colonial empire on earth — from the Alleghanies to 
the Rocky Mountains. This was, in fact, the 
measure of the territory that La Salle' s expedition 
and military possession gave to France. The two 
great ranges of mountains, the north pole and 
South America, were really the boundary lines of 
Louisiana, of which permanent ownership belonged 
forever to France, save for the weakness and inef- 
ficiency of that bete noire of poor, beautiful, sunny 
France — Louis XIV. In the irony of fate the his- 
torian of to-day may well write down the appella- 
tion of his toadies and parasites, as the grand 
monarque. La Salle may justly be reckoned one 
of the greatest founders of empire in the world, and 
had poor France had a real king instead of this 
weak and pompous imbecile, her tri-colors would 
have floated upon every breeze from the Allegha- 



nies to the Pacific Ocean, and over the islands of 
more than half of the waters of the globe. 

The immensity of the Louisiana Territory has 
been but little understood by historians. It was 
the largest and richest province ever acquired, and 
the world's history since its establishment has 
been intimately connected with and shaped by its 
influence. Thus the account of the Territory of 
Louisiana is one of the most interesting chapters 
in American history. 

Thirteen years after the death of La Salle, 
1700, his trusty lieutenant, Tonti, descended the 
Mississippi River from the Illinois, with a band of 
twenty French Illinois people, and upon re;iching 
Arkansas Post, established a station. This was 
but carrying out La Salle's idea of a military pos- 
session by a line of forts from Canada to the Gulf. 
It may be called the first actual and intended per- 
manent possession of Arkansas. In the meantime, 
Natchez had become the oldest settled point in 
the Territory, south of Illinois, and the conduct of 
the commandant of the canton, Chopart, was laying 
the foundations for the ultimate bloody massacre 
of that place, in November, 1729. The Jesuit, Du 
Poisson, was the missionary among the Arkansans. 
He had made his way up the Mississippi and 
passed along the Arkansas River till he reached 
the prairies of the Dakotahs. 

The Chickasaws were the dreaded enemy of 
France; it was they who hurried the Natchez to 
that awful massacre; it was they whose cedar bark 
canoes, shooting boldly into the Mississippi, inter- 
rupted the connections between Kaskaskia and 
New Orleans, and delayed successful permanent 
settlements in the Arkansas. It was they who 
weakened the French empire in Louisiana. They 
coUeagued with the English, and attempted to 
extirpate the French dominion in the valley. 

Such was Louisiana more than half a century 
after the first attempt at colonization by La Salle. 
Its population may have been 5,000 whites and 
half that number of blacks. Louis XIV had 
fostered it by giving it over to the control of Law 
and his company of the Mississippi, aided by 
boundless but transient credit. Priests and friars 
dispersed through tribes from Biloxi to the Da- 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



•li 



kotahs, and propitiatpd the favor of the savages. 
But still the valley of the Mississippi remained a 
vcilderuess. All its patrons — though among them 
it counted kings and high ministers of state — had 
not accomplished for it in half a century a tithe 
of that prosperity which, within the same period, 
sprung naturally from the benovolouce of William 
Penn to the peaceful settlers on the Delaware. 

It required the feebleness of the grand mon- 
arque to discover John Law, the father of in- 
flated cheap money and national financial ruin. 
In September, 1717, John Law's Couij)any of the 
West was granted the commerce and control of 
Louisiana. He arrived at New Orleans with 800 
immigrants in August of that year. Instead of 
coming up the Mississippi, they landed at Dau- 
phine Island to make their way across by land. 
The reign of John Law's company over Ltmisiana 
was a romance or a riot of folly and extravagance. 
He was to people and create a great empire on 
cheap money and a monopoly of the slave trade. 
For fourteen years the Company of the West con- 
trolled Louisiana. The bubble burst, the dreams 
and illusions of ease and wealth passed away, and 
but wretched remnants of colonies existed, in the 
extremes of want and suffering. But, after all, a 
permanent settlement of the great valley had been 
made. A small portion of these were located at 
Arkansas Post, up the Arkansas River and on Red 
Rivei% and like the most of the others of Law's 
followers, they made a virtue of necessity and re- 
mained because they could not get away. 

John Law was an Englishman, a humbug, but 
a magnificent one, so marked and conspicuous in 
the world's history that his career should h&ve 
taught the statesmen of all nations the simple 
lesson that debt is not wealth, and that every at- 
tempt to create wealth wholly by legislation is sure 
to be followed by general bankruptcy and ruin. 

The Jesuits antl fur traders were the founders 
of Illinois; Louis XIV and privileged companies 
were the patrons of Southern Louisiana, while 
the honor of beginning the work of colonizing the 
southwest of our republic belongs to the illustri- 
ous Canadian. Lemoine D'II)erville. He was a wor 
thy successor of La Salle. He also sought to find 



the mouth of the Mississippi, and guided by floating 
trees and turbid waters, he reached it on March 
2, 1099. He perfected the line of communication 
between Quebec and the Gulf ; extended east and 
west the already boundless possessions of Franco; 
erected forts and carved the lilies on the trees of 
the forests; and fixed the seat of government of 
Louisiana at Biloxi, and appointed his brother to 
command the province. Under D' Iberville, the 
E'rench line was extended east to Pascagoula 
River; Beinvillo, La Sueur, and St. Denys had 
explored the west to New Mexico, and had gone 
in the northwest beyond the Wisconsin and the 
St. Croix, and reached the mouth of and followed 
this stream to the confluence of the Blue Earth. 
D'Iborville died of yellow fever at Havana, July 
9, 1700, and in his death the Louisiana colony 
lost one of its most able and daring leaders. But 
Louisiana, at that time, possessed less than thirty 
families of whites, and these were scattered on 
voyages of discovery, and in quest of gold and 
gems. 

France perfected her civil government over 
Louisiana in 1689, and a|)pointed Marquis de San- 
ville, royal viceroy. This viceroy's empire was as 
vast in teri'itory as it was insignificant in popula- 
tion — less than 300 souls. * By regular appoint- 
ments of viceroys the successions were maintained 
(including the fourteen years of Law's supremacy) 
until by the treaty of Fontainbleau. November 3, 
17G2, France was stripped of her American pos- 
sessions, and Canada and the Spanish Florida; 
everything east of the Mississippi except ^he 
island of New Orleans was given to England, 
and all Louisiana, including New Orleans west of 
the Mississippi River and south of the new .southern 
boundary line of Canada, was given to Si)ain, in 
lieu of her Florida possessions. Hence, it was No- 
vember 3, 1702. that what is now Arkansas passed 
from the dominion of France to that of Spain. 

The signing of this treaty made that day the 
most eventful one in the busy movements of the 

*The title of France to tlip t)Oiin<llcss contint's of 
Louisiana were conlirrneil by t'lc treaty of Utri'cbt. The 
contenlions l)etwtcn ICnitland anil France over the Ohio 
iinintry. afterward, are a pari of the aunals of the gen- 
eral history of the ciiMnirv. 



iu 



28 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



human race. It re- mapped the world, gave the 
English language to the American coutjuent, and 
spread it more widely over the globe than any that 
had before given expression to human thought, 
the language that is the alma mater of civil liberty 
and religious independence. Had France perma- 
nently dominated Ameiica. civil liberty and repre- 
sentative government would have been yet unborn. 
The dogmatic tyranny of the middle ages, with all 
its intolerance and war, would have been the herit- 
age of North America. 

Thus re-adjusted in her domain, Louisiana re- 
mained a province of Spain until October 1, 1800, 
when the Little Corporal over-ran Spain with his 
victorious legions, and looted his Catholic majesty's 
domains. Napoleon allowed his military ambition 
to dwarf his genius, and except for this curious 
fact, he was the man who would have saved and 
disenthralled the French mind, and have placed 
the Gaul, with all his volcanic forces, in an even 
start in the race of civilization with the invincible 
and cruel Anglo-Saxon. He was the only man of 
progressive genius that has ever ruled poor, un- 
fortunate France. The treaty of St. Ildefonso, 
secretly transfeiTing Louisiana from Spain again 
into the possession of France, was ratified .March 24, 
1801. Its conditions provided that it was to re- 
main a secret, and the Spanish viceroy, who was 
governor of Louisiana, knew nothing of the trans- 
fer, and continued in the discharge of his duties, 
granting rights, creating privileges and deeding 
lands and other things that were inevitable in 
breeding confusions, and cloudy land titles, such as 
would busy the courts for a hundred years, inflict- 
ing injustice and heavy burdens upon many inno- 
cent people. 

In 1802 President Jefferson became possessed 
of the secret that France owned Louisiana. He 
at once sent James Monroe to Paris, who, with the 
resident minister, Mr. Livingston, opened negotia- 
tions with Napoleon, at first only trying to secure 
the free navigation of the Mississippi River, but to 
their great surprise the Emperor more than met 
them halfway, with a proposal to sell Louisiana to 
the United States. The bargain was closed, the 
consideration being the paltry sum of $15,000,000. 



This imj)ortant move on the great chess-board of 
nations occurred April 30, 1803. The perfunc 
tory act of lowering the Spanish ensign and hoist- 
ing the flag of France; then lowering immediately 
the tri colors and unfurling the stars and stripes, 
it is hoped never to be furled, was performed at 
St. Louis March 0, 1804. Bless those dear old, 
nation-building pioneers! These were heavy drafts 
upon their patriotic allegiance, but they were equal 
to the occasion, and ate their breakfasts as Span- 
iards, their dinners as Frenchmen, and suppers as 
true Americans. 

The successful class of immigrants to the west 
of the Mississippi were the French Canadians, who 
had brought little or nothing with them save the 
clothes on their backs, and an old flintlock gun 
with which to secure game. They colonized after 
the French mode of villages and long strips of 
farms, and a public commons. They propitiated 
the best they could the neighboring Indian tribes, 
erected their altars, hunted, and frolicked, and 
were an honest, simple minded and just people, 
but little vexed with ambitioiis pride or grasping 
avarice. The mouth of the Arkansas River was 
the attractive jioint for immigrants on their way to 
the Ai'kansas Territory, and they would ascend that 
stream to Arkansas Post. There were not 500 
white people in the Territory of (now) Arkansas in 
1803, when it became a part of the United States. 
In 1810 the total population was 1,0(52. So soon 
as Louisiana became a part of the United States, 
u small but never ceasing stream of English speak- 
ing people turned their faces to the west and 
crossed the ' ' Father of Waters. ' ' Those for Ar- 
kansas established Montgomery Point, at the mouth 
of White River, making that the transfer place for 
all shipments inland. This remained as the main 
ship{)ing and commercial point for many years. 
By this route were transferred the freights for 
Arkansas Post. The highway from Montgomery 
Point to the Post was a slim and indistinct bridle 
path. The immigrants came down the Cumber- 
land and Tennessee Rivers to the Ohio in keel- 
boats and canoes, and were mostly from Tennes- 
see; beckoned to this fair and rich kingdom by its 
sunny clime, its mountains and rivers, and its pro- 



-rv" 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



2y 



ductive valleys, all enriched with a flora and fauna 
surpassing the dream of a pastoral poem. 

The French were the first permanent settlers 
of Arkansas, and descendants of these people are 
still here. Many bearing the oldest French names 
have attained to a position among the most emi- 
nent of the great men of the trans- Mississippi. 
Sometimes the names have become so corrni)ted as 
to be unrecognizable as belonging to the early illus- 
trious stock. The English-speaking people speak- 
ing French names phonetically would soon change 
them completely, The Bogys and Lefevres, for 
instance, are names that go back to the very first 
settlements in Arkansas. ' ' Lefevre ' ' on the maps 
is often spelled phonetically thus : ' ' Lafaver. ' ' 
Representatives of the Lefevre family are yet 
numerous in and about Little Rock, and in other 
portions of the State. 

Peter L. Lefevre and family were among the 
very first French settlers, locating in the fall of 
1818 on the north side of the river on Spanish 
Grant No. 497, about six miles below Little Rock. 
His sons were Peter. Enos, Francis G. , Ambrose, 
Akin, Leon and John B. , his daughter being Mary 
Louise. All of these have passed away except 
the now venerable Leon Lefevre, who resides on 
the old plantation where he was born in the year 
1808. For eighty- one years the panorama of the 
birth, growth and the vicissitudes of Arkansas 
have passed before his eyes. It is supposed of all 
living men he is the oldest representative surviving 
of the earliest settlers; however, a negro, still a 
resident of Little Rock, also came in 1818. 

The first English speaking settlers were Ten- 
nesseeans, Kentuckians and Alabamians. The ear- 
liest came down the Mississippi River, and then 
penetrating Ai'kansas at the mouths of the streams 
from the west, ascended these in the search for 
future homes. The date of the first coming of 
English speaking colonists may be given as 1807, 
those prior to that time being only trappers, 
hunters and voyagers on expeditions of discovery, 
or those whose names can not now be ascertained. 

South Carolina and Georgia also gave their 
small quotas to the first pioneers of Arkansas. 
From the States south of Tennessee the route was 



overland to the Mississippi River, or to some of its 
bayous, and then by water. A few of these from 
the Southern States brought considerable property, 
and some of them negro slaves, but not msmy 
were al)le to do this. The general rule was to 
reach the Territory alone and clear a small piece 
of ground, and as soon as possible to buy slaves and 
set them at work in the cotton fields. 

In 1814 a colony of emigrants, consisting of 
four families, settled at Batesville. then the Lower 
Missouri Territory, now the coimty seat of Inde- 
pendence County. There was an addition of fif- 
teen families to this colony the next year. Of the 
first was the family of Samuel Miller, father of 
(afterward) Gov. William R. Miller; there were also 
John Moore, the Magnesses and Beans. All these 
families left names permanently connected with 
the history of Arkansas. In the colony of 1815 
(all from Kentucky) were the brothers, Richard, 
John, Thomas and James Peel, sons of Thomas 
Peel, a Virginian, and Kentucky companion of 
Daniel Boone. Thomas Curran was also one of 
the later colonists from Kentucky, a relative of the 
great Irishman, John Philpot Curran. In the 1815 
colony were also old Ben Hardin — hero of so many 
Indian wars — his brother, Joab, and William 
Griffin, Thomas Wyatt, William Martin, Samuel 
Elvin, James Akin, John Reed, James Miller and 
John B. Craig. 

Alden Trimble, who died at Peel, Ark., in 
April, 1889, aged seventy-four years, was born in 
the Cal Hogan settlement, on White River, Marion 
County, June 14, 1815. This item is gained 
from the obituary notice of his death, and indicates 
some of the very first settlers in that portion of the 
State. 

Among the oldest settled points, after Arkan- 
sas Post, was what is now Arkadelphia, Clark 
County. It was first called Blakelytown, after 
Adam Blakely. He had opened a little store at 
the place, and about this were collected the first 
settlers, among whom may now be named Zack 
Davis, Samuel Parker and Adam Highnight. The 
Blakelys and the names given above were all locat- 
ed in that settlement in the year 1810. The next 
year came John Hemphill, who was the first to dis- 



30 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



cover and utilize the valuable waters of the salt 
sprin<js of that place. He engaged in the suc- 
cessful manufacture of salt, and was in time suc- 
ceeded by his son- in law, Jonathan O. Callaway. 
Jacob Barkman settled in Arkadelphia in 1811. 
He was a man of foresight and enterprise, and 
soon established a trade along the river to New 
Orleans. He commenced navigating the river in 
canoes and pirogues, and finally owned and ran in 
the trade the first steamboat plying from that 
point to New Orleans. He pushed trade at the 
point of settlement, at the same time advancing 
navigation, and opened a large cotton farm. 

In Arkansas County, among the early promi- 
nent men who were active in the county's affairs 
were Eli I. Lewis, Henry Scull, O. H. Thomas, 
T. Farrelly, Hewes Scull, A. B. K. Thetford and 
Lewis Bogy. The latter afterward removed to 
Missouri, and has permanently associated his name 
with the history of that State. In a subsequent 
list of names should be mentioned those of Will- 
iam Fultony, James Maxwell and James H. Lucas, 
the latter being another of the notable citizens of 
Missouri. 

Carroll County: Judges George Campbell and 
William King, and John Bush. T. H. Clark, Abra- 
ham Shelly, William Nooucr, Judge Hiram Davis, 
W. C. Mitchell, Charles Sneed, A. M. Wilson, 
Elijah Tabor, William Beller, M. L. Hawkins, 
John McMillan, M. Ferryman, J. A. Hicks, N. 
Rudd, Thomas Callen, W. E. Armstrong. 

Chicot County: John Clark, William B. Patton, 
Richard Latting, George W. Ferribee, Francis 
Rycroft, Thomas Knox, W. B. Duncan, J. W. 
Boone, H. S. Smith, James Blaine. Abner John- 
son, William Hunt, J. W. Neal, James Murray, 
B. Magruder, W. P. Reybiu-n, J. T. White, John 
Fulton, Judge W. H. Sutton, J. Chapman, Hiram 
Morrell, Reuben Smith, A. W. ^^'ebb. 

In Clark County, in the earliest times, were 
W. P. L. Blair, Coll)ert Baker, Moses Graham, 
Mathew Logan, James Miles, Thomas Drew, 
Daniel Ringo, A. Stroud, David Fisk and Isaac 
Ward. 

Clay County: John J. Griffin, Abraham Rob- 
erts, William Davis, William H. Mack, James 



Watson, J. G. Dudley. James Campbell, Single- 
ton Copeland, C. H. Mobley. 

Conway County: Judge Saffold, David Bar- 
ber, James Kellam. Reuben Blunt, James Barber, 
James Ward, Thomas Mathers, John Houston, E. 
W. Owen, Judge B. B. Ball, J. I. Simmons, T. S. 
Hayaes, B. F. Howard, William Ellis, N. H. 
Buckley, James Ward, Judge Robert McCall, W. 
H. Robertson, L. C. Griffin, Judge W. T. Gamble, 
D. D. Mason, George Fletcher and D. Harrison. 

Craighead County: Rufus Snoddy, Daniel 
O'Guinn, Yancey Broadway, Henry Powell, D. R. 
Tyler, Elias Mackey, William Q. Lane, John Ham- 
ilton, Asa Puckett, Eli Quarles, William Puryear. 

In Crawford County were Henry Bradford, 
Jack Mills, G. C. Pickett, Mark Beane, J. C. Sum- 
ner, James Billingsley. 

Crittenden County : J. Livingston, W. D. Fer- 
guson, W. Goshen, William Cherry, Judge D. H. 
Harrig, O. W. Wallace, S. A. Cherry, Judge 
Charles Blackmore, S. R. Cherry, John Tory, F. 
B. Read, Judge A. B. Hubbins, H. O. Oders, J. 
H. Wathen, H. Bacon. 

Fulton County: G. W. Archer, William Wells, 
Daniel Hubble, Moses Brannon, John Nichols, 
Moses Steward, Enos C Hunter, Milton Yarberry, 
Dr. A. C. Cantrell. 

Greene County: Judge L. Brookfield, L. 
Thompson, James Brown, J. Sutfin, G. Hall, 
Charles Robertson, Judge W. Hane, Judge George 
Daniel, G. L. Martin, J. Stotts, James Ratchford, 
Judge L. Thompson, H. L. Holt, J. L. Atkinson, 
J. Clark, H. N. Reynolds, John Anderson, Ben- 
jamin Crowley, William Pevehouse, John Mitch- 
ell, Aaron Bagwell, A. J. Smith, Wilej' Clarkson, 
^\■illiam Hatch. 

In Hempstead County: J. M. Steward, A. S. 
Walker, Benjamin Clark. A. M. Oakley, Thomas 
Dooley, D. T. Witter, Edward Cross, William 
McDonald, D. Wilbui-n and James Moss. 

Hot Springs Coiuity: L. N. West, G. B. 
Hughes, Judge W. Durham, G. W. Rogers, T. W. 
Johnson, J. T. Grant, J. H. Robinson. H. A. 
Wliittington, John Callaway, J. T. Grant, Judo-e 
G. Whittington, L. Runyan, R. Huson, J. Bank- 
son, Ira Robinson, Judge A. N. Sabin. C. A. Sa- 



i) ^T 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



:'l 



bin. W. W. McDaiiiel, W. Dimham, A. B. McDon- 
ald, Joseph Loranee. 

Independence County : R. Searcy, Robert Bean, 
Charles Kelly, John Reed, T. Curran, John Bean, 
I. Curran, J. L. Daniels, J. Redmon, John Rud- 
dell, C. H. Pelbam, Samuel Miller, James Micham, 
James Trimble, Henry Engles, Hartwell Boswell, 
John H. Ringgold. 

Izard County: J. P. Houston, John Adams, 
Judge Mathew Adams, H. C. Roberts, Jesse Adams, 
John Hargrove, J. Blyeth, William Clement, 
Judge J. Jeffrey, Daniel Jeffrey, A. Adams, J. A. 
Harris, W. B. Carr, Judge B. Hawkins, B. H. 
Johnson, D. K. Loyd. W. H. Carr, A. Creswell, 
H. W. Bandy, Moses Bishop. Daniel Hively, 
John Gray, William Powell Thomas Richardson, 
William Seymour. 

Jackson County: Judge Hiram Glass, J. C. 
Saylors. Isaac Gray, N. Copeland, Judge E. 
Bartley, John Robinson, A. M. Carpenter, Judge 
D. C. Waters, P. O. Flynn, Hall Roddy. Judge 
R. Ridley, G. W. Cromwell. Sam Mathews, Sam 
Allen, Martin Bridgeman, John Wideman, New- 
ton Arnold. Joseph Haggerton. Holloway Stokes. 

Jefferson County: Judge W. P. Hackett, J. T. 
Pullen, Judge Creed Taylor, Peter German, N. 
Holland. Judge Sam C. Roane, William Kinkead, 
Thomas O'Neal. E. H. Roane. S. Dardenne, Sam 
Taylor, Judge H. Bradford, H. Edgington, Judge 
W. H. Lindsey, J. H. Caldwell. 

Johnson County: Judge George Jameson, 
Thomas Jenette, S. F. Mason, Judge J. P. Kessie, 
A. Sinclair. William Fritz, W. J. Parks, R. S. 
McMicken, Augustus Ward. Judge J. L. Cravens, 
A. M. Ward, M. Rose, A. L. Black, W. A. Ander 
son. Judge J. B. Brown, A. Sinclair, William 
Adams. W. M. H. Newton. 

Lafayette County: Judge Jacob Buzzard, Jesse 
Douglass, Jo.shua Morrison. I. W. Ward, J. T. 
Conway, W. E. Hodges, J. Morrison, George Doo- 
ley, J. M Dorr, J. P. Jett, W. B. Conway, W. 
H. Conway, T. V. Jackson. G. H. Pickering, 
Judge E. M. Lowe, R. F. Sullivan, James Ab- 
rams. 

Lawrence County: Joseph Hardin. Robert 
Blane. H. Saridford. John Reed, R. Richardson, 



J. M. Kuykendall, U. R. Hyn.sou, James Camp- 
bell, 'D. W. Lowe, Thomas Black, John Rodney, 
John Spotts, William J. Hudson. William Stuart, 
Isaac Morris, William B. Marshall, John S. Fick- 
lin. 

Madison County: Judge John Bowen, H. B. 
Brown, P. M. Johnson, H. C. Daugherty, M. 
Perryman, T. McCuiston. 

In Miller County: John Clark. J. Ewing. J. H. 
Fowler. B. English, C. Wright, G. F. Lawson. 
Thomas Polk, George AVetmore, David Clark. J. 
G. Pierson, John Morton. N. Y. Crittenden, 
Charles Burkem, George Collum, G. C. Wetmore. 
D. C. Steele, G. F. Lawton and Judge G. M. 
Martin. 

Mississippi County: Judge Edwin Jones, J. 
W. Whitworth, E. F. Loyd, S. McLung, G. C. 
Bartield, Judge Nathan Ross, Judge John Troy, 
J. W. Dewitt, J. C. Bowen. Judge Fred Miller, 
Uriah Russell, T. L. Daniel, J. G. Davis, Judge 
Nathan Ross. J. P. Edrington. Thomas Sears. 
A. G. Blackmore, William Kellums, Thomas J. 
Mills, James Williams. Elijah Buford, Peter G. 
Reeves. 

Monroe County: Judge William Ingram, J. C. 
Montgomery, James Eagan, John Maddox, Lafay- 
ette Jones, Judge James Carlton, M. Mitchell. J. 
R. Dye, J. Jacobs. R. S. Bell. 

Phillips County: W. B. R. Horner. Daniel 
Mooney, S. Phillips, S. M. Rutherford, George 
Seaborn, H. L. Biscoe, G. W. Fereby, J. H. 
McKenzie, Austin Hendricks, W. H. Calvert, N. 
Righton, B. Burress, F. Hanks, J. H. McKe»l, 
J. K. Sandford, S. S. Smith, C. P. Smith. J. H. 
McKenzie. S. C. Mooney. I. C. P. Tolleson. Emer 
Askew, P. Pinkston, Charles Pearcy, J. B. Ford, 
W. Bettiss, J. Skinner. H. Turner and M. Irvin. 

Pike County: Judge W. Sorrels. D. S. Dickin- 
son, John Hughes, J. W. Dickinson. Judge W. 
Kelly, Isaac White, J. H. Kirkhan. E. K. Will 
iams, Henry Brewer. 

Poinsett County: Judges Richard Hall and 
William Harris. Drs. Theophilus Griffin and John 
P. Hardis, Harrison Ainsworth, Robert H. Stone, 
Benjamin Harris. 

Pope County: Judge Andrew Scott. Twitty 



32 



HISTOUY OF ARKANSAS. 



Pace. H. Stinnett, W. Garrott. AV. Mitchell. 
Judge S. K. Blythe, A. E. Pace, J. J. Morse, F. 
Heron, Judge Thomas Murray, Jr., S. M. Hayes, 
S. S. Haye.s, R. S. Witt. .Judge Isaac Brown, R. 
T. Williamson, W. W. Rankin, Judge J. J. Morse, 
J. B. Logan, W. C. Webb. 

Pulaski County: R. C. Oden, L. R. Curran, 
Jacob Peyatte, A. H. Renick, G. Greathouse, M. 
Cunningham, Samuel Anderson, H Armstrong, T. 
W. Newton, D. E. McKiimey, S. M. Rutherford. 

A. McHenry, Allen Martin, J. H. Caldwell. Judge 
S. S. Hall, J. Henderson, William Atchinson, R. 
N. Rowland, Judge David Rorer, J. K. Taylor, 
R. H. Callaway. A. L. Langham, Judge J. H. 
Cocke, W. Badgett, G. N. Peay, J. C. Anthony, 
L. R. Lincoln. A. Martin, A. S. Walker, Judge 
R. Graves, J. P. and John Fields, J. K. Taylor, 
W. C. Howell, J. Gould, Roswell Beebe, William 
Russell, John C. Peay. 

Randolph County: Judge P. R. Pittman, B. J. 
Wiley, William Black, R. Bradford, J. M. Cooper, 

B. J. Wiley, B. M. Simpson, John Janes, James 
Campbell, Samuel McElroy, Edward Mattis, 
Thomas S. Drew, R. S. Bettis. James Russell. 

St. Francis County: Andrew Roane, William 
Strong, S. Crouch, Judge John Johnson, T. J. 
Curl. G. B. Lincecum, William Lewis, Judge 
William Strong, Isaac Mitchell, David Davis, 
Isaac Forbes, Judge William Enos, N. O. Little, 
W. G. Bozeman, H. M. Carothers, Judge R. H. 
Hargrove, H. H. Cur], Cyrus Little. 

Saline County: Judge T. S. Hutchinson, Samuel 
Caldwell, V. Brazil, C. Lindsey, A. Carrick, Judge 
H. Pruddeu, G. B. Hughes, Samuel Collins, J. J. 
Joiner, J. R. Conway, R. Brazil, E. M. Owen, 
George McDaniel. C. P. Lyle. 

Scott County: Judge Elijah Baker, S. B. 
Walker, James Riley, J. R. Choate, Judge James 
Logan, G. Marshall, Charles Humphrey. A\'. Cau- 
thorn, G. C. Walker. T. J. Garner, Judge Gilbert 
Marshall, W. Kenner. 

Searcy County: .Judge William \\oi)d, William 
Kavauaugh, E. M. Hale, Judge Joseph Kea, Will- 
iam Ruttes, Joe Brown, V. Robertson, T. S. Hale, 
Judge J. Campbell. 

Sevier County: Judge John Clark, R. Hart- 



field, G. Clark, J. T. Little, Judge David Foran, 
P. Little, William White, Charles Moore, A. 
Hartfield, Judge J. F. Little, Henry Morris, 
Judge Henry Brown, George Halbrook, Judge 
R. H. Scott, S. S. Smith. 

Sharp County: John King, Robert Lott, Nich- 
olas Norris, William Morgan, William J. Gray, 
William Williford, Solomon Hudspeth, Stephen 
English. John Walker, L. D. Dale. John C. Gar- 
ner. R. P. Smithee. Josiah Richardson, Judge A. 
H. Nunn, William G. Matheny. 

Union County: John T. Cabeen, John Black, 
Jr., Judge John Black, Sr. , Benjamin Gooch, 
Alexander Beard, Thomas O'Neal, Judge G. B. 
Hughes, John Cornish, John Hogg, Judge Hiram 
Smith, J. R. Moore, John Henry, John Stokeley, 
Judge Charles H. Seay, W. L. Bradley, Judge 
Thomas Owens. 

Van Buren County: Judge J. L. Laferty, P. 
O. Powell, N. Daugherty, Philip WaU, L. Will- 
iams, Judge J. B. Craig, Judge J. M. Baird, J. 
McAllister, Judge William Dougherty, A. Mor- 
rison, George Counts, A. Caruthers, W. W. Trim- 
ble, R. Bain, J. O. Young. George Hardin, A. W. 
McRaines, Judge J. C. Ganier. 

Washington County: L. Newton, Lewis Evans, 
John Skeltou, Judge Robert McAmy, B. H. 
Smithsou, Judge John Wilson, James Marrs, V. 
Caruthers, James Coulter, J. T. Edmonson, Judge 
J. M. Hoge, James Crawford, John McClellan, 
Judge W. B. Woody, W. W. Hester, Judge John 
Cureton, L. C. Pleasants, Isaac Murpliy, D. Calla- 
ghan, Judge Thomas Wilson, W. L. Wallace and 
L. W. Wallace. 

White County: Judge Samuel Guthrie, P. W. 
Roberts, P. Crease. Michael Owens, M. H. Blue, 
S. Arnold, J. W. Bond, William Cook, J. Arnold, 
Milton Saunders, Jaues Bird, Samuel Beeler, 
James Walker, Martin Jones. Philij) Hilger, James 
King, L. Pate, John Akin, Reuben Stephens, Sam- 
uel Guthrie. 

Woodruff County: Rolla Gray, Durant H. 
Bell, John Dennis, Dudley Glass, Michael Hag- 
gerdon, Samuel Taylor, James Barnes, George 
Hatch, John Teague. Thomas Arnold and Thomas 
Hough. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



33 



The above were all prominent men in their lo- 
calities during the Territorial times of Arkansas. 
Many of them have left names and memories inti- 
mately associated with the history of the State. 
They were a part of those pioneers ' ' who hewed 
the dark, old woods away," and left a rich inheri- 
tance, and a substantial civilization, having wealth, 
refinement and luxuries, that were never a part of 
their dreams. They were home makers as well as 
State and Nation builders. They cut out the roads, 
opened their farms, bridged the streams, built 
houses, made settlements, towns and cities, render- 
ing all things possible to their descendants; a race 
of heroes and martyrs pre-eminent in all time for 
the blessings they transmitted to posterity; they 
repelled the painted savage, and exterminated the 
ferocious wild beasts; they worked, struggled and 
endured that others might enjoy the fruits of their 
heroic sacrifices. Their lives were void of evil to 
mankind; possessing little ambition, their touch 
was the bloom and never the blight. Granted, 
cynic, they builded wiser than they knew, yet they 
built, and built well, and their every success was 
the triumphant march of peace. Let the record of 
their humble but great lives be immortal! 

The New Madrid earthquake of 1811-12, com- 
mencing in the last of December, and the subterra- 
nean forces ceasing after three months' duration, 
was of itself a noted era, but to the awful display 
of nature's forces was added a far more important 
and lasting event, the result of the silent but 
mighty powers of the human mind. Simulta- 
neously with the hour of the most violent convul- 
sions of nature, the third day of the earthquake, 
there rode out at the mouth of the Ohio, into the 
lashed and foaming waters of the Mississippi, the 
first steamboat that ever ploughed the western 
waters — the steamer "Orleans," Capt. Roosevelt. 
So awful was the display of nature's energies, that 
the granitic earth, with a mighty sound, heaved 
and writhed like a storm-tossed ocean. The great 
river turned back in its flow, the waves of the 
ground burst, shooting high in the air, spouting 
sand and water; great forest-covered hills disap- 
peared at the bottom of deep lakes into which 
thev had sunk; and the "sunk lands" are to 



this day marked on the maps of Southeast Mis- 
souri and Northeast Arkansas. The sparse popu- 
lation along the river (New Madrid was a flourish- 
ing young town) fled the country in terror, leav- 
ing mostly their effects and domestic animals. 

The wild riot of nature met in this wilderness 
the triumph of man's genius. Where else on the 
globe so approjiriately could have been this meet- 
ing of the opposing forces as at the mouth of the 
Ohio and on the convulsed bosom of the Father of 
Waters? How feeble, apparently, in this contest, 
were the powers of man; how grand and awful the 
play of nature's forces! The mote struggling 
against the "wreck of worlds and crush of mat- 
ter." But, "peace be still," was spoken to the 
vexed earth, while the invention of Fulton will go 
on forever. The revolving paddle wheels were the 
incipient drive-wheels, on which now ride in tri- 
umph the glories of this great age. 

The movement of immigrants to Arkansas in 
the decade following the earthquake was retarded 
somewhat, whereas, barring this, it should and 
would have been stimulated into activity by the 
advent of steamboats upon the western rivers. The 
south half of the State was in the possession of 
the Quapaw Indians. The Spanish attempts at 
colonizing were practical failures. His Catholic 
majesty was moving in the old ruts of the feudal 
ages, in the deep-seated faith of the "divinity of 
kings,"' and the paternal powers and duties of 
rulers. The Bastrop settlement of "thirty fam- 
ilies," by a seigniorial grant in 1707. had brought 
years of suffering, disappointment and failure. 
This was an attempt to found a colony on*he 
Ouachita River, granting an entire river and a 
strip of land on each side thereof to Bastrop, 
the government to pay the passage of the people 
across the ocean and to feed and clothe them one 
year. To care for its vassals, and to provide 
human breeding grounds; swell the multitudes for 
the use of church and State; to "glorify God" 
by repressing the growing instincts of liberty and 
the freedom of thought, and add subjects to the 
possession and powers of these gild(>d toads, were 
the essence of the oriental schemes for peopling 
the new world. Happily for mankind they failed, 




and the wild beasts returned to care for their young 
in safety and await the coming of the real pioneers, 
they wlio came bringing little or nothing, save 



a manly spirit of self-reliance and independence. 
These were the successful founders and builders 
of eui]iirp in the wilderness. 



f mwii rw. 

— >.r-«^J^i.:e7'<JI9'^9{<#:/vl-■»->•«- 
OuGA^•IZATION.— The Viceroys ani> Goveknous— The Attiti de ov the Royal Owners of Louisiana- 
The District Divided— The Territory of Arkansas P'ormed from the Territory of Missouri 
—The Territorial Government— The First Legislature— The Seat of Government 
-Other Legislative IJodies— The Deullo— Arkansas Admitted to Statehood 
—The Constitutional Conventions— The Memorable Reconstruction 
Period— Legislative Attitude on the Question of Secession 
— Tni: War of the Governors, etc.. etc. 



I 










\t^<t ^- "^ *'^^ preceding chapter are 
.^.jk, - briefly traced the changes 



+■ i- < 



the 



the government of the 
Territory of Louisiana from 
its discovery to the year 
1803, when it became a 
part of the territory of 
United States. Discovered by 



the Spanish, possessed by the French, 
divided and re-divided between the 
French, Spanish and English; set- 
tled by the Holy Mother Church, 
in the warp and woof of nations it 
was the flying shuttle-cock of the 
great weaver in its religion as well 
as allegiance for 2(51 years. This 
foundling, this waif of nations, was 
but an outcast, or a trophy chained to the 
triumphal car of the victors among the warring 
European powers, until in the providence of God 
it reached its haven and abiding home in the 
bo.som of the union of States. 

As a French province, the civil government of 
Louisiana was organized, and the Marquis de San- 
ville api)oiuted viceroy or governor in 168U. 



UNDER FRENCH KDLE. 

Robert Cavelier ile La Salle (April 9. 

formal) 1683-1688 

Marquis de Sanville 1689-1700 

Bienville 1701-1712 

Lamolhe Cadillar 1713-1715 

De F/Epinay 1716-1717 

Bienville 1718-1723 

Boisbrianl (ad interim) 1724 

Bienville 1732-1741 

Baron de Kelerec 1753-1762 

DAI)badie 1763-1766* 

UNDER SPANISH RULE. 

Antonio <le Ulloa 1767-1768 

Alexaiuier O'Heilly 1768-1769 

Louis de Uiizaga 1770-1776 

Bernaiido de Galvez 1777-1784 

Estevar Miio 1785-1787 

Francisco Luis Hortu, Baron of Caron- 

delet 1789-1792 

Gayoso de Lemos 1793-1798 

Sebastian de Cosa Calvo y O'Farrell. . .1798-1799 
.luan Manual de Salcedo 1800-1803 

From the dates already given it will be seen 
that the official acts of Salcedo duiing his entire 

* Louisiana west of the Mississippi, altliougli ceded 
to Spiiiii in 1762, remained under French jurisdiction 
until 1766. 



i) fy 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



3r> 



term of office, under the secret treaty of Ildefonso, 
wen^ tainted with irre<:falarity. Thousands of land 
grants had been given by him after he had in fact 
ceased to be the viceroy of Spain. The contract- 
ing jjowers had affixeil to the treaty the usual ob- 
ligations of the fulfillment of all undertakings, but 
the American courts and lawyers, in that ancient 
spirit of legal hypercritical technicalities, had 
given heed to the vicious doctrine that acts in good 
faith of a de facto governor may be treated as of 
questionable validity. This was never good law, 
because it was never good sense or justice. 

The acts and official doings of these vice-royal- 
ties in the wilderness present little or nothing of 
intere.st to the student of history, because they 
were local and individual in their bearing. It 
was the action of the powers across the waters, in 
reference to Canada and Louisiana, that in their 
wide and sweeping effects have been nearly omnip- 
otent in shaping civilization. 

Referring to the acquisition of Canada and the 
Louisiana east of the Mississippi River, Bancroft 
says that England exulted in its conquest;* 
enjoying the glory of extended dominion in the 
confident expectation of a boundless increase of 
wealth. But its success was due to its having 
taken the lead in the good old struggle for liberty, 
and it was destined to bring fruits, not so much to 
itself as to the cause of freedom and mankind. 

France, of all the States on the continent of 
Europe the most powerful, by territorial unity, 
wealth, numbers, industry and culture, seemed 
also by its place marked out for maritime ascend- 
ency. Set between many seas it rested upon the 
Mediterranean, possessed harbors on the German 
Ocean, and embraced between its wide shores and 
jutting headlands the bays and open waters of the 
Atlantic; its people, infolding at one extreme the 
offspring of colonists from Greece, and at the 
other the hardy children of the Northmen, being 
called, as it were, to the inheritance of life upon 
the sea. The nation, too, readily conceived or aj)- 
propriated great ideas and delighted in bold re- 
solves. Its travelers had penetrated farthest -into 

*Bniicroft. vol. iv.— l.'iT; (layiirre's Histoire de la 
Loiiisiane, vol. ii.-131. 



the fearful interior of unknown lands; its mission 
aries won most familiarly the confidence of the 
aboriginal hordes; its writers described with 
keener and wiser observation the forms of nature 
in her wildness, and the habits and languages of 
savage man; its soldiers, and everj' lay Frenchman 
in America owed military service, uniting beyond 
all others celerity with courage, knew best how to 
endure the hardships of forest life and to triumph 
in forest warfare. Its ocean chivalry had given a 
name and a colony to Carolina, and its merchants 
a people to Acadia. The French discovered the 
basin of the St. Lawrence; were the first to ex- 
plore and possess the banks of the Mississippi, and 
planned an American empire that should unite the 
widest valleys and most copious inland waters in 
the world. But over all this splendid empire in 
the old and the new world was a government that 
was medieval^mured in its glittering palaces, 
taxing its subjects, it would allow nothing to come 
to the Louisiana Territory but what was old and 
worn out. French America was closed against even 
a gleam of intellectual independence; nor did all 
Louisiana contain so much as one dissenter from 
the Roman Church. 

" We have caught them at last,'' exiiltingly e,\- 
claimed Choiseul, when he gave up the Cauadas 
to England and the Louisiana to Spain. ■" Eng 
land will ere long repent of having removed the 
only check that could keep her colonies in awe. * 
* * She will call on them to support the Inn- 
dens they have helped to bring on her, and th(>y 
will answer by striking off all dependence, '' said 
Vergennes. 

These keen-witted Frenchmen, with a pene- 
tration far beyond the ablest statesmen of Eng 
land, saw, as they believed, and time has con- 
firmed, that in the humiliation and dismember- 
ment of the territory of France, especially tlie 
transfer to England of Canada, they had la d the 
mine which some day wouM destroy the British 
colonial system, and prolmbly eventuate in tlie 
independence of the American colonies. The in 
tellect of France was keeping step with the spirit 
of the age: it had been excluded of course from 
the nation's councils, but saw what its feeble 



1^ 



36 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



government neither could see nor prevent, that the 
distant wilderness possessed a far greater impor- 
taueo on the world's new map than was given it 
by the f^old and gems it was supposed to contain; 
and that the change of allegiance of the colonies 
was the great step in the human mind, as it was 
slowly emerging from the gloom and darkness of 
tht< middle ages. Thus it was that the mere Terri- 
tory of Louisiana, before it was peopled by civilized 
man, was playing its important part in the world's 
greatest of all dramas. 

The first official act of our government, after 
the purchase of Louisiana, was an act of Congress, 
March 20, 1 SO-t, dividing Louisiana into two dis- 
tricts, and attaching the whole to Indiana Terri- 
tory, under the government of William Henry 
Harrison. The division in Louisiana was by a line 
on the thirty-third parallel; the south was named 
the District of Orleans; that north of it was named 
the District of Louisiana. This is now the south 
line of the State of Arkansas. 

In 1805 the District of Louisiana was erected in- 
to the Territory of Louisiana. It was however a terri- 
tory of the second class and remained under the gov- 
ernment and control of Indiana Territory until 1812. 

By act of June 4, 1812, the name of Louisiana 
Territory was changed and became the Missouri 
Territory, being made a territory of the first class, 
and given a territorial government. Capt. William 
Clark, of the famous Lewis and Clark, explorers of 
the northwest, was appointed governor, remaining 
as such until 1819, when Arkansas Territory was 
cut off from Missouri. 

The act of 1812, changing the District of 
Louisiana to Missouri Territory, provided for a 
Territorial legislature consisting of nine members, 
and empowered the governor to lay ofF that 
part where the Indian title had been extinguished 
into thirteen counties. The county of New 
Madrid, as then formed, extended into the Arkan- 
sas territorial limits, "down to the Mississippi to 
a point directly east of the mouth of Little Red 
River; thence to the mouth of Red River; thence 
up the Red River to the Osage purchase," etc. 
In other words it did not embrace the whole of 
what is now Arkansas. 



December 13, 1813, the County of Arkansas, 
Missouri Territoiy, was formed, and the county 
seat was fixed at Arkansas Post.* 

Besides Ai-kansas County, Lawrence County 
was formed January 15, 1815, and Clark, Hemp- 
stead and Pulaski Counties, December 15, 1818. 

Missouri neglected it seems to provide a judi- 
cial district for her five southern or Arkansas 
counties. Therefore Congress, in 1814, authorized 
the President to appoint an additional judge for 
Missouri Territory, ' ' who should hold office four 
years and reside in or near the village of Arkan- 
sas," — across the river from Arkansas Post. 

March 2, 1819, Congress created the Territory 
of Arkansas out of the Missouri Territory. It was 
only a territory of the second class, and the ma- 
chinery of government consisted of the governor 
and three judges, who constituted the executive, 
judicial and legislative departments, their offi- 
cial acts requiring the consent of Congress. Pres- 
ident Monroe appointed James Miller, governor; 
Robert Crittenden, secretary; Charles Jouett, 
Andrew Scott and Robert P. Letcher, judges of the 
superior court. The act designated Arkansas Post 
as the temporary seat of government. In the ab- 
sence of the Governor, Robert Crittenden, "act- 
ing governor," convened the first session of the 
provisional government on August 3, 1819. The 
act continued the new territory under the laws of 
Missouri Territory. The five counties designated 
above as formed prior to the division of Arkansas, 
had been represented in the Missouri Territorial 
legislature. Elijah Kelly, of Clark County, was a 
representative, and he rode on horseback from his 
home to St. Louis. The se.ssion was probably not 
a week in length, and the pay and mileage little 
or nothing. 

This first Territorial legislature appointed a 
treasurer and auditor, provided a tax for general 
purposes, and divided the five counties into two 
judicial circuits: First. Arkansas and Lawrence 
Counties ; Second, Pulaski, Clark and Hempstead 
Counties. 

* During the latter purl of the eighteenth century, 
something of the same municipal division was made, and 
called " Arkan.sas Parish," the name being derived 
from an old Indian town called Arkausea. 






n Xj 



HISTORY Ol' AKKANSAS. 



37 



April 21, 18"i0, CoQgress passed aa act per- 
fecting the Territorial organization, and applying 
the same provisions to Arkansas that were contained 
in the act creating Missouri into a Territory of the 
tirst class. 

The first legislative body elected in Arkansas 
convened at Arkansas Post, February 7 to 24, 1820. 
In the council were: President, Edward McDonald; 
secretary, Richard Searcy; members, Arkansas 
County, Sylvanus Phillips; Clark County, Jacob 
Barkmau; Hem^jstead County, David Clark; 
Lawrence County, Edward McDonald; Pulaski 
County, John McElmurry. la the house of rep- 
resentatives: Speaker, Joseph Hardin (William 
Stephenson was first elected, served one day and 
resigned, on account of indisposition); J. Cham- 
berlain, clerk; members, Arkansas County, W. B. 
R. Horner, \V. O. Allen; Clark, Thomas Fish; 
Hempstead, J. English, W. Stevenson; Lawrence, 
Joseph Hardin, Joab Hardin; Pulaski, Radford 
Ellis, T. H. Tindall. This body later adjourned to 
meet October following, continuing in session until 
the 25th. 

At this adjourned session the question of the 
removal of the Territorial seat of government from 
Arkansas Post to "the Little Rock," came up on 
a memorial signed by Amos Wheeler and others. 
"The Little Rock" was in contradistinction to 
' ' the Rocks, ' ' as were known the beautiful bluffs, 
over 200 feet high, a little above and across the 
river from "the Little Rock." In 1820 Gov. 
Miller visited the Little Rock — Petit Rocher— 
with a view to selecting a new seat of government. 
The point designated was the northeast corner of 
the Quapaw west line and Arkansas River. Im- 
mediately upon the formation of the Territory, 
prominent parties began to look out for a more 
central location for a capital higher up the river, 
and it was soon a general understanding that the 
seat of government and the county seat of Pulaski 
County, the then adjoining county above Arkansas 
County on the river, would be located at the same 
place. A syndicate was formed and Little Rock 
Bluff was pushed for this double honor. The 
government had not yet opened the land to pub- 
lic entry, as the title of the Quapaws had just been 



extinguished. These parties resorted to the expe- 
dient of locating upon the land "New Madrid 
floats," or claims, under the act of February 17, 
1815, which authorized any one whose land had 
been " materially injured " by the earthquake of 
1811 to locate the like ijuantity of land on any of 
the public lands open for sale. Several hundred 
acres were entered under these claims as the fut- 
ure town site. The county seat of Pulaski County 
was, contrary to the expectation of the Little Rock 
syndicate, located at Cadron, near the mouth of 
Cadron Creek, where it enters the Arkansas River. 

On the 18th day of October, 1820, the Terri- 
torial seat of government was removed from the 
Post of Arkansas to the Little Rock, the act to 
take effect June 1, 1821. The next Territorial 
legislature convened in Little Rock, October 1 to 
24, 1821. The council consisted of Sam C. Roane, 
president, and Richard Searcy, secretary. In the 
house William Trimble was speaker, and A. H. 
Sevier, clerk. 

The third legislature met October '5 to 81. 
1823. Sam C. Roane was president of the coun 
cO, and Thomas W. Newton, secretary; while T. 
Farrelly was speaker, and D. E. McKinney. clerk 
of the house. 

The fourth legislature was held October 3 to 
November 3, 1825. Of the council, the president 
was Jacob Barkman; secretary, Thomas W. New 
ton. Of the house, Robert Bean was speaker; 
David Barber, clerk. 

The fifth Territorial legislature was held Octol)er 
1 to 31, 1827, and a special session held October 
G to October 28, 1828; E. T. Clark served as presi 
dent of the council, and John Clark, secretary ; 
J. Wilson was speaker of the house, and Daniel 
Ringo, clerk. 

In the sixth legislature, Charles Caldwell was 
president of the council, and John Caldwell, secre- 
tary; John Wilson was speaker of the house, and 
Daniel Ringo, clerk. 

The seventh legislature held October 3 to 
November 7, 1831, had Charles Caldwell as presi- 
dent of the council, and Al)salom Fowler, secre- 
tary; William Trimble was speaker "f tin- Imu^t., 
and G. A\'. Ferebee, secretary. 



In the eighth legislature, October 7 to Novem- 
ber 16, 183:5, John Williamson was president of the 
council and William F. Yeomans, secretary; John 
Wilson was speaker of the bouse, and James B. 
Keatts, clerk. 

The ninth legislature met October 5 to Novem- 
ber 10. 1885. The president of the senate was 
Charles Caldwell; secretary, S.T.Sanders. John 
Wilson was speaker of the house and L. B. Tully, 
clerk. 

This was the last of the Territorial assemblies. 
James Miller was succeeded as governor by George 
Izard, March 4, 1825. and Izard by John Pope, 
March 9, 1829. William Fulton followed Pope 
March 9, 1835. and held the o£&ce until Arkansas 
became a State. 

Robert Crittenden was secretary of State 
(nearly all of Miller' s term ' ' acting governor ' ' ), 
appointed March 3, 1819, and was succeeded in 
office by William Fulton, April 8, 1829; Fulton 
was succeeded by Lewis Randolph, February 23, 
1835. 

George W. Scott was appointed Territorial 
auditor August 5, 1819, and was succeeded by 
Richard C. Byrd, November 20, 1829; Byrd was 
followed by Emzy Wilson, November 5, 1831; and 
the latter by Milliam Pelham, November 12, 1833, 
his successor being Elias N. Conway, July 25, 1835. 
James Scull, appointed treasurer August 5, 
1819, was succeeded by S. M. Rutherford. Novem- 
ber 12, 1833, who continued in office until the 
State was formed. 

The counties in 1825 had been increased in num- 
ber to thirteen: Arkansas, Clark, Conway, Chicot, 
Crawford, Crittenden, Lawrence, Miller, Hemp- 
stead, Independence, Pulaski, Izard and Phillips. 
The territory was divided into four judicial cir- 
cuits, of which William Trimble, Benjamin John- 
son, Thomas P. Eskridge and James Woodson 
Bates were, in the order named, the judges. The 
delegates in Congress from Arkansas Territory were 
James W. Bates, 1820-23; Henry W. Conway, 
1823-29; Ambrose H. Sevier, 1829-36. 

The Territorial legislature, in common with all 
other legislatures of that day. passed some laws 
which would have been much better not passed, and 



others that remained a dead letter on the books. 
Among other good laws which were never enforced 
was one against duelling. In 1825 Whigs and 
Democrats allowed party feelings to run high, and 
some bloody duels grew out of the heat of cam- 
paigns. 

Robert Crittenden and Hemy W. Conway 
fought a duel October 29, 1827. At the first fire 
Conway fell mortally wounded and died a fortnight 
thereafter. 

December 4, 1837, John Wilson, who, it will 
be noticed, figured prominently in the preceding 
record of the Territorial assemblies, was expelled 
from the house of representatives, of which body 
he was speaker, for killing J. J. Anthony. 

A constitutional convention, for the purpose of 
arranging for the Territory to become a State in the 
Union, was held in Little Rock, in January, 1836. 
Its duty was to jii-epare a suitable constitution and 
submit it to Congress, and, if unobjectionable, to 
have an act passed creating the State of Arkan- 
sas. John AVilson was president, and Charles P, 
Bertrand, secretary, of the convention. Thirty- 
five counties were represented by fifty-two members. 

June 15, 1836, Arkansas was made a State, 
and the preamble of the act recites that there was 
a population of 47,700. 

The first State legislature met September 12 to 
November 8, 1836, later adjourning to November 
6, 1837, and continued in session until March 5, 
1838. The president of the senate was Sam C. 
Roane; secretary, A. J. Greer; the speaker of the 
house was John Wilson (he was expelled and 
Grandison D. Royston elected) ; clerk, S. H. Hemp- 
stead. 

The second constitutional convention, held 
January 4 to January 23, 1864, had as president, 
John McCoy, and secretary, R. J. T. White. This 
convention was called by virtue of President Lin- 
coln's proclamation. The polls had been opened 
chiefly at the Federal military posts, and the major- 
ity of delegates were really refugees from many of 
the counties they represented. It simply was an 
informal meeting of the Union men in response to 
the Pi'esident's wish, and they mostly made their 
own credentials. The Federal army occupied the 









HIST(JI{V OF ARKANSAS. 



39 



Arkansas River and points north, \vhik> the south 
portion of the State was held by the Confederates. 
It is said the convention on important legal ques- 
tions was largely influenced by Hon. T. D. W. 
Yonly, of Pulaski County. The convention prac- 
tically re-euacted the constitution of 18ii6, abolished 
slavery, already a fact, and created the separate 
office of lieutenant-governor, instead of the former 
ex-officio president of the senate. The machinery 
of State government was thus once more in oper- 
ation. The convention wisely did its work and 
adjourned. 

The next constitutional convention was held 
January 7 to February 18, 1868. Thomas M. 
Bowen was president, and John G. Price, secretary. 
The war was over and the Confederates had re- 
turned and were disposed to favor the constitution 
which they found the Unionists had adopted in 
their absence, and was then in full force in the 
State. Isaac Murphy (Federal) had been elected 
governor under the constitution of 1864, and all 
the State offices were under control of the Union- 
ists. His term as governor would expire in July, 
1868. 

This convention made sweeping changes in the 
fundamental laws. The most prominent were the 
disfi-anchisement of a large majority of the white 
voters of the State, enfranchising the negroes, and 
providing for a complex and plastic system of reg- 
istration. This movement, and its severe character 
throughout, were a part of the reconstruction 
measures emanating from Congress. Arkansas 
was under military rule and the constitution of 
1864, and this condition of affairs, had been ac- 
cepted by the returned conquered Confederates. 
But the Unionists, who had fled to the Federal 
military posts for protection, were generally eager 
to visit their vanquished enemies with the severest 
penalties of the law. A large part of the intel- 
ligence and tax payers of the State were indis- 
criminately excluded from the polls, and new vot- 
ers and new men came to the front, with grievances 
to be avenged and ambitions to be gratified. The 
unusual experiment of the reversal of the civic 
conditions of the ex-slaves with their former mas- 
ters was boldly undertaken. Impetuous men now 



prevailed in the name of patriotism, the natural 
reflex swing of the pendulum — the anti-climax was 
this convention of reconstruction to the convention 
of secession of 1861. The connection between 
these two conventions — 1861-1868 — is so blended 
that the convention of '61 is omitted in its chro- 
nological order, that the two may be set properly 
side by side. 

March 4, 1861, a State convention assembled 
in Little Rock. The election of delegates was 
on February 18, preceding. The convention met 
the day Abraham Lincoln was inducted into oflice 
as president of the United States. The people of 
Arkansas were deeply concerned. The conserva- 
tive minds of the State loved the Union as sin- 
cerely as they regretted the wanton assaults that 
had been made upon them by the extremists of the 
North. The members of that convention had 
been elected with a view to the consideration of 
those matters already visible in the dark war-clouds 
lowering upon the country. The test of the un- 
ion and disunion sentiment of that body was the 
election of president of the convention. Judge 
David Walker (Union) received forty votes against 
thirty-five votes for Judge B. C. Totten. Hon. 
Henry F. Thomasson introduced a series of con- 
servative resolutions, condemning disunion and 
looking to a convention of all the States to ' ' settle 
the slavery (juestion " and secure the perpetuation 
of the Union. The resolutions were passed, and 
the convention adjourned to meet again in May fol- 
lowing. This filled the wise and conservative men 
of the State with great hopes for the future. Bul^ 
most unfortunately, when the convention again 
met war was already upon the country, and the 
ordinance of secession was passed, with but one 
negative vote. The few days between the adjourn 
ment and reassembling of the convention had not 
made traitors of this majority that liad so recent- 
ly .condemned disunion. The swift-moving events, 
everywhere producing consternation and alarm, 
called out determined men. and excitement ruled 
the hour. 

The conventions of 18()1 and iSOb- sece.ssion 
and reconstruction I When the long - gathering 
cloud-burst of civil war had passed, it left a cen- 



40 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



tury's trail of broken hearts, desolated homes, 
ruined lives, and a stream of demoralization over- 
flowiug the beautiful valleys of the land to the 
mountain tops. The innocent and unfortunate ne- 
gro was the stumbling-block at all times. The con- 
vention of 1861 would have founded an empire of 
freedom, buttressed in the slavery of the black man; 
the convention of 1868 preferred to rear its great col- 
umn of liberty upon the ashes of the unfortunate 
past: in every era the wise, conservative and patriotic 
sentiment of the land was chained and bound to 
the chariot-wheels of rejoicing emotion. Prudence 
and an intelligent insight into the future alone 
could prevent men from " losing their reason." 

The constitution of 1868, as a whole, was not 
devoid of merit. It opened the way for an age of 
internal improvements, and intended the establish- 
ment of H liberal pulilic free school system, and at 
the same time provided safeguards to protect the 
public treasury and restrain reckless extravagance. 

Then the legislatures elected under it, the State 
officers, and the representatives in the upper and 
lower Congress, were in political accord with the 
dominant party of the country. Gen. Grant was 
president; Powell Clayton, governor; Robert J. L. 
M'hite, secretary of State; J. R. Berry, auditor, 
and Henry Page, treasurer. The first legislature 
under the constitution of 18(kS passed most lilieral 
laws to aid railroads and other internal improve- 
ments, and provided a system of revenue laws to 
meet the new order of affairs. During 1869 to 
1871 railroad aid and levee bonds to the amount of 
$10,419,778.74 were issued. The supreme court 
of the State in after years declared the railroad 
aid. levee and Halford bonds void, aggregating 
$8,604,773.74. Before his term of governor had 
expired. Gov. Clayton was elected United States 
senator (1871-77), and in 1873 Hon. Stephen W. 
Dorsey was elected to a like position. 

The climax and the end of reconstruction in 
Arkansas will always be an interesting paragraph 
in the State' s history. Elisha Baxter and Joseph 
Brooks were the gubernatorial candidates at the 
election of 1872. Both were Repulilicans. and 
Brooks was considered one of the most ardent of 
that i)arty. Baxter was the nominee of the party 



and on the same ticket with Grant, who was can- 
didate for president. Brooks was nominated on a 
mixed ticket, made up by disaffected Republicans, 
but on a more liberal platform toward the Demo- 
crats than the regular ticket. On the face of the 
first retiu-ns the Greeley electors and the Brooks 
ticket were in the majority, but when the votes 
were finally canvassed, such changes were made, 
from illegal voting or bulldozing it was claimed, 
as to elect the Grant and Baxter tickets. Under 
the constitution of 1868, the legislature was de- 
clared the sole judge of the election of State officers. 
Brooks took his case before that body at its Jan- 
uary term, 1873 — at which time Baxter was in- 
augurated — but the assembly decided that Baxter 
was elected, and, whether right or wrong, every 
one supposed the question permanently settled. 

Brooks however, went before the supreme 
court (McClure being chief justice), that body 
promptly deciding that the legislature was by law 
the proper tribunal, and that as it had determined 
the case its action was final and binding. Bax- 
ter was inaugurated in January, 1873; had been 
declared elected by the proper authorities, and 
this had been confirmed by the legislature, the 
action of the latter being distinctly approved 
by the supreme court. The adherents of Brooks 
had supposed that they were greatly wronged, 
but like good citizens all acquiesced. Those 
who had politically despised Brooks — perhaps 
the majority of his voters — had learned to sym- 
pathize with what they believed were his and 
their mutual wrongs. Baxter had peacefully ad- 
ministered the office more than a year, when 
Brooks went before Judge John Whytock, of the 
Pulaski circuit court, and commenced quo warranto 
proceedings against Baxter. The governor's at- 
torneys filed a demurrer, and the case stood over. 
Wednesday, April 15, 1874, Judge Whytock, in 
the absence of Baxter's attorneys, overruled the de- 
murrer, giving judgment of ouster against Baxter, 
and instantly Brooks, with an officei', hastened to 
the State house, demanded the surrender of the 
office, and arrested Baxter. Thus a stroke of the 
pen by a mere circuit court judge in banc plunged 
the State into tumult. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



41 



Couriers sped over the city, and the flying news 
gave the people a genuine sensation. Indeed, not 
only Baxter but the State and the nation received 
a great surprise. 

As soon as Baxter was released, though only 
under arrest a few minutes, he fled to St. John's 
College, in the city, and from this headquarters 
called for soldiers, as did Brooks from the 
State house, and alas, poor Arkansas! there were 
now again two doughty governors beating the 
long roll and swiftly forming in the ranks of war. 
Brooks conv^Vted the State bouse and grounds 
into a garrison, while Baxter made headquarters 
at the old Anthonj' Hotel, and the dead-line be- 
tween the armed foes was Main Street. Just in 
time to prevent mutual annihilation, though not 
in time to prevent bloodshed, some United States 
soldiers arrived and took tip a position of armed 
neutrality between the foes. 

If there can be anything comical in a tragedy 
it is furnished just here in the fact that, in the 
twinkling of an eye, the adherents and voters of the 
two governors had changed places, and each was 
now fighting for the man whom he had opposed so 
vehemently. And in all these swift changes the 
supreme court had shown the greatest agility. 
By some remarkable legerdemain, Brooks, who was 
intrenching himself, had had his case again placed 
before the supreme court, and it promptlj' leversed 
itself and decided that the circuit court had juris- 
diction. The wires to Washington were kept hot 
with messages to President Grant and Congress. 
The whole State was in dire commotion with • ' mus- 
tering squadrons and clattering cars. ' ' The fre- 
quent popping of picket guns was in the land; a 
steamboat, laden with arms for Baxter, was at- 
tacked and several killed and many wounded. 
Business was again utterly prostrated and horrors 
brooded over the unfortunate State; and probably 
the most appalling feature of it all was that in the 
division in the ranks of the people the blacks, led 
by whites, were mostly on one side, while the 
whites were arrayed on the other. Congress sent 
the historical Poland Committee to investigate 
Arkansas affairs. President Grant submitted all 
legal questions to his attorney-general. 



The President, at the end of thirty days after 
the forcible possession of theofiice, sustained Bax- 
ter— exit Brooks. The end of the war. the cli- 
max of reconstruction in Arkansas, had come. 
Peace entered as .swiftly as had war a few days be 
fore. The sincerity and intensity of the people's 
happiness in this final ending are found in the fact 
that when law and order were restored no one was 
impeached, no one was imprisoned for treason. 

The report of the Poland Committee, 1874. 
the written opinion of Attorney- General Williams, 
the decision of the Arkansas supreme court by 
Judge Samuel W. Williams, found in Vol. XXIX of 
Arkansas Reports, page 173, and the retiring mes- 
sage of Governor Baxter, are the principal records 
of the literature and history of the reign of the 
dual governors. The students of law and history 
in coming time will turn inquiring eyes with 
curious interest upon these official pages. The 
memory of "the thirty days" in Arkansas will 
live forever, propagating its lessons and bearing 
its warnings; the wise moderation and the spirit 
of forbearance of the people, in even their exult 
ing hour of triumph, will be as beacon light.s 
shining out upon the troubled waters, transmit- 
ting for all time the transcendent fact that in the 
hour of supreme trial the best intelligence of the 
people is wiser than their rulers, better law- 
givers than their statesmen, and incomparably 
superior to their courts. 

The moment that President Grant officially 
spoke, the reconstruction constitution of 180S was 
doomed. True, the people had moved almost in 
mass and without leadership in 1873, and had 
repealed Article YIII of the constitution, disfran- 
chising a large part of the intelligent tax- payers 
of the State. 

The constitutional convention of 1874, with 
the above facts fresh before it, met and promul- 
gated the present State constitution. G. D. Roy- 
ston was president, and T. W. Newton, secr(>tary. 
The session lasted from July 14 to October 31, 
1874. From the hour of its adoption the clouds 
rolled away, and at once commenced the present 
unexampled prosperity of the State. Only here and 
there in Little Rock and other points in the State 



■I'i 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



may one see the mute but eloquent mementos of 
the past, in the dilapidated buildings, confiscated 
during the lifetime of some former owner, may- 
hap, some once eminent citizen, now in his grave 
or self expatriated from a State which his life 
and genius had adorned and helped make great. 
Municipalities and even small remote districts are 
paying off the last of heavy debts of the "flush 
times. ' ' Long suffering and much chastened State 
and people, forgetting the past, and full of hope for 
the future, are fitly bedecking (though among the 
youngest) the queenliest in the sisterhood of States. 
In this connection it will bo of much interest to 
notice the names of those individuals, who, by 
reason of their association with various public 
affairs, have become well and favorably known 
throughout the State. The term of service of each 
incumbent of the respective offices has been pre- 
served and is here given. The following table 
includes the acting Territorial and State governors 
of Arkansas, with date of inauguration, party pol- 
itics, etc: 









-= c = — 




c 


a 


.3^' = 


Sh 




















Ten iiory 


a 


Dale of E-i 


-1 •§! 


2= 


and State. 


"S 


Inauguration. 


a 


I-. I's 


>2 








be 


&S 


— 








.2 


^^ 




-^ 


James Miller... 


App't'd 


March 3, 1810 






George Izard... 


.\pp'ld 


March 4, 1825, 








Johu Pope 


App t'd 


March 9, 182'.i 








Wm. Fulton.... 


Appi'd 


March i>. 18;j5 








J. S. Coiiway.... 


1836 


.Septeuilier 13, 18:i6 4 yrs. 
Novemher 4,184ii4 yrs. 


Dem. 


I,I02M 


7,716 


Archibald Tell. 


184t 


Dem. 






Samuel Adams. 


Acting 


Apr. 29 to Nov. 9, 1844 








T. S. Drew 


1H4 


Novenihi-r .'i, IH44 .'» yrs. 


Dem. 


1,731 P 


17,.387 


J. WUIiamson. 


Acting 


Apr. 9 to May 7, 1S40; 








R, C.Kyid 


.\ciing 


Jan. 11 to A|ir. 19, 1»4<J| 








J. S. Roane 


1849 


April 19, 1849*1 


Dem. 


163 


6,809 


R. C. Byrd 


Acting 


1S49 








J. R. Hamptou 


Acting 


1851 








E. N. Conway.. 


185a 


November l.'i, l»;>a'4 yrs. 


Dem. 


3,027 


27,867 


E. N. Conway.. 


1864 


November 17, IS.'ifi 4 yrs. 


Dem. 


12,363 


43,861 


H. M. Rector... 


1861, 


November l.i, 1860 2 yrs. 


1. D. 


2,461 


61.198 


T. I'letcher 


Acting 


Nov. 4 to Nov. 1,1, 1863 


Con. 


(no re 


cord ) 


11. Flannagin.. 


IKBi 


Noveiiiber 15,1863.3 yrs. 


Con. 


10,013 


2ii,2<;6 


I. Murphy 


1864 


April 18, 18C,4| 


led. 


(no re 


cord) 


P. Clayton 


1868 


July 2, 186SI4 yr.s. 


Rep. 


(noie 


cord 1 


0. A. Hadley... 


Acting 


January 17, 1871,2 yrs. 


Rep. 


(no re 


cord ) 


E. Ha.xter 


1871! 


January 6, 1873)2 yrs. 


Rep. 


2,948 


80,721 


A. H. (iarland. 


1874 


November 13, 1874 2 yrs. 


Dem. 


76,4.53 




W. R. Miller.... 


1876 


January 11, I877|2 yrs. 


Dem. 


32,315 


108,633 


W. R. Miller.... 


1878 


January 17, 1879|2 yrs. 


Dem. 


88,7311 




T. .1. Churchill 


1880 


.lanuary 1.1,1881 


3 yrs. 


Dem. 


.52,761 


115,(119 


.T. 11. Herry 


1882 


January 1.3. I88;j 


2 vrs. 


Dem. 


28,481 


147,169 


n. T. Emiiry... 


Acting 


.Sep, 25 to Sep. 30,1883 










S. P. Hughes... 


1884 


January 17, 1885 


2 yrs. 




45,236 


166,310 


J. W. Staylon.. 


Acting 












S. P. Hugl.es... 


1886 




2 yrs. 


Dem. 


17,411 


163,889 


D. E. Barker... 


Acting 












J. P. Eagle 


1888 




2 yrs. 


Dem 


15.O0C 


187,.-!97 



*fiperiiil plection. 



The secretaries of Arkansas Territory have been : 
Robert Crittenden, appointed March 3, 1819; 
"William Fulton, appointed April 8, 1820; Lewis 
Randol|>h, appointed February 23, 1835. 

Secretaries of State: Robert A. Watkins, 
September 10, 1836, to November 12, 1840; D. 
B. Greer, November 12, 1840, to May 9, 1842; 
John Winfrey, acting. May 9, to August 9, 1842; 
D. B. Greer, August 19, 1840, to September 3, 
1859 (died); Alexander Boileau, September 3, 1829, 
to January 21, 1860; S. M. Weaver, January 21, 
1860, to March 20, I860; John I. Stirman, March 
24, 1860, to November 13, 1862; O. H. Gates, 
November 13, 1862, to April 18, 1864; Robert J. 
T. White, Provisional, from January 24, to January 
6, 1873; J. M, Johnson, January 6, 1873, to No- 
vember 12, 1874; B. B. Beavers, November 12, 
1874, to January 17, 1879; Jacob Frolich, January 
17, 1879, to January, 1885; E. B. Moore, January, 
1885, to January, 1889; B. B. Chism (present in- 
cumbent). 

Territoriiil auditors of Arkansas: George W. 
Scott, August 5, 1810, to November 20, 1829; 
Richard C. Byrd, November 20, 1829, to Novem- 
ber 5, 1831; Emzy Wilson, November 5, 1831, to 
November 12, 1833; William Pelham, November 
12, 1833, to July 25, 1835; Elias N. Conway, 
July 25, 1835, to October 1, 1836. 

Auditors of State: Elias N, Conway, October 

I, 1836, to May 17, 1841; A. Boileau, May 17, 
1841, to July 5, 1841 (acting); Elias N. Conway, 
July 5, 1841, to January 3, 1849; C. C. Danley, 
January 3, 1849, to September 16, 1854 (resigned); 
W. li. Miller, September 16, 1854, to January 23, 
1855; A. S. Huey, January 23, 1855, to January 
23, 1857; W. R. Miller, January 23, 1857, to March 
5, 1860; 11. C. Lowe, March 5, 'i860, to January 24, 
1861 (acting); W. E. Miller, January 24, 1861, to 
ApiillS, 1864; J. R. Berry, April 18, 1864, to Oc- 
tober 15, 1866; Stephen "Wheeler, January 6, 1873, 
to November 12, 1874; W, R. Miller, October 15, 
1866, to July 2, 1868: John Crawford, January 

II, 1877, to January 17, 1883; A. W. Files, Jan- 
uary, 1883, to January, 1887; William R. Miller 
(died in office), January, 1887, to November, 1887; 
W. S. Dunlop, appointed November 30, 1887, to 



,k 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



43 



January, 1889; W. S. Dunlop, January, 188U 
(present incumbent). 

Territorial treasurers: James Scull, August 15, 
1819, to November 12, 1833; S. M. Rutherford, 
November 12, 1833, to October 1, 1836. 

State treasurers: W. E. Woodruff. October 1, 
1836, to November 20, 1838; John Hutt, November 
20, 1838, to February 2, 1843; John C. Martin, 
Febriiary 2, 1843, to January 4, 1845; Samuel 
Adams, January 4, 1845, to January 2, 1849; Will- 
iam Adams, January 2, 1849, to January 10, 1849; 
John H. Crease. January 10, 1849, to January 26, 
1855; A. H. Rutherford, January 27, 1855, to Feb- 
ruary 2, 1857; J. H. Crease, February 2, 1857, to 
February 2. 1859 ; John Quindley, February 2, 1859, 
to December 13, 1860 (died); Jared C. Martin, 
December 13, 1860, to February 2, 1861; Oliver 
Basham, February 2, 1861, to April 18, 1864; E. 
D. Ayers, April 18, 1864, to October 15, 1866; L. 
B. Cunningham, October 15, 1866, to August 19, 
1867 (removed by military); Henry Page, August 
19, 1867 (military appointment), elected 1868 to 
1874 (resigned); R. C. Newton, May 23, 1874, to 
November 12, 1874; T. J. Churchill, November 
12, 1874, to January 12, 1881; W. E. Woodruff, 
Jr., January 12, 1881, to January, 1891. 

Attorneys-general: Robert W. Johnson, 1843; 
George C. Watkins, October 1, 1848; J. J. Critten- 
den, February 7, 1851; Thomas Johnson, Septem- 
ber 8, 1856: J. L. Hollowell, September 8, 1858: 
P. Jordon, September 7. 1861; Sam W. Williams, 
1862; C. T. Jordan, 1864; R. S. Gantt, January 
31, 1865; R. H. Deadman, October 15, 1866; J. R. 
Montgomery, July 21, 1S6S; T. D. W. Yonley, Jan- 
uary 8, 1873; J. L. Witherspoon, May 22, 1874; 
Simon P. Hughes, November 12, 1873, to 1876; W. 
F. Henderson, January 11, 1877, to 1881; C. B. 
Moore, January 12, 1881, to 1885; D. W. Jones, 
January, 18S5, to 1889; W. E. Atkinson. January, 
1889 (present incumbent). 

Commissioners of immigration and of State 
lands: J. M. Lewis, July 2. 1868; W. H. Grey, 
October 15, 1872; J. N. Smithee, June 5, 1874. 

These officers were succeeded by the commis- 
sioner of State lands, the first to occupy this position 
being J. N. Smithee, from November 12, 1874, to 



November 18, 1878; D. W. Lear, October 21, 1878, 
to November, 1882; W. P. Campbell, October 30, 
1882, to March, 1884; P. M. Cobbs, March 31, 
1884, to October 30, 1890. 

Superintendents of public instruction: Thomas 
Smith, 1868 to 1873; J. C. Corbin, July 6, 1873; 
G. W. Hill, December 18, 1875, to October, 1878; 
J. L. Denton, October 13, 1875, to October 11, 
1882; Dunbar H. Pope, October 1 1 to 30, 1882; 
W. E. Thompson, October 20, 1882, to 1890. 

Of the present State officers and members of 
boards, the executive department is first worthy of 
attention. This is as follows: 

Governor. J. P. Eagle; secretary of State, B. 
B. Chism; treasiu-er, William E. Woodniff, Jr.; 
attorney-general, W. E. Atkinson; commissioner 
of State lands, Paul M. Cobbs; superintendent 
public instruction, W. E. Thompson; State geolo- 
gist, John C. Brauner. 

Board of election canvassers: Gov J. P. Eagle, 
Sec. B. B. Chism. 

Board of commissioners of the common school 
fund: Gov. J. P. Eagle, Sec. B. B. Chism, Supt. 
W. E. Thompson. 

State debt board: Gov. J. P. Eagle: Aud. W. 
S. Dunlop, and Sec. B. B. Chism. 

Penitentiary board — commissioners: The Gov- 
ernor; the attorney -general, W. E. Atkinson, and 
the secretary of State. 

Lessee of penitentiary: The Arkansas Indus- 
trial Company. 

Printing board: The Governor, president; W. 
S. Dunlop, auditor, and W. E. Woodruff, Jr., 
treasurer. 

Board of railroad commissioners (to assess and 
equalize the railroad property and valuation within 
the State): The Governor, secretary of State and 
State auditor. 

Board of Trustees of Arkansas Medical College: 
J. A. Dibrell, M. D., William Thompson. M. D.. 
William Lawrence, M. D. 

The Arkansas Stiite University, at Fayetteville. 
has as its board of trustees: \\. M. Fishback, Fort 
Smith; James Mitchell, Little Rock; W. B. 
Welch. Fayetteville; C. M. Taylor. South Bend; 
B. F. Avery, Camden; J. W. Kessee. Latour; Gov. 



44 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Eagle, ex -officio: E. H. Murfree, president, A. I. 
U. ; J. L. Cravens, secretary. 

Of the Pine Bluff Normal, the president is J. 
Corbiu, Pine Bluff; the board is the same as that 
of the State University. 

Board of dental surgery: Dr. L. Augspath, 
Dr. H. C. Howard, Dr. M. C. Mar.'^hall. Dr. L. O. 
Roberts, and Dr. X. N. Hayes. 

State board of health: Drs. A. L. Brey- 
sacher, J. A. Dibrell, P. Van Patten, Lorenzo K. 
Gibson, W. A. Cantrell, V. Bruusou. 

Board of municipal corporations: Ex-officio — 
The Governor, secretary of State and State auditor. 

Board of education: The Governor, secretary 
of State and auditor. 

Board of review for donation contests: The 
Governor, auditor of Slate and attorney-general. 

Board of examiners of State script: The Gov- 
ernor, secretary of State and auditor. 

Reference to the presidential vote of Ai'kansas, 
fi'om the year 1836 up to and including the elec- 
tion of 1888, will serve to show in a general way 
the political complexion of the State during that 
period. The elections have resulted as follows:* 

1836— Van Buren (D), 2,400; Harrison (W), 
1,162; total 3,638. 

1840— Harrison (W), 5,160; Van Buren (D), 
6,049; Birney (A), 889; total 11,209. 

1844 Polk (D), 8,546; Clay (W), 5,5C4; 
total 15,050. 

1848— Taylor (W), 7,588; Cass (D), 9,300; 
total 16.888. 

* Scattering votes not given. 



1852— Pierce (D). 12,170; Scott, 7,404; 
total 19,577. 

1856— Buchanan (D), 21,910; Fillmore, 10,787; 
total 32,697. 

1860 — Douglas (D), 5,227; Breckenridge, 
28,532; Bell, 20,297. 

1864 -No vote. 

1868-Grant (K), 22,112; Seymour, 19.078: 
total 41.190. 

1872— Grant (R), 41.377; Greeley, 37.927; 
total 79,300. 

1876— Tilden (D), 58,360; Hayes (R). 38.669; 
total 97,029. 



42,435; Hancock (D), 
72,927; Blaine, 50,895; 
58,752; Cleveland (D), 



1880— Garfield (R), 
60,475; total, 107,290. 

1884— Cleveland (D). 
total, 125,669. 

1888— Harrison (R), 
88,962; Fisk, 593; total, 155,968. 

In accepting the vote of Arkansas, 1876, objec- 
tion was made to counting it. as follows: "First, 
because the official returns of the election in said 
State, made according to the laws of said State, 
show that the persons certified to the secretary 
of said State as elected, were not elected as 
electors for President of the United States at 
the election held November 5, 1876; and, sec- 
ond, because the returns as read by the tellers 
are not certified according to law. The objec- 
tion was sustained by the Senate but not sus- 
tained by the House of Representatives." 



* "^KS-)ii2V^* * 



f- 



-|^ 



A 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



45 



'-^ 



lifttmi ¥. 



Advancement of the State— Misconceptions Removed— Effects of Slavery upon AoiticrLTURE- 

EXTRAOKDINARY IMPROVEMENT SINCE THE War— ImPOUTANT SUGGESTIONS— COMPARATIVE 

Estimate of Products— Growth of the Manufacturing Interests- 
Wonderful Showing of Arkansas— Its Desirability as a 
Place of Residence— State Elevations. 



Look forwaril what's to ooiiie, and l)ack what's past; 
Thy life will be with praise and prudence graced; 
What loss or gain may follow thou may'st guess, 
Then wilt thou be secure of the success. — Denham. 




EFORE entering directly up- 
on the subject of the mate- 
rial life and growth of Arkan- 
sas, it is necessary to clear 
away at the threshold some 
of the obstructions that have 
lain in its pathway. From 
the earliest settlement slav- 
^M WT^ P^^ ^^y existed, and the nergo 

slave was brought with the 
tirst agricultural communities. Slave 
labor was profitable in but two things 
— cotton and sugar. Arkansas was 
north of the sugar cane belt, but was a 
splendid field for cotton growing. Slave 
labor and white labor upon the farms 
were never congenial associates. These 
things fixed rigidly the one road in the 
agricultui'al progress of the State. 
What was therefore the very richness 
of heaven's bounties, became an incubus upon the 
general welfare. The fertile soil returned a rich 
reward even with the slovenly applied energies of 
the slaves. A man could pay perhaps $1,000 for 
a slave, and in the cotton field, but really nowhere 
else, the investment would yield an enormous profit. 



The loss in waste, or ill directed labor, in work 
carelessly done, or the want of preparation, tools 
or machinery, or any manner of real thrift, gave 
little or no concern to the average agriculturist. 
For personal comfort and large returns upon invest- 
ments that required little or no personal attention, 
no section of the world ever surpassed the United 
States south of the 36° of north latitude. Wealth 
of individuals was rated therefore by the number 
of slaves one possessed. Twenty hands in the cot- 
ton field, under even an indifferent overseer, with 
no watchful car« of the master, none of that saving 
frugality in the farming so imperative elsewhere 
upon farms, returned every year an income whicn 
would enable the family to spend their lives trav- 
eling and sight-seeing over the w'orld. The rich 
soil required no care in its tilling from the owner. 
It is the first and strongest principle in human na- 
ture to seek its desires through the least exertion. 
To raise cotton, ship to market and dispose of it, 
purchasing whatever was wanted, was the inevi- 
table result of such conditions. This was by far the 
easiest mode, and hence manufactures, diversity of 
farming or farming pursuits, were not an impera- 
tive necessity — indeed, they were not felt to be ne- 
cessities at all. The evil, the blight of slavery 



:7- 



46 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



upon the whites, was well understood by the intel- 
ligence of the South, by even those who had learned 
to believe that white labor could not and never 
would be prolitable in this latitude; that — most 
strange! the white man who labored at manual 
lal)or, must be in the severe climate and upon the 
stubborn New England soil. It was simply effect 
following cause which made these people send off 
their childi'en to school, and to buy their every want, 
both necessaries and luxuries — importing hay, corn, 
oats, bacon, mules, horses and cattle even from 
Northern States, when every possible natural ad- 
vantage might be had in producing the same things 
at ho-ne. It was the easiest and cheapest way to do. 
In the matter of dollars and cents, the destroying 
of slavery was, to the farmers of the Upper Missis- 
sippi Valley, a permanent loss. Now the New South 
is beginning to send the products of its farms and 
gardens even to Illinois. The war, the abolition 
of slavery, the return of the Confederates to their 
desolated homes, and their invincible courage in 
rolling up their sleeves and going to work, and the 
results of their labors seen all over the South, form 
one of the grandest disjalays of the development of 
the latent forces of the great American people 
that can be found in history. 

There is not a thing, not even ice, but that, in 
the new social order of Arkansas, it can produce 
for its own use quite as well as the most favored 
of Northern States. The one obstruction in the 
way of the completed triumph of the State is the 
lingering idea among farmers that for the work of 
raising cotton, black labor is better than white. 
This fallacy is a companion of the old notion that 
slavery was necessary to the South. Under proper 
Huspices these two articles of Arkansas — cotton 
iuul lumber — alone may make of it the most pros- 
perous State in the Union ; and the magician's 
wand to transform all this to gold is in securing the 
intelligent laborer of the North, far more than the 
Northern capital prayed for by so many. The North 
lias its homeless millions, and the recent lessons 
in the opening of Oklahoma should be promptly 
appreciated by the people of this State. For the 
next decade to manufacture every pound of cotton 
raised in the State, as. well as husbanding and man- 



ufacturing all the lumber fi-om these grand old for- 
ests, is to solve the questions in the race of State 
prosperity and general wealth among the people. 
When free labor supplanted slave labor what a won- 
derful advance it gave the whole section; when in- 
telligent skilled labor supplants ignorance and un- 
skilled labor, what a transcendent golden epoch 
will dawn. There is plenty of capital to-day in the 
State, if it was only jjut in proper co-operative 
form, to promote the establishment of manu- 
factories that would liberally reward the stock- 
holders, and make them and Arkansas the richest 
people in the world. Such will attract hundreds of 
thousands of intelligent and capable wage workers 
from tlie North, from all over the world, as well as 
the nimble-witted farm labor in the gardens, the 
orchards, the fields and the cotton plantations. This 
will bring and add to the present profits on a bale 
of cotton, the far richer dividend on stocks in fac- 
tories, banks, railroads and all that golden stream 
which is so much of modern increase in wealth. 
The people of Arkansas may just as well have this 
incalculable abundance as to not have it, and at the 
same time pay enormous premiums to others to come 
and reap the golden harvests. Competent labor- 
ers — skilled wage workers, the brawn and brain 
of the land — are telling of their unrest in strikes, 
lockouts, combinations and counter combinations; 
io short, in the conflict of labor and capital, they 
are appealing strongly to be allowed to come to 
Arkansas — not to enter the race against ignorant, 
incapable labor, but simply to find employment and 
homes, where in comfort and plenty they can rear 
their families, and while enriching themselves to 
return profits a thousand fold. Don't fret and 
mope away your lives looking and longing for capi- 
tal to enter and develop your boundless resources. 
Capital is a royal good thing, but remember it is 
even a better thing in your own pockets than in 
some other piu-sou's. Open the way for proper, 
useful labor to come and find emj)loyment ; each 
department, no matter how small or humble the 
beginning, once started will grow rapidly, and the 
problem will have been solved. Onlj^ by the North 
taking the raw product of the South and putting it 
in the hands of skilled labor has their enormous 



k_ 



-—4-^.. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



47 



capital been secured. The protits on high priced 
Labor will always far excel that oa ignorant or cheap 
workmen. The time is now when this kind of 
labor and the small farmers and gardeners are 
awaiting a bidding to enter Arkansas. When the 
forlorn hope returned from the late war, they met 
the stern necessity, and demonstrated the fact that 
here, at least, the people can create their own capi- 
tal. Let them now anticipate the future by this 
heroic triumph of the past. The Gods help those 
only who help themselves. 

"The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, 

but in ourselves." 

To the Northern home- seeker the thing of tirst 
importance is to tell of the temperate climate at all 
seasons, and its extraordinary healthfulness, cur- 
ing him of the false idea spread so wide that the 
topography of the State is seen from the decks 
of steamers, or on the lines of railroad which are 
built along the .swamps and slashes, mostly on ac- 
count of the easy grades on these lines. Then show 
from the records the low rate of taxation and the 
provisions of the law by which high taxation is for- 
ever prevented. From this preliminary may be 
unfolded to him some of the wonderful natural re- 
sources which are awaiting development. Here 
both tongue and pen will fall far short of telling all 
or nearly all. In climate, health, soil, timber, 
minerals, coal, rocks, clays, marls, sand, navigable 
streams, mineral and fresh waters, Arkansas may 
challenge any similar sized spot on the globe. It 
has more miles of navigable streams than any other 
State in the Union, and these are so placed as to 
give the whole territory the advantages thereof, as 
though the engineers had located them. It has 
unequaled water power — the Mammoth Spring 
alone furnishing enough water power to propel all 
the machinery west of the Mississippi River. The 
topograj)hy of the State is one of its most inviting 
features. Its variety in this respect is only equaled 
by the diversity of its soils. The traveler who in 
approaching this section concludes that it consists 
chiefly of swamp bottoms, and water-covered 
slashes, may readily learn from the records that 
three-quarters of the State's .surface is uplands, 
ranging from the gentle swells of prairie and 



woodland to the grandly beautiful mountain scen- 
ery; and on the mountain benches, and at the base, 
are as rich and beautiful valleys as are kissed by the 
rays of the sun in his season's round. Take the 
whole range of agricultural products of Ohio, Ind- 
iana, Illinois and Kansas, and all can lie produced 
(piite as well in Arkansas as in any of these States. 
In the face of this fact, for more than a genera- 
tion Arkansas raised scarcely any of the products 
of these Northern communities, but importeil such 
as it had to have. It could not spare its lands from 
the cultivation of the more profitable crops of 
cotton. In a word, the truth is the State was bur- 
dened with natural wealth — this and slave labor 
having clogged the way and impeded its progress. 
With less labor, more cotton per acre and ])erhand, 
on an average, has been produced in Arkansas than 
in any other Southern State, and its quality has been 
such as to win the prize wherever it has been en- 
tered in competition. Its reputation as a fruit- 
growing State is not excelled. In the New Orleans 
Exposition, in California. Ohio and everywhere en- 
tered, it has taken the premium over all competi- 
tors. Its annual rainfall exceeds that of any South - 
era State, and it cannot, therefore, suffer seriously 
from drouths. There is not a spot upon the globe 
which, if isolated from all outside of its limits, 
could .sustain in health and all the civilized comforts 
a population as large as might Arkansas. Fifty 
thousand people annually come hither and are 
cured, and yet a general nebulous idea prevails 
among many in the North that the health <md cli- 
mate of the State are not good. The statistics of 
the United States Medical Department show the 
mortality rate at Little Rock to be less than at any 
other occupied military post in the coimtry. There 
is malaria in portions of the State, but considering 
the vast bottom stretches of timber-land, and the 
newness of the country's settlement, it is a remark- 
able fact that there is less of this .disease here 
than in Pennsylvania; while all the severer diseases 
of the New England and Northern States, such as 
rheumatism, consumption, catarrh and blood poi- 
son, are always relieved and generally cured in 
Arkansas; malignant scarlet fever and diphtheria 
have never yet appeared. That dreadful deciruator, 



e k^ 



48 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



yellow fever, has only visited the eastern portion of 
the State, but in every case it was brought from 
abroad, and has never prevailed in this locality as an 
epidemic. Therefore, the largest factories, schools 
and universities in the world should be here. The 
densest population, the busiest haunts of men, will 
inevitably come where their rewards will be great- 
est — the struggle for life less severe. Five hun- 
dred inhabitants to the square mile will not put to 
the full test the limitless resources of this wonder- 
ful commonwealth. Ten months of summer with- 
out one torrid day, with invariable cool and re- 
freshing nights, and two mouths only of winter, 
where a man can work out of doors every day in 
the year in comfort, with less cost in physician's 
bills, expense in food, clothing and housing, are 
some of the inducements the State offers to the 
poor man. There are millions of acres of fertile 
lands that are offered almost without money and 
without price; land nearly any acre of which is 
worth more intrinsically than any other similar 
sized body of land in the world. There are 
5,000,000 acres of government lands in the State, 
and 2,000,000 acres of Stiite lands. The rainfall in 
1880 was 40.38; average mean temperature, 58.7"; 
highest, 97.8°; lowest, above zero, 7.6°. Of the 
33,500,000 acres in the State there are soils richer 
and deeper than the Nile; others that excel the 
alluvial corn belt of the Northern States; others 
thatmay successfully compete with the noted Cuba 
or James River, Virginia, tobacco red soil districts, 
or the most noted vineyards of France or Italy. 
Here is the land of wine and silk, where side by side 
will grow the corn and the fig— the land overhung 
with the soft, blue skies, and decked with flowers, 
the air laden with the rich perfumes of the magno- 
lias, on the topujost pinnacle of whose branches the 
Southern mocking-bird by day and by night swells 
its throat with song — 

" Where all, save the spiril ol iiiau. is (iiviiio." 

The artificial and local causes which have ob- 
structed the State's prosperity are now forever 
gone. There is yet the unsolved problem of the 
political negi-o, but this is in Illinois, Kansas and 
Ohio, exactly as it is in Arkansas. It is onlv the 



^^ 



common problem to the Anglo-Saxon of the United 
States, which, in the future as in the past, after 
many mistakes and even great wi-ongs, he will for- 
ever settle and for the best. Throw politics to the 
winds; only remember to profit by the mistakes of 
the North in inviting immigration, and thereby 
avoid the ominous presence of anarchism, socialism, 
and those conditions of social life latent in ' ' the 
conflict of labor and capital." These are some of 
the portentous problems now confronting the older 
States that are absent from Arkansas^ they should 
be kept away, by the knowledge that such ugly 
conditions are the fanged whelps of the great 
brood of American demagogues — overdoses of 
politics, washed down by too much universal vot- 
ing. It is of infinitely more importance to guard 
tax-receipts than the ballot boxes. When vice and 
ignorance vote their own destruction, there need be 
no one to compassionate their miseries, but always 
where taxes run high, people's liberties run low. 
The best government governs the least — the freest 
government taxes the least. 

Offer premiums to the immigration of well- 
informed, expert labor, and small farmers, dairy- 
men, gardeners and horticulturists and small trad- 
ers. Let the 7,000,000 acres of government and 
State lands be given in forty-acre tracts to the 
heads of families, who will come and occupy them. 
Instead of millions of dollars in donations to great 
corporations and capitalists, give to that class which 
will create capital, develop the State, and enrich 
all the people. Railroads and capitalists will fol- 
low these as water runs down the hill. Arkansas 
needs railroads — ten thousand miles yet — it needs 
great factories, great cities, universities of learn- 
ing and, forsooth, millionaires. But its first and 
greatest needs are small farmers, practical toil- 
ers, skilled mechanics, and scattered all over the 
State beginnings in each of the various manufac- 
tures; the beginnings, in short, of that auspicious 
hour when it ceases to ship any of its raw mate- 
rials. It is a law of life, that, in a society where 
there are few millionaires, there are few paupers. 
Where the capital of a country is gathered in vast 
aggregations in the possession of a few. there the 
children cry for bread — the poor constantly in- 



=:x: 



J, 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



49 



crease, wages fall, employment too often fails, and 
the hoarse mutterings of parading mobs and bread 
riots take the places of the laughter and the sougs 
of the laborers to and from the shops and the 
fields. 

The following from the government official re- 
ports of the growth and value of the manufactures 
of the State is to be understood as reaching only 
to 1880, when it had but commenced to emerge 
from the old into the new life: 





S 












DO 


m 




9) 

B 


n 


n 


S 


a 


00 




3 


Year. 


x: 


'S. 


13 




•o 


S 


sQ 


£ 




3 


5 


S 


& 


ja 


fe 




0) 

3 






















w 












> 


^ 


1860 


261 


$ 305,045 


812 


30 




$150,876 
554,240 
fi73,96i 
925,358 


8 215 789 


$ 537,908 
2,880,-578 
4,629,234 
6,756,159 


1860 


518 


1,316,610 
1,782,913 
2,953,130 


1,831 
3,077 
4,307 


46 




1/280.M3 
2,506,998 
4,392,080 


1870 


1,070 


47 


fi? 


1880 


1,202 


90 


160 





Ideas of values are most easily reached by com- 
parisons. The following figures, taken from offi- 
cial government reports, explain themselves: 



Value of 
Farms. 


Machinery 


Live Stock. 


Producls. 




$ 74,249,6.55 
105,932.541 
507,430,227 
235,178,631 
193,724,260 


$ 4.637,497 
7,8211,915 

29,371,884 
9,734.6.34 

13,089,783 


8 20.472,426 
3.3,440,26.1 
124.71,5,103 


S43 796 ''6* 




31,708,914 
36,103.073 






Minnesota , 


31,904,821 49,468,967 



The products are the profits on the capital in- 
vested. Words can add nothing to these figures 
in demonstrating the superiority of Arkansas as 
an agricultural State, except the explanation that 
Southern farming is yet more or less carried on 
under the baneful influences of the days of slavery, 
unintentional indifference and the absence of 
watchful attention by the proprietor. 

Cotton grows finely in all parts of this com- 
monwealth and heretofore in two-thirds of its terri- 
tory it has been the main crop. In the fertile 
bottoms the product per acre has reached as high 
as 2,000 pounds of seed cotton, while on the 
uplands it runs fi-om 600 to 1,000 pounds. The 
census of 1880 shows that Arkansas produces more 
cotton per acre, and at less expense, than any of 
the so-called cotton States. In 1880 the yield 
was TjOS. 256 bales, grown on 1,042,970 acres. That 



year Georgia raised 814,441 bales, on 2,617,138 
acres. The estimated cost per acre of raising cot- 
ton is $0. It will thus be seen that it cost 
$9,444,972 in Georgia to raise 256,185 more bales 
of cotton than Arkansas had grown — much more 
than double the land to produce less than one- 
fourth more cotton. Less than one-twentieth of 
the cotton land of the latter State has been brought 
under cultivation. 

The superiority of cotton here is attested by 
the fact that the greatest cotton thread manufact- 
urers in the world prefer the Arkansas cotton to 
any other in the market. The product has for 
years carried off the first prizes over the world's 
competition. 

The extra census bulletin, 1880, gives the yield 
of corn, oats and wheat products in Arkansas for 
that year as follows: Corn, 24,156,517 bushels; 
oats, 2,219.824 bushels; wheat, 1,269,730 bushels. 
Remembering that this is considered almost ex- 
clusively a cotton State, these figures of the cereals 
will be a genuine surprise. More wheat is grown 
by 40, 000 bushels and nearly three times as much 
corn as were raised in all New England, according 
to the official figures for that year. 

From the United States agricultural reports are 
obtained these interesting statistics concerning the 
money value of farm crops per acre: 





Corn. 


Rye. 


0at«. 


Potatoes.! 


Hay. 


Illinois 


1 6 77 

8 80 

11 52 

6 44 

7 52 
7 91 

11 SI 


$ 6 64 

7 30 
9 08 
5 98 
5 16 
7 32 
9 51 


$ 6 46 $30 32 

5 92i ;«) 08 
7 90 34 4S 

6 12 37 40 
5 34 43 .50 
5 78i 28 08 

11 07 78 631 


1 7 66 
7 66 


Ohio 


9 85 




17 TO 






14 95 


Arkansas 


33 94 



The following is the average cash value per 
acre on all crops taken together: 



Maine $13 51 

New Hampshire.... 13 .56 

Vermont 11 60 

Massachusetts 26 71 

Hhoile Island 29 32 

Connecticut 10 82 

New York 14 15 

New Jersey 18 05 

Penns3'lvania 17 68 

Delaware 15 80 

Maryland 17 82 

VirC'inia 10 91 



Xorlh Carolina $10 79 

Soiilh Carolina 10 Oil 

Georf;ia 10 35 

Florida 8 52 

Alabama 13 49 

Mississippi 14 76 

Louisiana 22 40 

Arkansas 20 40 

Tcnne.ssee 12 39 

West Vir<rinia 12 74 

Kentucky 13 58 

Ohio 15 68 



^ ^ 

^ 



IZ 



50 



HISTORY OF AKKANSAS. 



Michigan Sl8 96 

Indiana 14 66 

Illinois 13 47 

Wisconsin 13 80 

Minnesota 10 29 

Iowa 8 88 

Missouri 10 78 



Kansas f 9 11 

Nebraska 8 60 

Calilornia 17 18 

Oregon 17 11 

Nevada.Colorado and 

the Territories 16 13 

Texas 14 69 



The advance of horticulture in the past decade 
in the State has been extraordinary. Twenty years 
ago its orchard products amounted to very little. 
By the census reports of 1880, the total yield of 
fruit was SS07, 426. This was S 1 00, 000 more than 
the yield of Florida, with all the hitter's immense 
orange groves. As universally as has the State 
been misunderstood, it is probably in reference 
to its fruits and berries that the greatest errors 
have long existed. If one visits the apple and 
peach regions of the North, it is found to be the gen- 
eral belief that Arkansas is too far south to pro- 
duce either, whereas the truth is that, especially 
in apples, it has no equal either in the United 
States or in the world. This fact was first brought 
to public attention at the World's Fair, at New 
Orleans, 1884-85, where the Arkansas exhibit was 
by far the finest ever made, and the State was 
awarded the first premium, receiving the World's 
medal and a special notice by the awarding com- 
mittee. Thus encouraged, the State was repre- 
sented at the meeting of the American Pomological 
Society, in Boston, in September, 1887. Sixty- 
eight varieties of Arkansas seedling apples were in 
the exhibit, to contend with all tlic champion fruit 
growers of the globe. The State won the Wilder 
medal, which is only given by reason of extraor- 
dinary merit, and in addition to this was awarded 
the first premium for the largest and best collection 
of apples, consisting of 128 varieties. 

The collection which won the Boston prizes was 
then shipped to Little Rock, and after being on 
exhibition there twenty days, was re-packed and 
shipped to the National Horticultural meeting in 
California, which met at Riversid(!, February 7, 
1888. Arkansas again won the first prize, invad- 
ing the very home of Pomona, and bearing off the 
first honors as it had in eastern and northern sec- 
tions of the Union. The ' ' Arkansas Shannon ' ' 
is pronounced by competent judges to be the finest 
apple now grown anywhere. 



Strawberries are another late discovery of the 
resom-ces of Arkansas. The yield and quality are 
very superior. So rapidly has the industry grown 
that, during the fruit season, the Iron Mountain 
road runs a special daily fruit train, leaving Little 
Rock late in the afternoon and reaching St. Louis 
early the next morning. This luscious product, of 
remarkal)le size, ripens about the first of April. 

Of all cultivated fruit the grape has held its 
place in poetry and song, in sacred and profane 
history, as the first. It finds in Arkansas the same 
conditions and climate of its native countries, 
between Persia and India. The fruit and its wine 
produced here are said by native and foreign 
experts to eqiial, if not surpass, the most famous of 
Italy or France. The vines are always healthy 
and the fruit perfect. The wild muscadine and 
scuppernong grow vines measuring thirty -eight 
and one-half inches around, many varieties fruit- 
ing here to perfection that are not on the open air 
lists at all further north. 

The nativity of the peach is the same as that 
of the grape, and it, too, therefore, takes as kindly 
to the soil here as does the vine. Such a thing as 
budded jieach trees are of very recent date, and as 
a consequence the surprises of the orchardists in re- 
spect to this fruit are many. Some of the varieties 
ripen in May, and fo far every kind of budded 
peaches Ijrought from the North, both the tree and 
the fruit, have improved by the transplanting. 
The vigor of the trees seems to baffle the borers, 
and no curled leaves have yet been noticed. In 
quality and quantity the product is most encourag- 
ing, and the next few years will see a marked 
advance in this industry. 

For fifty years after the settlement of the State 
peach seedlings were grown, and from these, as in 
the case of the apple, new and superior varieties 
have been started, noted for size, flavor, abundance 
and never failing crops. 

The Chickasaw plum is so far the most sl^c- 
cessfully grown, and is the best. It is a perfected 
fruit easily cultivated, and is fi-ee from the curculio, 
while the trees are healthy and vigorous beyond 
other localities. 

In vegetables and fruits, except the tropical 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



plants, Arkansas is the banner State. In the fruit 
and vegetable kingdom there is found in luxuriant 
growth everything in the long list from corn to the 

The yield and quality of Arkansas tobacco is 
remarkable wlieii it ia remembered that this indus- 
try has received so little attention. Thirty years 
ago State Geologist Owen informed the people 
that he found here th(> same, if not better, tobacco 
soil, than the most favored districts of Cuba. The 
yield of tobacco, in 1880, was 970,230 pounds. 
Yet so little attention or experiment has been given 
the sul)ject that an experimental knowledge of the 
State's resources in this respect cannot be claimed 
to have been gained. 

In 1880 the State produced: Barley, 1,952 
bushels; buckwheat, 548 bushels; rye, 22,387 
bushels; hay. 23,295 tons; Irish potatoes, 492,627 
bushels; sweet potatoes, 881,260 bushels. 

From the census reports of the same year are 
gleaned the following: Horses, total, 146.333 
mules and asses, 87,082; working oxen, 25,444 
milch cows, 249,407; other cattle, 433,392; sheep 
246,757; swine, 1,565,098; wool, 557,368 pounds 
milk, 316,858 gallons; butter, 7,790,013 pounds 
cheese, 26,310 pounds. All parts of the State are 
finely adapted to stock-raising. The excellence 
and abundance of pure water, the heavy growth of 
blue grass, the cane brakes and abundant mast, 
sustain the animals dui'ing most of the winter 
in marketable condition. In respect to all domes- 
tic animals here are presented the same conditions 
as in nearly every line of agriculture — cheapness 
of growth and excellence of quality. 

The improvement in cattle has been retarded 
by the now conceded fact that the "Texas fever" 
is asserted by some to be seated in the State. 
This affects Northern cattle when imported, while 
it has no effect on native animals. Except for this 
unfortunate reality there would be but little time 
lost in developing here the great dairy industry of 
the country. But good graded cattle are now 
being raised in every portion, and so rich is the 
locality in this regard that in stock, as in its fniits, 
care and attention will ])roduce new varieties of 
unrivaled excellence. Arkansas is the natural home 



and breeding ground of animals, all growing to 
groat perfection, with loss care and the least cost. 

Taxes here are not high. The total taxation in 
Illinois in 1880, assessed on real and personal 
property, as per census reports, for State, county 
and all civil divisions less than counties, was 
$24,586,018; the same year in Arkansas the total 
tax was $1,839,090. Farm lands are decreasing 
in value in Illinois nearly as fa.st as they are in 
creasing in Arkansas. The total taxation in the 
United States in 1880 was the enormous sum of 
$312,750,721. Northern cities are growing, while 
their rural population is lessening. The reverse 
of this is the best for a State. The source of ruin 
to past nations and civilizations has all arisen 
from an abuse of the taxing powers. Excessive 
taxation can only end in general ruin. This 
simple but great lesson should be instilled into the 
minds of all youths, crystallized into the briefest 
maxim, and written over every threshold in the 
land; hung in the porches of every institution of 
learning; imprinted upon every plow handle and 
emblazoned on the trees and jutting rocks. The 
State that has taxed its people to build a $25. - 
000,000 State house, has given deep shame to the 
intelligence of this age. Taxes are the insidious 
destroyer of nations and all liberty, and it is only 
those freemen who jealously guard against this 
evil who will for any length of time maintain their 
independence, equality or manhood. 

The grade proiilo of the Momj)his Route shows 
the elevations of the various cities and towns 
along that line to be as follows in feet, the datnna 
plane being tide water of the Gulf of Mexico: 
Kansas City, 765; Rosedale, 825; Merriam, 900; 
Lenexa. 1,040: Olathe, 1.060: Bonita. 1,125: 
Ocheltree, 1,080; Spring Hill, 1.020; Hillsdale. 
900; Paola, 800; Pendleton, 855; Fontana, 925; 
La Cygne, 840; Barnard, 810; Pleasanton, 865; 
Miami, 910; Prescott, 880; Fulton. 820: Ham- 
mond, 875; Fort Scott, 860; Clarksburg, 885; 
Garland, 865; all in Kansas; Arcadia, 820; 
Liberal, 875; lantha, 990; Lamar, 1,000: Keno- 
ma, 980; Golden City, 1,025; Lockwood, 1,065; 
South Greenfield, 1,040; Everton. 1,000; Ash 
; Grove. l,02(t: Boisd'Arc. 1.250; Campbells, 1,290; 



Nichols Junction, 1,280; Springfield, 1.300; Tur- 
ner, 1,210; Rogersville, 1,475; Fordland, 1,600; 
Seymour, 1,680; Cedar Gap, 1,685; Mansfield, 
1,520; Norwood, 1.510; Mountain Grove. 1.525; 
Cabool, 1,250; Sterling, 1,500; Willow Springs, 
1,400; Burnham, 1,360; Olden, 1,280; West 
Plains, 950; Brandsville. 1,000; Koshkonong, 970; 
Thayer, last point in Missouri, 575; Mammoth 



I Spring. Ark., 485; Afton, 410; Hardy, 370; Willi- 
ford, 330; Ravenden, 310; Imboden, 300; Black 
Rock, 290; Portia, 285; Hoxie, 295; Sedgwick, 
270: Bonnerville, 320; Jonesboro, 275; Nettleton, 
250; Big Bay Siding, 250; Hatchie Coon, 250; 
Marked Tree, 250; Tyronza, 240; Gilmore, 225; 
Clarketon, 240; Marion, 235; West Memphis, 200; 
Memphis, 280. 



flllfli. 



♦^v-^* 



Politics— Importance of the Subject— The Two Old Schools of Politicians— Triumph of the 

Jacksonians— Early Prominent State Politicians— The Great Question of Secession 

—The -State Votes to Join the Confederacy— Horror of the War Period— 

The Recon.struction Distress— The Baxtek-Brooks Embroglio. 




In knots tliej- sUmd, or in a rank they walk. 

Serious in aspect, earnest iu their talk; 

Factions, and favouring this or t'other side, 

As their weak fancy or strong reason guide.— Lri/den. 



N one sense there is no 
portion of the history of 
^'iSrk'"^ Arkansas more instructive 
^&:f~ than its political history, 
because in this is the key 
to the character of many 
of its institutions, as well 
as strong indications of the trend of 
the pulilic mind, and the characteris- 
tics of those men who shaped public 
affairs and controlled very largely in 
,^ M iy the State councils. 

^^^^ Iinmodiately upon the formation 
of the Territorial government, the Presi- 
dent of the United States sent to Ar- 
kansas Post Gov. James Miller, Robert 
Crittenden, secretary, and C. Jouett, 
Robert P. Letcher and Andrew Scott, judges, to 
organize the new Territorial government. Gov. 
Miller, it seems, gave little attention to his office. 




and therefore in all the early steps of formation 
Crittenden was the acting governor; and from the 
force of character he possessed, and his superior 
strength of mind, it is fair to conclude that he 
dominated almost at will the early public affairs 
of Arkansas. 

This was at the time of the beginning of the 
political rivalry between Clay and Jackson, two of 
the most remarkable types of great political lead- 
ers this country has produced — Henry Clay, the 
superb; "Old Hickory," the man of iron; the one 
as polished a gem as ever glittered in the political 
heavens — the other the great diamond in the 
rough, who was of the people, and who drew his 
followers with bands of steel. These opposites 
wore destined to clash. It is well for the country 
that they did. 

Robert Crittenden was a brother of John J. 
Crittenden, of Kentucky, and by some who knew 
him long and well he was deemed not only his 



^' 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS 



53 



brother's peer, but in many respects his intellect- 
ual superior. It goes without the saying, he was a 
born Whig, who, in Kentucky's snp«r-loyal fash- 
ion, had Clay for his idol, and, to put it mildly, 
Jackson to dislike. 

President Monroe had appointed the first Terri- 
torial officers, but the fact that Crittenden was 
secretary is evidence that polities then were not 
running very high. Monroe was succeeded in 
1824 by John Quincy Adams. It would seem that 
in the early days in Arkansas, the Whigs stood 
upon the vantage grounds in many important 
respects. By the time Adams was inaugurated 
the war political to the death between Clay and 
Jackson had begun. But no man looked more care 
fully after his own interests than Jackson. He 
had large property possessions just across the line 
in Tennessee, besides property in Arkansas. He 
induced, from his ranks in his own State, some 
young men of promise to come to Arkansas.- The 
prize now was whether this should be a Whig 
or Democratic State. President Adams turned 
out Democratic officials and put in Whigs, and 
Robert Crittenden for a long time seemed to hold 
the State in his hand. Jackson's superiority as a 
leader over Clay is manifested in the struggles 
between the two in Arkansas. Clay's followers 
here were men after his fashion, as were Jackson's 
men after his mold. Taking Robert Crittenden 
as the best type, he was but little inferior to Clay 
himself in his magnetic oratory and purity of prin- 
ciples and public life; while Jackson sent here 
the Seviers, Conways and Rectors, men of the 
people, but of matchless resolution and personal 
force of character. No two great commanders 
ever had more faithful or able lieutenants than 
were the respective champions of Old Hickory 
and Harry of the West, in the formative days of 
the State of Arkansas. The results were, like 
those thoughout the Union, that Jackson triumphed 
in the hard strife, and Arkansas entered the Union, 
by virtue of a bill introduced by James Buchanan, 
as a Jackson State, and has never wavered in its 
political integrity. 

As an evidence of the similarity of the con- 
tests and respective leaders of the two parties 



here to those throughout the country, it is only 
necessary to point out that Crittenden drew to 
his following such men as Albert Pike, a genius 
of the loftiest and most versatile gifts the country 
has so far produced, while Jackson, ever supplying 
reinforcements to his captains, sent among others, 
as secretary of the Territory, Lewis Randolph, 
grandson of Thomas Jefferson, and whose wife 
was pretty Betty Martin, of the White House, a 
niece of Jackson's. Randolph settled in H(>mp- 
stead County when it was an unbroken wilder- 
ness, and his remains are now resting there in an 
unknown grave. 

Clay, it seems, could dispatch but little addi- 
tional force to his followers, even when he saw they 
were the hardest pressed by the triumphant onemj'. 
There was not much by which one could draw 
comparisons between Clay and Jackson — unless 
it was tiieir radical difference. As a great ora- 
tor. Clay has never been excelled, and he lived in 
a day when the open sesame to the world's de- 
lights lay in the silver tongue; but Jackson was 
a hero, a great one, who inspired other born 
heroes to follow him even to the death. 

Arkansas was thus started permanently along 
the road of triumphant democracy, from which 
it never would have varied, except for the war 
times that Ijrought to the whole country such con- 
fusion and political chaos. Being a Jackson 
State, dominated by the blood of the first governor 
of Tennessee — Gen. John Sevier, a man little in- 
ferior to Jackson himself — it was only the most 
cruel circumstance that could force the State into 
secession. When the convention met on the 4th 
of March, 1861, " on the state of the Union," its 
voice was practically unanimous for the Union, 
and that body passed a series of as loyal resolu- 
tions as were ever penned, then adjourning to 
meet again in the May following. The conven- 
tion met May 0, but the war was upon the coun- 
try, and most of the Gulf States had seceded. 
Every one knew that war was inevitable: it was 
already going on. bnt very few realized its immen- 
sity. The convention did not rush hastily into 
secession. An ordinance of secession was intro- 
duced, and for days, and into the nights, run- 






54 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



ning into the small liours, the matter was delib- 
erated upoa — no prelimiuary test vote was forced 
to an issue. Delegates were present in anxious 
attendance from the Carolinas, Alabama and 
Georgia. They knew that the fate of their action 
largely depended upon the attitude of Arkansas. 
If Arkansas voted no, then the whole secession 
mov(!ment would receive a severe blow. The after- 
noon before the final vote, which was to take place 
in the evening, these commissioners from other 
States had made up their minds that Arkansas 
might possil)ly vote down secession. When the con- 
vention adjourned for supper, they held a hurried 
consultation, and freely expressed their anxiety 
at the outlook. It was understood that the dis- 
cussion was closed, and the night session was 
wholly for the purpose of taking a vote. All was 
uncertainty and intense excitement. Expressions 
of deepest attachment to the Union and the old 
flag were heard. The most fiery and vehement 
of the secessionists in the body were cautious and 
deliberative. There was but little even of vehe- 
ment detestation of the abolitionists — a thing as 
natural then for a Southern man to despise as 
hatred is natural to a heated brain. 

At a late hour in the evening, amid the most 
solemn silence of the crowded hall, an informal 
vote was taken. All except six members voted to 
secede. A suppressed applause followed the 
announcement of the vote. A hurried, whispered 
conference went on, and the effort was made to 
have the result unanimous. Now came the final 
vote. When the name of Isaac Muri)hy, afterward 
the military governor, was reached, it was passed 
and the roll call continued. It was so far unani- 
mous, with Mr. Murphy's name .still to call. The 
clerk called it. Mr. Murphy arose and in an 
earnest and impressive manner in a few words ex- 
plained the dilemma he was in. but said, "I cannot 
violate my honest convictions of duty. I vote 
'No.'" 

When the day of reconstruction began, at first 
it was under the supervision of the military, and 
it is yet the greatest pity that Congress did not let 
the military alon(> to rehabilitate the States they had 
conquered. Isaac Murphy was made governor. 



No truer Union man lived than he. He knew the 
people, and his two years of government were 
fast curing the wounds of war. But he was 
turned out of ofi&ce. 

The right to vote compels, if it is to be other 
than an evil, some correct and intelligent under- 
standing of the form of government prevailing in 
the United States, and of the elementary prin- 
ciples of political economy. The ability to read 
and write, own property, go to Congress or edit a 
political jDaper, has nothing to do with it, no more 
than the color of the skin, eyes or hair of the voter. 
The act of voting itself is the sovereign act in the 
economic affairs of the State; but if the govern- 
ment under its existing form is to endure, the 
average voter must understand aad appreciate the 
fundamental principles which, in the providence 
of God, have made the United States the admira- 
tion of the world. 

Arkansas, the Democratic State, was in political 
disquiet from 1861 to 1874 — th? beginning of the 
war and the end of reconstruction. When in the 
hands of Congress it was returned at every regular 
election as a Republican party State. The lirief 
story of the political Moses who led it out of the 
wilderness is of itself a strange and interesting 
commentary on self government. 

When the war came there lived in Batesville 
Elisha Baxter, a young lawyer who had been 
breasting only financial misfortunes all his life. 
Utterly failing as a farmer and merchant, he had 
been driven to study law and enter the practice 
to make a living. An honest, kind-hearted, good 
man, loving his neighbor as himself, but a patriot 
every inch of him, and loving the Union above all 
else, his heart was deeply grieved when he saw 
his adopted State had declared for secession. He 
could not be a diaunionist, no more than he could 
turn upon his neighbors, friends and fellow-citi- 
zens of Arkansas. He determined to wash his 
hands of it all and remain quietly at home. Like 
all others he knew nothing of civil war. His 
neighbors soon drove him from his home and 
family, and, to save his life, he went to the North- 
ern army, then in Southern Missouri. He was 
welcomed and offered a commission in the Federal 



3<i; 



:tz 



2iJf 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



55 



army and an opportunity to rotiirn to his State. 
He declined the offer; he could not turn and shed 
the blood of his old neighbors and former friends. 
In the vicissitudes of war this non couibatunt was 
captured by an Arkansas command, paroled and 
ordered to report to the military authorities at Lit- 
tle Rock. He made his way thither, and was 
thrown into a military prison and promptly indicted 
for high treason. Then only ho began to under- 
stand the temper of the times, for the chances of 
his being hanged were probably as a thousand to 
one to acquittal. In this extremity he broke jail 
and fled. He again reached the Northern army 
in which he accepted a commission, and returned 
to his old home in Batesville, remaining in mili- 
tary command of the place. He was actively 
engaged in recruiting the Union men of Northern 
Arkansas and forming them into regiments. It 
goes without saying that Baxter never raised a 
hand to strike back at those who had so deeply 
wronged him, when their positions were reversed 
and he had the power in his hands. 

At the fall election, 1871, Baxter was the regu- 
lar Republican candidate for governor, and Joseph 
Brooks was the Independent Republican nom- 
inee. The Republican party was divided and each 



bid for the Democratic vote by promises to the 
ex- Confederates. Brooks may have been elected, 
but was counted out. Baxter was duly inaugu- 
rated. ^Vhen he had served a year the politicians, 
it is supposed, who controlled Arkansas, finding 
they could not use Baxter, or in other words that 
they had counted in the wrong man, boldly pro- 
ceeded to undo their own acts, dethrone Baxter and 
put Brooks in the chair of State. An account of 
the Baxter-Brooks war is given in another chapter. 

Thus was this man the victim of political cir- 
cumstances; a patriot, loving his country and his 
neighbors, he was driven from homo and State; a 
non-combatant, he was arrested by his own friends 
as a traitor and the hangman's halter dangled in 
his face; breaking prison and stealing away like a 
skulking convict, to return as ruler and master by 
the omnipotent power of the bayonet; a non-party 
man, compelled to be a Republican in politics, and 
finally, as a Republican, fated to lead the Demo- 
cratic party to success and power. 

The invincible Jacksonian dynasty, built up in 
Arkansas, with all else of pul)lic institutions went 
down in the sweep of civil war. It has not been 
revived as a political institution. But the Demo- 
cratic party dominates the State as of old. 







50 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



eiiiTiit ¥». 



> ♦ < ' 



Societies, State Institutions, etc.— The Ku Klux Klan— Independent Order of Odd Fellows- 
.Vncient, Free and Accepted Masons— Grand Army of the Reitislic- Bureau of Mines- 
Arkansas Agricultural Association.?— State Horticultural Society— The Wheel 
—The State Capital— The Capitol Building— State Librarie.s— State 
Medical Society— State Board of Health— Deaf Mute Institute 
—School for the Blind— Arkansas Lunatic Asylum— Ar- 
kansas Industrial University— The State Debt. 



Heaven forming each on other to depend. 

A master, or a servant, or a friend. 

Bids each on other for assistance call, 

Till one man's weakness grows the strength of all. 



-Pope. 




'I'.CRET societies are a form of 
social life and expressiou which, 
in some mode of existence, 
antedate even authentic his- 
tory. Originally a manner 
of securing defense from the 
common enemies of tribes 
and peoples, they have developed 
into social and eleemosynary insti- 
tutions as advances in civilization 
have been made. At first they 
vpere but a severe necessity, and as 
that time slowly passed away, they 
became a luxury and a pleasure, 
having peculiar and strong attrac- 
tion to nearly all men. That part of 
one's nature which loves to lean 
upon others for aid, even in the social scale, finds 
its expression in some of the many forms of 
societies, clubs, organizations or institutions that 
now pervade nearly all the walks of life. In every 
day existence, in business, church, state, politics 
and pleasure, are societies and organizations every- 
where — for the purposes of gain, charity and 



comfort — indeed, for the sole purpose of finding 
something to do, would be the acknowledgment of 
many a society motto. The causes are as diversi- 
fied as the bodies, secret and otherwise, are 
numerous. 

The South furnishes a most remarkable instance 
of the charm there is in mystery to all men, in the 
rise and spread of the Ku Klux Klan, a few years 
ago. Three or four yoimg men, in Columbia, 
Tenn., spending a social evening together, con- 
cluded to organize a winter's literary society. All 
had just returned from the war, in which they had 
fought for the ' ' lost cause, ' ' and found time 
hanging dull upon them. Each eagerly caught at 
the idea of a society, and soon they were in the 
intricacies of the details. Together, from their 
sparse recollections of their schoolbooks, they 
evolved the curious name for the society. The 
name suggested to them that the sport to be 
derived from it might be increased by making it a 
secret society. The thing was launched upon this 
basic idea. In everything connected with it each 
one was fertile it seems in adding mystery to mys- 
tery in their meetings and personal movements. 



-—-¥■ 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



■01 



The initiation of a new member was made a grand 
and rollicking affair. So complete had the mem- 
bers occasioned their little innocent society to be 
a mystery, that it became in an astonishingly brief 
time a greater enigma to themselves than even to 
outsiders. It swiftly spread from the village to the 
county, from the county to the State, and over -ran 
the Southern States like a racing prairie fire, 
changing in its aims and objects as rapidly as it 
had grown. From simply frightening the poor 
night-prowling darkeys, it became a vast and 
uncontrollable semi-military organization; inflict- 
ing punishment here, and there taking life, until 
the State of Tennessee was thrown into utter con- 
fusion, and the military forces were called out; 
large rewards were ofPered for the arrest even of 
women found making any of the paraphernalia of 
the order. Government detectives sent to pry into 
their secrets were slain, and a general reign of 
terror ensued. No rewards could induce a mem- 
ber to betray his fellows; and the efPorts of the 
organizers to control the storm they had raised, 
were as idle as the buzzing of a summer fly. 
Thousands and thousands of men belonged to 
it. who knew really little or nothing about it, and 
who to this day are oblivious of the true history 
of one of the most remarkable movements of large 
bodies of men that has ever occurred in this or 
perhaps any country. It was said by leading 
members of the order that they could, in twenty- 
four hours, put tens of thousands of men in line of 
battle, all fully armed and equipped. It was 
indeed the "Invisible Empire." By its founders 
it was as innocent and harmless in its purposes as 
a Sunday-school picnic, yet in a few weeks it spread 
and grew until it overshadowed the land — but little 
else than a bloody, headless riot. The imagina- 
tions of men on the outside conjured up the most 
blood-curdling falsehoods as to its doings; while 
those inside were, it seems, equally fertile in 
schemes and devices to further mystify people, 
alarm some and terrify others, and apparently the 
wilder the story told about them, the more they 
would enjoy it. Its true history will long give it 
rank of first importance to the philosophic and 
careful, painstaking historian. 



Among societies of the present day, that 
organization known as the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows is recognized as a prominent one. The 
Grand Lodge of the order in Arkansas was organ- 
ized June 11, 1819. Its first past grand master 
was John J. Horner, elected in 1854. His succes- 
sors to date have been as follows : James A. Henry, 
1858 ; P. O. Hooper, 1859-1800 ; Richard Bragg, 
Sr., 1802; Peter Brugman, 1807, 1868, 1871; Isaac 
Eolsom, 1873; Albert Cohen, 1874; John B. Bond, 
1876; E. B. Moore, 1878; James S. Holmes, 1880: 
Adam Clark, 1881 ; W. A. Jett, 1882 ; James A. 
Gibson, 1884 ; George W. Hurley. 1885 ; H. S. 
Coleman, 1886, and A. S. Jett, 1887. The pres- 
ent able ofi&cers are K. P. Holt, grand master: 
J. P. Woolsey, deputy grand master; Louis C. 
Lincoln, grand warden ; Peter Brugman, grand 
secretary; H. Ehrenbers, grand treasurer; H. S. 
Coleman, grand representative; A. S. Jett, grand 
representative; Rev. L. B. Hawley, grand chap- 
lain; John R. Richardson, grand marshal; J. G. 
Parker, grand conductor; "William Mosby, grand 
guardian ; VV. J. Glenn, grand herald. In the 
State there are eighty-two lodges and a total mem- 
bership, reported by the secretary at the October 
meeting, 1888, of 2,023. The revenue from sub- 
ordinate lodges amounts to $13,832, while the 
relief granted aggregates $2,840. There were 
sixteen Rebekah lodges organized in 1887-88. 

The Masonic fraternity is no less influential 
in the affairs of every part of the country, than the 
society just mentioned. There is a tradition — too 
vague for reliance — that iMasonry was introduced 
into Ai'kansas by the Spaniards more than 100 
years ago, and that therefore the first lodge was 
established at Arkansas Post. Relying, however, 
upon the records the earliest formation of a lodge 
of the order was in 1819, when the Grand Lodge 
of Kentucky granted a dispensation for a lodge at 
Arkansas Post. Robert Johnson was the first mas- 
ter. Judge Andrew Scott, a Federal judge in the 
Territory, was one of its members. But before 
this lodge received its charter, the seat of govern- 
ment was removed to Little Rock, and the Arkan- 
sas Post lodge became extinct. No other lodge 
was attempted to be established until 1836, when 



a) V 



Al 



<5 w. 



-^ 



58 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



a dispensation was granted Washington Lodge No. 
82, at Fayetteville, October 3, 1837. Onesimus 
Evans, was master; James McKissick. senior wai'- 
den; Matbew Leeper, jtinior warden. 

In 1 838 the Grand Lodge of Louisiana granted 
the second dispensation for a lodge at Arkansas 
Post— Morning Star Lodge No. 42; the same year 
granting a charter to Western Star Lodge No. 43, 
at Little Rock. Of this Edward Cross was master; 
Charles L. Jeffries, senior warden; Nicholas Peay, 
junior warden. About this time the Grand Lodge 
of Alabama granted a charter to Mount Horeb 
Lodge, of Washington, Hempstead Count}'. 

November 21, 1838, tliese four lodges hold a 
convention at Little Rock and formed the Grand 
Lodge of Arkansas. 

The representatives at this convention were: 
From Washington Lodge No. 82, of Fayetteville, 
Onesimus Evans, past master; Washington L. Wil- 
son, Robert Bedford, Abraham ANhinnery, Richard 
C. S. Brown, Samuel Adams and Williamson S. 
Oldham. 

From Western Star Lodge No. 43, of Little 
Bock, William Gilchrist, past master; Charles L. 
Jeffries, past master; Nicholas Peay. past master; 
Edward Cross, past master; Thomas Parsol. Alden 
Sprague and John Morris. 

From Morning Star Lodge No 42, of the Post 
of Arkansas, John W. Pullen. 

From Mount Horeb Lodge, of Washington, 
James H. Walker. Allen M. Oakley, Josej)!] \V. Mc- 
Kean and James Trigg. 

Of this convention John Morris, of Western 
Star Lodge No. 43, was made secretary. Mi-. 
Morris is still living (1889), a resident of Auburn, 
Sebastian County, and is now quite an old man. 
Mr. John P. Karns, of Little Rock, was in 
attendance at the convention, although not a dele 
gate. These two are the only ones surviving who 
were present on that occasion. 

The Grand Lodge organized by the election of 
William Gilchrist, grand master; Onesimus Evans, 
d(»pnty grand master; James H. ^^'alker, grand sen- 
ior warden; Wa.shington L. Wilson, grand junior 
warden; Alden Sprague, grand treasurer, and 
George C. Watkins, grand secretary. 



The constituent lodges, their former charters be- 
ing extinct by their becoming members of a new jur- 
isdiction, took new numbers. Washington Lodge, 
at Fayetteville, became No. 1; Western Star, of 
Little Rock, l)ecame No. 2; Morning Star, of the 
Post of Arkansas, became No. 3, and Mount Horeb, 
of Washington, became No. 4. Of these Wash- 
ington No. 1, and Western Star No. 2, are in vig- 
orous life, but Morning Star No. 3, and Mount 
Horeb No. 4, have become defunct. 

From this beginning of the four lodges, with a 
membership of probably 100, the Grand Lodge 
now consists of over 400 lodges, and a member- 
ship of about 12,000. 

The following are the ofiBcers for the present 
year: R. H. Taylor, grand master, Hut Springs; 
J. W. Sorrels, deputy grand master. Farmer, 
Scott County; D. B. Warren, grand lectui'er, 
Gainesville; \V. A. Clement, grand orator. Rover, 
Yell County; W. K. Ramsey, grand senior ward- 
en, Camden; C. A. Bridewell, grand junior ward- 
en, Hope; George H. Meade, grand treasurer. Lit- 
tle Rock; Fay Hempstead, grand secretary. Little 
Rock; D. D. Leach, grand senior deacon, Augusta; 
Samuel Peete, grand junior deacon, Batesville; H. 
W. Brooks, grand chaplain, Hope; John B. Baxter, 
grand marshal, Brinkley; C. C. Hamby, grand 
sword bearer. Prescott; S. Solmson, senior grand 
steward, Pine Bluff: A. T. Wilson, junior grand 
steward, Eureka Springs; J. C. Churchill, grand 
pursuivant. Charlotte. Independence County: Ed. 
Metcalf, grand tyler. Little Rock. 

The first post of the Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic, Department of Arkansas, was organized under 
authority from the Illinois Commandery, and called 
McPherson Post No. 1, of Little Rock. The 
district then passed undei' command of the Depart- 
ment of Missouri, and by that authority was or- 
ganized Post No. 2, at Fort Smith. 

The Provisional Department of Arkansas was 
organized June 18, 1883, Stephen Wheeler being 
department commander, and C. M. Vaughan, adju- 
tant general. A State encampment was called to 
meet at Fort Smith. July 11, 1883. Six posts were 
represented in this meeting, when the following 
State officers were elected: S. Wheeler, com- 



\ 



mander; M. Mitchell, senior vice; R. E. Jackson, 
junior vice; H. Stone, quartermaster, and the 
following council: John F. Owen, A. S. Fowler, 
W. \V. Bailey, A. Walrath, Bonton Turner. 

There are now seventy- four posts, with a mem- 
bership of 2,500, in the State. The present offi- 
cers are: Department commander, A. S. Fowler; 
senior vice commander, John Vaughan; junior vice 
commander, E. A. Ellis; medical director, T. G. 
Miller; chaplain, T. R. Early. 

The council of administration includes A. A. 
Whissen, Thomas Boles, W. S. Bartholomew, R. 
E. Renner and I. B. Lawton. The following were 
the appointments on the staff of the department 
commander: Assistant adjutant-general, N.W. Cox; 
assistant quartermaster-general, Stephen Wheeler; 
judge advocate, S. J. Evans; chief mustering 
officer, S. K. Robinson; department inspector, 
R. S. Curry. Headquarters were established at 
Little Rock, Ark. 

There are other bodies in the State whose aims 
and purposes differ materially fi'om those previously 
mentioned. Among these is the Arkansas Bureau 
of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture, which 
was organized as a State institution at the session 
of the legislature in 1889. The governor ap- 
pointed M. F. Locke commissioner, the latter mak- 
ing M. W. Manville assistant. They at once pro- 
ceeded to organize the department and open an 
office in the State-house.- The legislature appro- 
priated for the next two years for the bureau the 
sum of 118,000. 

This action of the legislature was in response 
to a demand from all parts of the State, which, 
growing in volume for some time, culminated in 
the meeting in Little Rock of numerous promi- 
nent men, and the organization of the Arkansas 
State Bureau of Immigration, January 31, 1888. 
A demand from almost every county prompted 
Gov. Senior P. Hughes to issue a call for a State 
meeting. The meeting was composed only of the 
best representative citizens. Gov. Hughes, in his 
address, stated that "the State should have an 
agricultural, mining and manufacturing bureau, 
which should be a bureau of statistics and immi- 
gration, also." Hon. Logan H. Roots was elected 



president of the convention. He voiced the pur- 
poses of the meeting still further when he said, 
"We want to educate others on the wealth-mak- 
ing properties of our State." A permanent State 
organization was effected, one delegate from each 
county to constitute a State Board of Immigra- 
tion, and the following permanent officers were 
chosen: Logan H. Roots, of Little Rock, presi- 
dent; Dandridge McRao, of Searcy, vice-president; 
H. L. Remrael, of Newport, secretary ; George R. 
Brown, of Little Rock, treasurer; J. H. Clen- 
dening, of Fort Smith, A. M. Crow, of Arkadel- 
phia, W. P. Fletcher, of Lonoke, additional exec- 
utive committee. The executive committee issued 
a strong address and published it extensively, giv- 
ing some of the many inducements the State had 
to offer immigrants. The legislature could not 
fail to properly recognize such a movement of the 
people, and so provided for the long needed bu- 
reau. 

Arkansas Agricultural Association was organ- 
ized in 1885. It has moved slowly so far, but is 
now reaching the condition of becoming a great 
and prosperous institution. The entire State is soon 
to be made into sub-districts, with minor organ- 
izations, at least one in each Congressional district, 
with a local control in each, and all will become 
stockholders and a part of the parent concern. 
A permanent State fair and suitable grounds and 
fixtures are to be provided in the near future, when 
Arkansas will successfully vie with any State in 
the Union in an annual display of its products. , 

The officers of the Agricultural Association for 
1889, are as follows: Zeb. Ward, president. Little 
Rock; B. D. Williams, first vice-president. Little 
Rock; T. D. Culberhouse, vice-president First 
Congressional district; D. McRae, vice president 
Second Congressional district; W. L. Tate, vice- 
president Third Congressional district ; J. J. Sump- 
ter, vice-president Fourth Congressional district; J. 
H. Vanhoose, vice-president Fifth Congressional 
district; M. W. Manville, secretary; D.W. Bizzell, 
treasurer. 

Arkansas State Horticultural Society was or- 
ganized May 24, 1879, and incorporated Januarj- 
31. 1889. Under its completed organization the 



» V 



first fair was held ia Little Rock, commencing 
Wednesday, May 15, 1889. President, E. F. Bab- 
cock; secretary, M. AV. Manville; executive com 
mittee, S. H. Nowlin, chairman, Little Rock; 
George P. C. Rumbough, Little Rock; Rev. S. H. 
Buchanan, Little Rock; E. C. Kiuney, Judsonia, 
and Fred Dengler, Hot Springs, constitute the 
official board. 

In 1881 three farmers of Prairie County met 
and talked over farm matters, and concluded to 
organize a society for the welfare of the farming 
community. The movement grew with astonish- 
ing rapidity. It was organized as a secret, non- 
political society, and in matters of trade and com- 
merce proposed to give its members the benefit 
of combination. In this respect it advocated ac- 
tion in concert with all labor unions or organiza- 
tions of laborers. A State and National organiza- 
tion was effected, and the sub-organizations, ex- 
tending to the smallest school districts, were re- 
quired to obtain authority and report to the State 
branch and it in return to the National head. Thus 
far its originators sought what they believed to be 
the true co-operative method in their business af- 
fairs. 

The next object was to secure beneficial legis- 
lation to farmers — each one to retain his polit- 
ical party affiliations, and at the ballot-box to vote 
for either farmers or those most closely identified 
with their interests as might be found on the 
respective party tickets. 

The officers of the National society are: Isaac 
McCracken, president. Ozone, Ark., and A. E. 
Gardner, secretary and treasurer, Dresden, Tenn. 
The Arkansas State "Wheel officers are: L. P. 
Featherstone, president, Forrest City; R. H. 
Morehead, secretary, White Chapel, and W. H. 
Quayle, treasurer, Ozan. 

The scheme was inviting to honest farmers and 
the humble beginning soon grew to be a most pros- 
perous society — not only extending over the State, 
but reaching boldly across the line into other 
States. When at the zenith of its prosperitj', it 
is estimated there were 60,000 members of the 
order in A rkansas. This was too tempting a pros- 
pect for the busy political demagogues, and to the 



amazement of the better men in the society, they 
soon awoke to the fact that they were in the hands 
of the wily politicians. It is now estimated that 
the ranks in Arkansas are reduced to 20,000 or 
less — all for political causes. The movement now 
is to purge the society of politics and in the near 
future to meet the Farmer's Alliance in St. Louis, 
and form a combination of the two societies. It 
is hoped by this arrangement to avoid the dema- 
gogues hereafter, and at the same time form a 
strong and permanent society, which will answer 
the best interests of the farming community. 

As stated elsewhere, the location of a capital 
for Arkansas early occupied the attention of its 
citizens. On November 20, 1821, William Rus- 
sell and others laid off and platted Little Rock 
as the future capital of the Territory and State. 
They made a plat and a bill of assurances thereto, 
subdividing the same into lots and blocks. They 
granted to Pulaski County Lots 3 and 4 in trust 
and on the conditions following, viz. : ' ' That the 
said county of Pulaski within two years" should 
erect a common jail upon said Lots 3 and 4. Out 
of this transaction grew a great deal of litigation. 
The fir.st jail was built of pine logs in 1828. It 
stood until 1837, when it was burned, and a brick 
building was erected in its stead. This stood for 
many years, but through the growth of the city, it in 
time became a public nuisance and was condemned, 
and the location moved to the present site of the 
stone jail. 

The Territory was organized by Congress in 
1819, and the seat of government located at the 
Post of Arkansas. In the early part of 1820 
arose the question of a new site for the seat of 
government, and all eyes turned to Pulaski County. 
A capital syndicate was formed and Little Rock 
Bluff fixed upon as the future capital. The one 
trouble was that the land at this point was not yet 
in market, and so the company secured ' ' sunk land 
scrip" and located this upon the selected town 
site. The west line of the Quapaw Indian reser- 
vation struck the Arkansas River at "the Little 
Rock" and therefore the east line of the contem- 
plated capital had to be west of this Quapaw line. 
This town survey "west of the point of rocks, 



9 \- 



M 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



r.i 



immediately south of the Arkansas River, and 
west of the Quiipaw line," was surveyed and re- 
turned to the recorder at St. Louis as the new town 
site and Territorial capital — called Little Rock. 
The dedication of the streets, etc. , and the plat as 
laid off, was dated November 10, 1821. Grounds 
were given for a State house, and other public 
buildings and purposes, and for " the permanent 
seat of justice of said county (Pulaski)" was ded- 
icated an entire half square, ' ' bounded on the north 
by Markham Street and on the west by Spring 
Street and on the south by Cherry (now Second) 
Street" for court house purposes. In return the 
county was to erect a court house and jail on the 
lots specified for these purposes, ' ' within ten 
years from the date hereof. ' ' A market house was 
to be erected by the city on Lots 4 and 5, Block 99. 
The latter in time was built on these lots, the upjjer 
story containing a council chamber, which was in 
public use until 1864, when the present city hall 
was erected. 

By an act of the legislature, October 24, 1821, 
James Billingsly, Crawford County, Samuel C. 
Roane, Clark County, and Robert Bean, Inde- 
pendence County, were appointed commissioners, 
" to fix on a proper place for the seat of justice of 
the County of Pulaski;" the act further specify- 
ing ' ' they shall take into consideration donations 
and future divisions." Th"^ latter part of the 
sentence is made still more important by the fact 
that at that time the western boundary of Pulaski 
County was 100 miles west, at the mouth of Petit 
Jean, and the eastern boundary was a few miles 
below Pine Bluff. 

October 18,1820, the Territorial seat of govern- 
ment was removed from the Post of Arkansas to 
the Little Rock, the act to take effect June 1, 1821. 
It provided ' ' that there shall be a bond » » * 
for the faithful performance of the promise and 
good faith by which the seat of government is 
moved. ' ' 

In November, 1821 , about the last of the belong- 
ings of the Territorial capital at the Post were 
removed to Little Rock. It was a crossing point 
on the river of the government road leading to 
Missouri, and the place had often been designated 



as the "Missouri Crossing," but the French had 
generally called it Arkapolis. 

During the short time the Territorial capital 
was at Arkansas Post, no effort was made to erect 
public buildings, as from the first it was under- 
stood this was but a temporary location. When 
the capital camo to Little Rock a one-story double 
log house was liuilt, near the spot where is now 
the Presbyterian Church, or near the corner of 
Scott and Fifth Streets. This building was in 
the old style of two rooms, with an open space 
between, but all under the same roof. In 1826 
the log building was superseded by a one-story 
frame. March 2, 1831, Congress authorized the 
Territory to select ten sections of land and appro- 
priate the same toward erecting capitol buildings; 
and in 1832 it empowered the governor to lease 
the salt springs. With these different funds was 
erected the central building of the present capitol, 
the old representative hall being where is now the 
senate chamber. In 1836, when Arkansas became 
a State, there was yet no plastering in any part of 
the brick building, and in the assembly halls were 
plain pine board tables and old fashioned split 
bottomed chairs, made in Little Rock. 

In 1886,at the remarkably small cost of $35,000, 
were added the additions and improvements and 
changes in the capitol buildiug, completing it in 
its present form. And if the same wisdom con- 
trols the State in the future that has marked the 
past, especially in the matter of economy in its 
public buildings, there will be only a trifling 
additional expenditure on public Viuildings during* 
the next half century. The State buildings are 
sufiicient for all public needs; their plainness and 
cheapness are a pride and glory, fitting monuments 
to the past and present generation of rulers ami 
law makers, testifying to their intelligence and 
integrity. 

The State library was started March 3, 1838, at 
first solely as a reference and exchange medium. 
It now has an annual allowance of $100, for pur- 
chasing books and contains 25,000 volumes, really 
more than can suitably be accommodated. 

The Supreme Court library was established in 
January, 1851. It has 8,000 volumes, including 






02 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



all the reports iind tlio leading law works. The 
fees of attorneys' license upon admission to the 
bar, of ten dollars, and a dollar docket fee in each 
case in court, constitute the fund provided for the 
library. 

The State Medical Society, as now constituted, 
was formed in May. 1875. It held its fourteenth 
annual session in 1889, at Pine Bluff. Edward 
Bentley is the acting president, and L. P. Gibson, 
secretary. Subordinate societies are formed in all 
parts of the State and are represented by regular 
delegates in the general assemblies. In addition to 
the officers for the current year above given are 
Z. Orts, assistant secretary, A. J. Vance, C. S. 
Gray, B. Hatchett and W. H. Hill, vice presidents 
in the order named. 

The State Board of Health was established by 
act of the legislature, March 23, 1881. It is com- 
posed of six commissioners, appointed by the gov- 
ernor, "a majority of whom are to be medical grad- 
uates and of seven years ' practice in the profes- 
sion. " The board is required to meet once in 
every three months. The secretary is allowed a 
salary of $1,000 per annum, but the others receive 
no compensation except traveling expenses in the 
discharge of official duties. 

The present board is composed of Dr. A. L. 
Breysacher, president ; Dr. Lorenzo R. Gibson, sec- 
retary ; Doctors J. A. Dibrell, P. Van Patton, W. 
A. Cantrell and V. Brunson. 

The beginning which resulted in the present 
elegant State institution for deaf mutes was a school 
established near the close of the late war, in Little 
Rock, by Joseph Mount, an educated mute, who 
gathered a few of those unfortunate ones together 
and taught a private school. The State legislature 
incorporated the school and made a small provision 
for it, July 17, 18(58, the attendance that year 
being four pupils. The buildings are on the beau- 
tiful hill just west of the Union Depot, the im- 
provement of the grounds being made in 1869. . 
The attendance in 1870 was 48 pupils, which in 
the last session' s report, 1888, reached the number 
of 109; and the superintendent, anticipating an at- 
tendance for the current two years of 150, has 
solicited appropriations accordingly. 



The board of trustees of the Deaf Mute Insti- 
tute includes: Hon. George E. Dodge, president; 
Col. S. L. Griffith, vice-president; Maj. R. H. Par- 
ham, Jr., secretary; Hon. W. E. WoodiufF, treas- 
urer; Maj. George H. Meade and Col. A. R. Witt. 
The officers are: Principal, Francis D. Clarke; 
instructors: John W. Michaels, Mrs. I. H. Carroll, 
Miss Susan B. Harwood, Miss Kate P. Brown, Miss 
Emma Wells, S. C. Bright; teacher of articulation, 
Miss Lottie Kirkland. Mrs. M. M. Beattie is 
matron; Miss Luciuda Nations, assistant ; Miss 
Clara Abbott, supervises the sewing, and Mrs. 
Amanda Harley is housekeeper. The visiting phy- 
sician is J. A. Dibrell, Jr. , M. D. ; foreman of the 
printing office, T. P. Clarke; foreman of the shoe 
shop, U. G. Dunn. Of the total appropriations 
asked for the current two years, $80,970, $16,570 
is for improvements in buildings, grounds, school 
apparatus, or working departments. 

The Arkansas School for the Blind was incor- 
porated by act of the legislature, February 4, 1859, 
and opened to pupils the same year in Arkadel- 
phia. In the year of 1868 it was removed to Little 
Rock, and suitable grounds purchased at the foot 
of Center Street, on Eighteenth Street. 

This is not an asylum for the aged and infirm, 
nor a hospital for the treatment of disease, but a 
school for the young of both sexes, in which are 
taught literature, music and handcraft Pupils 
between six and twenty-sis years old are received, 
and an oculist for the purpose of treating pupils 
is a part of its benefits; no charge is made for 
board or tuition, but fi'iends are expected to fur 
nish clothing and traveling expenses. 

It is estimated there are 300 blind of school 
age in the State. The legislature has appro- 
priated $140 a year for each pupil. On this allow- 
ance in two years the steward reported a balance 
unexpended of $1,686.84. In 1886 was appro- 
priated $6,000 to build a workshop, store-room, 
laundry and bake-oven. In 1860 the attendance 
was ten — five males and five females; in 1802, 
seven males and six females. The year 1888 
brought the attendance up to fifty males and fifty- 
two females, .or a total of 102. During the last 
two years six have graduated here— three in the 



r^ 




industrial department, and three in the industrial 
and literary department. Four have been dis- 
missed on account of recovered eyesight. 

The trustees of the school are: J. R. Right- 
sell, S. M. Marshall, W. C. Ratcliffe, J.W. House, 
and D. G. Fones; the superintendent being John 
H. Dye. 

Another commendable institution, carefully 
providing for the welfare of those dethroned of 
reason, is the Arkansas State Lunatic Asylum, 
which was authorized by act of the legislature of 
1873, when suitable grounds were purchased, and 
highly improved, and buildings erected. The in 
stitution is three miles west of the capitol and one- 
half mile north of the Mount Ida road. Eighty acres 
of ground were originally purchased and enclosed 
and are now reaching a high state of improve- 
ment. The resident population of the asylum at 
present is 500 souls, and owing to the crowded 
conditions an additional eighty acres were pur- 
chased in 1887, making in all 160 acres. A care- 
ful inquiry shows there are in the State (and not in 
the asylum, for want of room) 198 insane persons, 
entitled under the law to the benefits of the insti- 
tution. Of the 411 patients in the asylum in 1888, 
only four were pay patients. 

John G. Fletcher, R. K. Walker, A. L. Brey- 
sacher, John D. Adams and William J. Little are 
trustees of the institution, while Dr. P. O. Hooper 
is superintendent. 

In 1885 the legislature made an appropriation 
of $92, 500 for the erection of additional buildings 
and other needed improvements. This fund was 
not all used, but the remainder was returned into 
the State treasury. The total cuiTent expenses for 
the year 1887 aggregated $45, 212. 00. The current 
expenses on patients the same year were $29, 344. 80. 
The comfort of the unfortunates — the excellence of 
the service, the wholesome food given them, and at 
the same time the minimum cost to the tax payers, 
prove the highest possible commendation to those 
in charge. 

The Arkansas Industrial University is the prom- 
ise, if not the present fultilhnont, of one of the 
most important of State institutions. It certainly 
deserves the utmost attention from the best people 



of the State, as it is destined to become in time one 
of the great universities of the world. It should 
be placed in position to be self-supporting, be- 
cause education is not a public pauper and never 
can be permanently successful on charity. Any 
education to be had must be earned. This law of 
nature can no more be set aside than can the law 
of gravitation, and the ignorance of such a simple 
fact in statesmen and educators has cost our civili- 
zation its severest pains and penalties. 

The industrial department of the institution 
was organized in June, 1885. The act of incor- 
poration provided that all males should work at 
manual labor three hours each day and be paid 
therefor ton cents an hour. Seven thousand 
dollars was appropriated to equip the shops. Prac- 
tical lalior was defined to be not only farm and 
shop work, but also surveying, drawing and labor- 
atory practice. Mechanical arts and engineering 
became a part of the curriculum. The large major- 
ity of any people must engage in industrial pur- 
suits, and to these industrial development and 
enlightenment and comfort go hand-in-hand. 
Hence the real people's school is one of manual 
training. Schools of philosophy and literature will 
take care of themselves; thit)kof a school (classical) 
endeavoring to train a Shakespeare or Burns! To 
have compelled either one of these to gi-aduate at 
Oxford would have been like clipping the wings 
of th(f eagle to aid his upward flight. In the edu- 
cation at least of children nature is omnipotent and 
pitiless, and it is the establishment of such train- 
ing schools as the Arkansas Industrial University 
that gives the cheering evidence of the world'l 
progress. In its continued prosperity is hope for 
the near future; its failure through ignorance or 
bigotry in the old and worn out ideas of the dead 
past, will go far toward the confirmation of the 
cruel cynicism that the most to be pitied animal 
pell-melled into the world is the new-born babe. 

The University is situated at Fayetteville, 
Washington County. It was organized by act of 
the legislature, based on the "Land Grant Act" 
of Congress of 1802, and supplemented by liberal 
donations from the State, the County of Wash- 
ington, and the city of Fayetteville. The school 



r 



04 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



was opened in 1872. March 30, 1877, the legisla- 
ture passed the act known as the " Barker Bill," 
which made nearly a complete change in the pur- 
view of the school and brought prominently for- 
ward the agricultural and mechanical departments. 
"To gratify our ambitious" [but mistaken] 
' ' youth, ' ' says the prospectus, ' ' we have, under 
Section 7 of the act, provided for instruction in the 
classics." 

Under the act of Congress known as the 
'•Hatch Bill," an Agricultural Experimental Sta- 
tion has been organized. Substantial buildings 
are now provided, and the cost of board in the in- 
stitution is reduced to $8 per month. The attend- 
ance at the present time is ninety-six students, 
and steps are being taken to form a model stock- 
farm. The trustees, in the last report, say: " We 
recommend that girls be restored to the privi- 
leges of the institution." The law only excludes 
females from being beneficiaries, and females may 
still attend as pay students. 

A part of the University is a branch Normal 
School, established at Pine Bluff, for the purpose 
of educating colored youth to be school teachers. 
These Normal Schools have for some years been 
a favorite and expensive hobby in most of the 
Northern States. There is pi'obably no question 
that, for the promotion of the cause of education 
among the negroes, they offer unusual attractions. 

The following will give the reader a clear com- 
prehension of the school and its purposes. Its 
departments are: 

Mechanic arts and engineering, agriculture, 
experiment station, practical work. English and 
modern languages, biology and geology, military 



science and tactics, mathematics and logic, prepara- 
tory department, drawing and industrial art, and 
music. 

To all these departments is now added the med- 
ical department, located at Little Rock. This 
branch was founded in 1871, and has a suitable 
building on Second Street. The tenth annual 
course of lectures in this institution commenced 
October 3, 1888; the tenth annual commencement 
being held March 8, 1889. The institution is self- 
supporting, and already it ranks among the fore- 
most medical schools in the coimtry. The graduat- 
ing class of 1888 numbered twenty. 

The State Board of Visitors to the medical 
school are Doctors W. W. Hipolite, W. P. Hart, 
W. B. Lawrence, J. M. Keller, I. Folsom. 

The debt of Arkansas is not as large as a cur- 
sory glance at the figures might indicate. The 
United States government recently issued a statis- 
tical abstract concerning the public debt of this 
State that is very misleading, and does it a great 
wrong. In enumerating the debts of the States it 
puts Arkansas at $12,029, 100. This error comes 
of including the bonds issued for railroad and levee 
purposes, that have been decided by the Supreme 
Court null and void, to the amount of nearly 
$10, 000, ()()(). They are therefore no part of the 
State indebtedness. 

The real debt of the State is 12,111,000, 
including principal and accumulated interest. 
There is an amount in excess of this, if there is 
included the debt due the general government, 
but for all such the State has counter claims, and 
it is not therefore estimated in giving the real 
indebtedness. 







^^ 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



65 




The Bench and BAR-A^f Analytic View of the Profession of Law-Spanish and French Laws- 
English Common Law-The Legal Circuit Riders-Territorial Law and Lawyers 
—The Court Circuits— Early Couiit Ofkicers— Thk Supkkme Court— Promi- 
nent Members of the State Bknch and Bar— The Standard 
of the Execution of Law in the State. 



Laws do not put the least restraint 
Upon our freedom, but maintain 't; 
Or it tliey do, 'tis for our good. 
To give us freer latitude: 
For wholesome laws preserve us free 
By stinting of our liberty. — Butler. 




HE Territory when under 
Sjiauish or French rule 
was governed by much the 
same laws and customs. 
The home government ap- 
pointed its viceroys, who 
were little more than nomi- 
under the control of the 
^ king, except in the general laws 
'■ of the mother country. The neces- 
** sary local provisions in the laws 
*" were not strictly required to be 
'^Q submitted for approval to the mas- 
,5T-ter powers before being enforced 
in the colony. Both govern- 
ments were equally liberal in 
bestowing the lands upon sub- 
jects, and as a rule, without cost. But the shadow 
of feudal times still lingered over each of them, 
and they had no conception that the real people 
would want to be small landholders, supposing 
that in the new as in the old world they would 
drift into villanage, and in some sense be a part 
of the possession of the landed aristocracy. Hence, 



these governments are seen taking personal charge 
as it were of the colonies; providing them masters 
and protectors, who, with government aid, would 
transport and in a certain sense own them and 
their labor after their arrival. The grantee of cer- 
tain royal rights and privileges in the new world 
was responsible to the viceroy for his colony, and 
the viceroy to the king. The whole was anti-doin- 
ocratic of course, and was but the continued and 
old, old idea of " the divine rights of rulers." 

The commentaries of even the favorite law- 
writers to-day in this democratic country ar« 
blurred on nearly every page with that monstrous 
heresy, "the king can do no wrong" — the gov- 
erning power is infallible, it needs no watching, no 
jealous eye that will see its errors or its crimes ; a 
fetich to be blindly worshiped, indiscriminately, 
whether it is an angel of mercy or a monster of 
evil. When Cannibal was king he was a god, with 
no soul to dictate to him the course he pursued. 
"The curiosities of patriotism under adversity" 
just here suggests itself as a natural title-page to 
one of the most remarkable books yet to be written. 

The bench and bar form a ver}' peculiar result 



<i k^ 



Of) 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



of modern civilization — to-day fighting the most 
heroic battles for the poor and the oppressed ; to- 
morrow, perhaps, expending equal zeal and elo- 
quence in the train of the bloody nsui'per and ty- 
rant. As full of inconsistencies as insincerity it- 
self, it is also as noted for as wise, conservative and 
noble efforts in behalf of our race as ever distin- 
guished piitriot or sage. 

The dangers which beset the path of the law- 
yer are a blind adherence to precedent, and a love 
of the abstruse technicalities of the law practice. 
When both or either of these infirmities enter the 
soul of the otherwise young and rising practitioner, 
his usefulness to his fellow man is apt to bo perma 
nently impaired. He may be the "learned judge,"' 
but will not be the great and good one. 

The history of the bench and bar should be 
an instructive one. The inquirer, commencing in 
the natural order of all real history, investigating 
the cause or the fountain source, and then follow- 
ing up the effects flowing from causes, is met at 
the threshold with the question. Why ? What 
natural necessity created this vast and expensive 
supernumerary of civilization ? The institution in 
its entirety is so wide and involved, so comprehen- 
sive and expensive, with its array of court officials, 
great temples, its robes, ermine and wool-sacks; its 
halls, professors, schools and libraries, that the 
average mind is oppressed with the attempt to 
grasp its outlines. In a purely economic .sense it 
produces not one blade of grass. After having 
elucidated this much of the investigation as l)e.st 
he can, he comes to a minor one, or the details 
of the subject. For illustration's sake, let it be 
assumed that he will then take up the considera- 
tion of grand juries, their origin, history and present 
necessity for existence. These are mere hints, but 
such as will arrest the attention of the student of law 
of philosophical turn of mind. They are nothing 
more than the same problems that come in every 
department of history. The school of the lawyer 
is to accept precedent, the same as it is a common 
human instinct to accept what comes to him from 
the fathers — assuming everything in its favor and 
combating everything that would dispute "the 
old order." It is the exceptional mind which 



looks ancient precedent in the face and asks ques- 
tions, AVhence r Why ? Whither ? These are gen- 
erally inconvenient queries to indolent content, 
but they are the drive- wheels of moving civiliza- 
tion. 

One most extraordinary fact forever remains, 
namely, that lawyers and statesmen never unfolded 
the science of political economy. This seems a 
strange contradiction, but nevertheless it is so. 
The story of human and divine laws is much alike. 
The truths have not been found, as a rule, by the 
custodians of the temples. The Rev. Jaspers are still 
proclaiming ' ' the world do move. ' ' Great states- 
men are still seriously regulating the nation's 
' ' balance of trade, ' ' the price of interest on money, 
and through processes of taxation enriching peo- 
ples, while the dear old precedents have for 100 
years been demonstrated to be myths. They are 
theoretically dead with all intelligent men, but 
are very much alive in fact. Thus the social 
life of every people is full of most amusing curi- 
osities, many of them harmless, many that are not. 

The early bench and liar of Arkansas produced 
a strong and virile race of men. The pioneers of 
this important class of community possessed vigor- 
ous minds and bodies, with lofty ideals of personal 
honor, and an energy of integrity admirably fitted 
to the tasks set before them. 

The law of the land, the moment the Louisi- 
ana purchase was effected, was the English com- 
mon law, that vast and marvelous structure, the 
growth of hundreds of years of bloody English 
history, and so often the apparent throes of civil- 
ization. 

The circuit riders composed the first bench 
and bar liere, as in all the western States. In 
this State especially the accounts of the law prac- 
tice—the long trips over the wide judicial circuits; 
the hardships endured, the dangers encountered 
from swollen streams ere safe bridges spanned 
them; the rough accommodations, indeed, some- 
times the absence of shelter from the raging ele- 
ments, and amid all this their jolly happy-go-lucky 
I life, their wit and fun, their eternal electioneering, 
for every lawyer then vras a ])olitician; their quick- 
ened wits and schemes and devices to advantage 



^ s 



}£. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



(•.7 



each other, both in and out of the courts, if all 
could be told in detail, would read like a fascinat- 
iii<>- romance. These riders often traveled in com- 
panies of from three to fifteen, and among them 
would be found the college and law school gradu- 
ates, and the brush graduates, associated in some 
cases and opposed in oth(ir8. And here, as in all 
the walks of life, it was often found that the rough, 
.self educated men overmatched the graduates in 
their fiercest contests. While one might understand 
more of the books and of the learned technicalities 
of law, the other would know the jury best, and 
overthrow his antagonist. In the little old log 
cabin court rooms of those days, when the court 
was in session, the contest of the legal gladiators 
went on from the opening to the closing of the 
term. Generally the test was before a jury, and 
the people gathered from all the surrounding coun- 
try, deeply interested in every movement of the 
actors. This was an additional stimulus to the 
lawyer politicians, who well understood that their 
ability was gauged by the crowd, as were their suc- 
cesses before the jury. Thus was it a combination 
of the forum and "stump." Here, sometimes in 
the conduct of a noted case, a seat in Congress 
would be won or lost. A seat in Congress, or on 
the "wool sack," was the ambition of nearly every 
circuit rider. Their legal encounters were fought 
out to the end. Each one was dreadfully in earn- 
est — he practiced no assumed virtues in the strug- 
gle; battling as much at least for himself as his 
client, he would yield only under compulsion, even 
in the minor points, and, unfortunately, sometimes 
in the heat of ardor, the contest would descend 
from a legal to a personal one, and then the handy 
duello code was a ready resort. It seems it was 
this unhappy mixture of law and politics that 
caused many of these bloody personal encounters. 
In the pure practice of the law, stripped of polit- 
ical bearings, there seldom, if ever, came misunder- 
standings. 

They must have been a fearless and earnest 
class of men to brave the hardships of professional 
life, as well as mastering the endless and involved 
intricacies of the legal practice of that day. The 
law then was but little less than a mass of un- 



meaning technicalities. A successful practitioner 
required to have at his fingers' ends at least Black- 
stone' s Commentaries and Chitty's Pleadings, and 
much of the wonders contained in the Rules of 
Evidence. Libraries were then scarce and their 
privations here were nearly as great as in the com- 
mon comforts for ' ' man and boast. ' ' There have 
been vast improvements in the simplifying of the 
practice, the abolition of technical pleadings es- 
pecially, since that time, and the young attorney 
of to-day can hardly realize what it was the pio- 
neers of his profession had to undergo. 

A judicial circuit at that early day was an im- 
mense domain, over which the bench and bar 
regularly made semi-annual trips. Sometimes 
they would not more than get around to their 
starting point before it would be necessary to 
go all over the ground again. Thus the court was 
almost literally "in the saddle." The saddle-bags 
were their law offices, and some of them, upon 
reaching their respective county-seats, would sig- 
nalize their brief stays with hard work all day in 
the court-room and late roystering at the tavern 
bar at night, regardless of the demurrers, pleas, 
replications, rejoinders and sur-rejoinders, declara- 
tions and bills that they knew must be confronted 
on the morrow. Among these jolly sojourners, 
' ' during court week ' ' in the villages, dignity and 
circumspection were often given over exclusively 
to the keeping of the judge and prosecutor. Cir- 
cumstances thus made the bench and bar as social 
a set as ever came together. To see them return- 
ing after their long journeyings, sunburned and 
weatherbeaten, having had but few advantages of 
the laimdry or bathtub, they might have passed for 
a retm-ning squad of cavalry in the late war. One 
eccentric character made it a point never to start 
with any relays to his wardrobe. When he reached 
home after his long pilgrimage it would be noticed 
that his clothes had a stuffed appearance. The 
truth was that when clean linen was needed he 
bought new goods and slipped them on over the 
soiled ones. He would often tell how he dreaded 
the return to his home, as he knew that after his 
wife attended to his change of wardrobe he was 
"most sure to catch cold." 



r'T 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



A 



On one occasion two members of the bar met 
at a county seat where court was in session a week. 
They had cume from opposite directions, one of 
them riding a borrowed horse seventy miles, while 
the other on his own horse had traveled over 100 
miles. Upon starting home they unwittingly ex- 
changed horses, and neither discovered the mistake 
until informed by friends after reaching their des- 
tination. The horses could hardly have been more 
dissimilar, but the owners detected no change. It 
was nearly the value of the animals to make the 
return exchange, yet each set out, and finally re- 
turned with the proper horse. No little ingenuity 
must have been manifested in finally unraveling 
the great mystery of the affair. 

Surrounded as they were with all these ill con- 
ditions, as a body of men they were nevertheless 
learned in the law, great in the forum, able and 
upright on the bench. Comparisons are odious, 
but it is nothing in disparagement to the present 
generation of courts and lawyers, to say that to be 
equally great and worthy with these men of the 
early bench and bar of Arkansas, is to exalt and 
ennoble the profession in the highest degree. 

Sixty years have now passed since the first 
coming of the members of this calling to the State 
of Arkan.sas. In 1S19 President Monroe appointed 
James Miller, governor, Robert Crittenden, secre- 
tary, and Charles Jouitt, Andrew Scott and Robert 
P. Letcher, judges of the Superior Court, for the 
new Territory of .\rkansas. All these, it seems, 
except Gov. Miller, were promptly at the post of 
duty and in the discharge of their respective offices. 
In the absence of Mr. Miller, Mr. Crittenden was 
acting governor. These men not only constituted 
the first bench and bar, but the first Territorial offi- 
cials and the first legislature. They were all lo- 
cated in the old French town of Arkansas Post. 
The lawyers and judges were the legislative body, 
which enacted the laws to be enforced in their re- 
spective districts. At their first legislative session 
they established but five statute laws, and from 
this it might be inferred that there wore few and 
simple laws in force at that time, but the reader 
will remember that from the moment of the Louis- 
iana ])urchase all the new territory passed under 



the regulation and control of the English common 
law — substantially the same system of laws then 
governing England. 

It is a singular comment on American juris- 
prudence that this country is still boasting the pos- 
session of the English habeas corpus act, wrung 
by those sturdy old barons from King John, — a 
government by the people, universal suffrage, 
where the meanest voter is by his vote also a sov- 
ereign, and therefore he protects himself against 
— whom? — why, against himself by the English 
habeas corpus act, which was but the great act of 
a great people that first proclaimed a higher right 
than was the " divine right of kings. ' ' When these 
old Englishmen presented the alternative to King 
John, the writ or the headsman's ax, he very sensi- 
bly chose the lesser of the two great inconven- 
iences. And from that moment the vital meaning 
of the phrase "the divine right of kings" was 
dead in England. 

In America, where all vote, the writ of habeas 
corpus has been time and time again suspended, 
and there are foolish men now who would gladly 
resort to this untoward measure, for the sake of 
party success in elections. There is no language of 
tongue or pen that can carry a more biting sar- 
casm on our boasted freemen or free institutions 
than this almost unnoticed fact in our history. 

One of the acts of the first legislative session 
held in August, 1819, was to divide the Territory 
into two judicial circuits. As elsewhere stated, the 
counties of Arkansas and Lawrence constituted the 
First circuit; Pulaski, Clark and Hempstead Coun- 
ties forming the Second. 

The judges of the Superior Courts were as- 
signed to the duties of the different circuits. At 
the first real Territorial legislature, composed of 
representatives elected by the people, the Territory 
was divided into three judicial circuits. The 
courts, however, for the diffei'ent circuits, were all 
held at the Territorial capital. There was no cir- 
cuit riding, therefore, at this time. 

Judicial circuits and judges residing therein 
were not a piirt of judiciary affairs until 1823. The 
judges of the First circuit from that date, with time 
of appointment and service, were : T. P. Eskridge, 



\ 



December 10, 1823; Andrew Scott, April 11, 1827; 
Sam G. Roane, April 17, 1829-36. The list of 
prosecuting attorneys includes: AV. B. R. Horner, 
November 1, 1823; Thomas Hubbard, November 
5, 1828, to February 15, 1832; G. D. Royston, 
September 7, 1833; Shelton Watson, October 4, 
1835; A. G. Stephenson, January 23, 1836. 

Of the Second circuit the judges were: Richard 
Searcy, December 10, 1823, and J. W. Bates, 
November, 1825, to 1836; while the prosecuting 
attorneys were R. C. Oden, November 1, 1823; A. 
H. Sevier, January 19, 1824 (resigned); Sam C. 
Roane, September 26. 1826; Bennett H. Martin, 

January 30, 1831 ; Alssalom Fowler, ; D. L. 

F. Roy.ston, July 25, 1835; Townsend Dickin- 
son, November 1. 1823; A. F. May, March 29, 
1825 (died in office); W. H. Parrott, April 21, 
1827; S. S. Hall, August 31, 1831; J. W. Robert- 
son, September 17, 1883; E. B. Ball, July 19, 
1836. 

Samuel S. Hall was judge of the Third circuit, 
serving from December, 1823, to 1836. As pros- 
ecuting attorneys, are found the names of T. Dick- 
inson, January 10, 1823; A. D. G. Davis, June 
21, 1829; S. G. Sneed, November 11, 1831; David 
Walker, September 13, 1833; Thomas Johnson, 
October 4, 1835; W. F. Denton, January 23, 1836. 

The appointment of Charles Caldwell as judge 
of the Fourth circuit dates from December 27, 
1828; while E. T. Clark, February 13, 1830; J. C. 
P. Tolleson, February 1, 1831; and W. K. Sebas- 
tian, from January 25, 1833, served as prosecuting 
attorneys. 

The Supreme Court of Arkansas has ever com- 
prised among its members men of dignity, wisdom 
and keen legal insight. The directory of these 
officials contains the names of many of those whose 
reputation and influence are far more than local. 
It is as follows: 

Chief justices: Daniel Ringo, 1836; Thomas 
Johnson. 1844; George C. Watkins, 1852 (re- 
signed); E. H. English, 1854 (also Confederate); 
T. D. W. Yonley. 1864 (Murphy constitution); E. 
Baxter, 1861 (under Murpliy regime); David 
Walker, 1866 (ousted by military); W. W. Wil- 
shire, 1868 (removed); John McClure, 1871, (re- 



moved); E. H. English, 1874. Sterling' R. (Jock 
rill is present chief justi- 

Associato justices: Thomas J. Lacey, 1836: 
Townsend Dickinson, 1836; George W. Paschal. 
1842; W. K. Sebastian, 1843; W. S. Oldham, 
1845; Ed ward Cross, 1845; WilliamConway, 1846; 
C. C. Scott, 1848; David Walker, 1847 and 1874; 
Thomas B. Hanley, 1858 (resigned); F. I. Batson. 
1858 (resigned); H. F. Fairchild, 1860 (died): 
Albert Pike, 1861 (al.so Confederate); J. J. Clen- 
denin, 1866 (ousted); T. M. Bowen, 1868; L. 
Gregg, 1868; J. E. Bennett, 1871; M. L. Steph 
enson, 1872; E. J. Searle, 1872; W. M. Harrison, 
1874; J. T. Bearden, 1874 (appointed); Jesse 
Tui-ner, 1878; J. R. Eakin, 1878; AV. W. Smith, 
1882; B. B. Battle, 1885, re-elected. By law 
three additional judges were elected April 2, 1889: 
Simon B. Hughes, W. E. Hemingway and Mont. 
H. Sandels. 

Reporters: Albert Pike, N. W. Cox, E. H. 
English, J. M. Moore, L. E. Barber, B. D. Turner 
and W. W. Mansfield (present incumbent). 

Clerks: H. Haral.son, L. E. Barber. N. W. Cox, 
and W. P. Campbell (in office). 

Special chief justices: William Story, F. W. 
Compton, J. L. Witherspoon, S. H. Hempstead. 

C. B. Moore, Thomas Johnson, R. A. Howard, 
George A. Gallagher, B. B. Battle. Sam W. Will- 
iams, A. B. Williams, G. N Cousin, Isaac Strain. 
N. Haggard, Edward Cross, R. C- S. Brown, L. 
A. Pindall, Sam C. Roane, George Conway, Sack- 
field Macklinin, John Whytock, C. C. Farrelley, 
W. W. Smith, W. I. Warwick, B. B. Morse, B. 

D. Turner, George W. Caruth, S. H. Harring- 
ton. 

In this list are the names of nearly all early 
members of the Arkansas bar. Commencing here 
as young attorneys in their profession, many of 
them have loft illustrious n.'imes — names that adorn 
the history of the State and Nation, and time 
will not dim nor change the exalted esteem now 
given them. Not one of them but that was an ex- 
ample of that wonderful versatility of American 
genius — the young lawyer l>i'oomiiig great in the 
practice of his profession in the wild wood: or cel- 
ebrated on the bench for decisions that came to the 



<s »^ 



70 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



world like beacon lights from the unknown land; 
or as senators holding civilized people apell-bouud 
bj' their wisdom and eloquence; and all, at all times, 
listening for their country's call to play as con- 
spicuous a part in camp and field as they bad in 
the walks of civil life. To undertake all these 
things is not wonderful with a people so cosmopol- 
itan as those of the west, but to be preeminent in 
each or all alike is most remarkable. 

Of this brilliant galaxy of pioneer legal lights 
— giants indeed- — there now remain as a connect- 
ing link with the present generation only the ven- 
erable Gen. Albert Pike, of Washington City, and 
Judge Jesse Turner, of Van Buren. 

Writing in a reminiscent way of the bench and 
bar, Albert Pike says: " M'hen I came to the bar 
there were William Cummins, Absalom Fowler, 
Daniel Ringo, Chester Ashley, and Samuel Hall, 
at Little Rock. I served on a jury in 183-1 where 
Robert Crittenden was an attorney in the case; the 
judge was Benjamin Johnson, who died in Decem- 
ber, 1834, at Vicksburg. Parrott and Oden died 
before I went to Little Rock. Judge William 
Trimble was an old meml)er of the bar when I en- 
tered it, as was Col. Horner, of Helena. Thomas 
B. Hanley had recently come to Helena from Louis- 
iana. I think Maj. Thomas Hubbard and George 
Conway were practicing at Washington in 1835. 
Judge Andrew Scott had been Territorial judge, but 
retired and lived in Pope County. Frederick W. 
Trapnall and John W. Cocke came from Kentucky 
to Little Rock in 1836, and also William C. Scott 
and his partner, Blanchard. I think Samuel H. 
Hempstead and John J. Clendenin came in 1836. 
John B. Floyd lived and practiced law in Chicot 
County." Gen. Pike further mentions Judge David 
Walker, John Linton, Judges Hoge and Sneed, 
John M. Wilson, Alfred W. Wilson, Ai'chibald 
Yell, Judge Fowler, Judge Richard C. S. Brown, 
Bennett H Martin, Philander Little, Jesse Turner 
and Sam W. Williams as among the eminent law- 
yers of the early courts of Arkansas. 

The list of those who have occupied positions 
as circuit judges and prosecuting attorneys in the 
various circuits, will be found of equal interest 
with the names mentioned in connection with a 



higher tribunal. It is as below, the date affixed 
indicating the beginning of the term of service: 

Judges of the First circuit: W. K. Sebastian, 
November 19, 1840; J. C. P. Tolleson, February 
8, 1 843 ; John T. Jones, December 2, 1842 ; Mark W. 

Alexander, ; George W. Beasley, September 

6, 1855; C. W. Adams, November 2, 1852; Thomas 

B. Hanley, ; E. C. Bronough, August 25, 

1858; O. H. Gates, March 3, 1859; E. C. Bronough, 
August 23, 1860; Jesse M. Houks, September 17, 
1865; John E. Bennett, July 23, 1868; C. C. Wat- 
ers, February 23, 1871; M. L. Stephenson, March 
24, 1871; W. H. H. Clayton, March 10, 1873; J. 
N. Cypei-t, October 31, 1874; M. T. Saunders, 
October 30, 1882. Prosecuting attorneys: W. S. 
Mosley, November 14, 1840; A. J. Greer, Novem- 
ber 9, 1841; S. S. Tucker, January 20, 1840: 
Alonzo Thomas, August 5, 1842; W. N. Stanton, 
December 2, 1842; N. M. Foster, December 4, 
1843; A. H. Ringo, March 2, 1849; H. A. Bad 
ham, March 12, 1851; L. L. Mack, September 
6, 1855; S. W. Childress, August 30, 1856; Lin- 
coln Featherstone, August 23, 1860; Z. P. H Farr, 
December 1, 1862; B. C. Brown, January 7, 1865; 
P. O. Thweat, October 15, 1866; C. B. Fitzpatrick, 
March 16, 1871; W. H. H. Clayton, March 23, 
1871; Eugene Stephenson, April 23, 1873; C. A. 
Otey, October 31, 1874; D. D. Leach, October 13, 
1876; P. D. McCulloch (three terms); Greenfield 
Quarl^s, October 30, 1884; S. Brundridge, October 
30, 1886. 

Judges of the Second circuit: Isaac Baker, 
November 23, 1840; John C. Murray, August 18, 
1851; W. H. Sutton, January 11, 1845; John C. 
Murray, August 22, 1858; Josiah Gould, Febru- 
ary 26, 1849; W. M. Harrison, May 17, 1865; 
T. F. Sorrells, August 22, 1853; W. C. Hazeldine, 
April 14, 1871; J. F. Lowery, December 12, 
1863; L. L. Mack, October 3l', 1874; William 
Story, July 23, 1868; W. F. Henderson, April 26, 
1874; J. G. Frierson, October 31, 1882; W. A, 
Case, vice Frierson, deceased, March 17, 1884, 
elected September 1, 1884; J. E. Riddick, Oc- 
tober 30, 1886. Prosecuting attorneys: John S. 
Roane, November 15, 1840; Samuel Wooly, Sep- 
tember 19, 1842; J. W. Bocage, November 20, 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



71 



1843; S. B. Jones, April 20, 184(5; T. F. Sorrells, 
February 26, 1849; W. P. Urace, August 22, 
1858; S. F. Arnett, August 23, 1850; D. W. 
Carroll, August 30, 1860: C. G. Goddeu, May 17, 
1865; W. F. Slemmons, October 15, 1866; D. 
D. Leach, December 16, 1868; R. H. Black. May 
6. 1873; J. E. Riddick, October 13, 1870; W. A. 
Gate, October 14, 1878; E. F. Brown, May 5, 
1870; W. B. Edrington (four terms). October 30, 
1880; J. D. Block, October, 1888. 

Judges of the Third circuit: Thomas Johnson, 
November 13, 1840; William Conway, November 
15, 1844; W. C. Scott, December 11, 1846; R. 
H. Nealy, February 28, 1851 ; W. C. Bevins, August 
23, 1856; W. R. Cain, August 23, 1860; L. L. 
Mack. March 15. 1806; Elisha Baxter, July 23, 
1868: James W. Butler, March 10, 1873; William 
Byers, October 30, 1874; R. H. Powell (threo 
terms). October 30, 1882; J. W. Butler, May, 1887. 
Prosecuting attorneys: N. Haggard, November 30, 
1840; S. S. Tucker, January 20, 1842; S. H. 
Hempstead. February, 1842; A. R. Porter, Decern 
ber 2, 1842; S. C.Walker, December 2, 1846; J. H. 
Byers. March 5, 1849; W. K. Patter.son, August 
30. 1856; F. W. Desha, August 30, 1860; L. L. 
Mack, July 8, 1861; T. J. Ratcliff, July 9, 1865; 
M. D. Baber, October 15, 1866; W. A. Inman, 
December 8, 1868; J. L. Abernathy, October 31, 
1874; Charles Coffin, October 14, 1878; M. N. 
Dyer (two terms), October 30, 1882; W. B. Padgett, 
October 30, 1886; J. L. Abernathy, October, 1888. 

Judges of the Fourth circuit: J. M. Hoge, 
November 13, 1840; S. G. Sneed, November 18, 
1844; A. B. Greenwood, March 3, 1851; F. I. 
Batson, August 20, 1853; J. M. Wilson, Febru 
ary 21, 1859; J. J. Green, August 23, 1800; Y. 
B. Sheppard, May 9, 1803; Thomas Boles, 
August 3, 1865; W. N. May. April 24, 1868; 
M. L. Stephenson, July 23, 1868; C. B. Filz- 
patrick, March 23, 1871; J. Huckleberry, April 
10, 1872; J. M. Pittman, October 31, 1874; J. H. 
Berry, October 21, 1878; J. M. Pittman (three 
terms), October 31, 1882. Prosecuting attorneys: 
Alfred M. Wilson, November 13, 1840; A. B. 
Greenwood, January 4, 1845; H. F. Thomasson, 
September 6. 1853; Lafayette Gregg. August 23, 



1856; B. J. Brown, December 1, 1802; J. E. 
Cravens, January 7, 1865; Squire Boon, October 
15, 1806; Elias Harrell, August 11, 18(38; S. W. 
Peel, April 26, 1873; E. I. Stirman, October 13. 
1876; H. A. Dinsmoro (three terms), October 14, 
1878; J. Frank Wilson, October 30, 1884; J. W. 
Walker, October 30, 1866; S. M. Johnson. Octo 
ber 30, 1888. 

Judges of t)ie Fifth circuit: J. J. Cleudenin, 
December 28, 1840; W. H. Field, December 24, 
1846; J. J. Clendenin, September 6, 1854; Liberty 
Bartlett, November 12, 1854; E. D. Ham, July 23, 
1868; Benton J. Brown, September 30, 1874; AV. 
W. Mansfield, October 31, 1874; Thomas W. 
Pound, September 9, 1878; W. D. Jacoway, Oc- 
tober 31, 1878; G. S. Cunningham (three terms), 
October 31, 1882. Prosecuting attorneys: R. W . 
Johnson, December 29, 1840; George C. Watkius, 
January 11, 1845; J. J. Clendenin. February 17, 
1849, to 1854; J. L. Hollowell, September 8, 1858, 
to 1860; Sam W. Williams, May 10, 1860; Pleas- 
ant Jordan, September 7, 1861 ; Sam W. Williams, 
July 6, 1863; John Whytock, December 19, 1865; 
R. H. Dedman. October 15, 1866; N. J. Temple, 
August 15, 18(38; Arch Young, August 24, 1872; 
Thomas Barnes, April 23, 1873; J. P. Byers, Oc- 
tober 31, 1873; A. S. McKennon, October 14, 
1878; J. G. Wallace (two terms), October 31, 
1882; H. S. Carter, October 30, 1886. • 

Sixth circuit — judges: William Conway, De- 
cember 19, 1840; John Field, February 3, 1843: 
George Conway, August 1, 1844; John Quillin. 
March 2, 1849; Thomas Hubbard, August 22, 
1854; A. B. Smith, February 7, 1856; Shelton Wat- 
son, September 26, 1858; Len B. Green, April 5, 
1858; A. B. Williams, January 28, 1865; J. T. 
Elliott, October 2, 1865; J. J. Clendenin, October 
31, 1874; J. W. Martin. October 31, 1878; F. T. 
Vaughan, October 31, 18S2; J. W. Martin, Octo- 
ber 30, 1886. Prosecuting attorneys: G. D. Roys- 
ton, November 11, 1840; O. F. Rainy, June 12, 
1843; Isaac T. Tupper, January 18, 1844; A. W. 
Blevins, January 11, 1847; E. A. Warner, March 
3, 1851; Orvillo Jennings, August 23, 1853; E. 
W. Gantt, August 22, 1854; James K. Yoimg, 
August 30. 1800; Robert Carrigau, September 13, 



72 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



1865; J. F. Ritchie. October 15, 1866; T. B. Gib 
son. January 11, 1868; Charles C. Reid, Jr., April 
30, 1871; F. T. Vaughan, September 18. 1876; 
T. C. Trimble, September 30, 1878; F. T. Vaughan, 
September 30, 1880; T. C. Trimble, October 31, 
1882; R. J. Lea. October 30, 1884; Gray Carroll. 
October 30, 1886; R. J. Lea, October 30, 1888. 

Seventh circuit — judges; R. C. S. Brown, 1840; 
W. W. Floyd. November 30, 1S46. (December 
20, 1849, the State was redi.stricted into six cir- 
cuits. Hence this was abolished for the time.) 
William Byers, July 8, 18(')1; R. H, Powell. May 
11, 1866; John Whytock, July 23, 1868; J. J. 
Clendenin, May 29, 1874; Jabez M. Smith, Oc 
tober 31, 1874; J. P. Henderson (three terms), Oc- 
tober 31, 1882. Prosecuting attorneys: John M. 
Wilson, November 20, 1840; J. M. Tebbetts, De- 
cember 5. 1844; Elisba Baxter, December 7, 1861: 
W. B. Padgett. August 29, 1865; W. R. Coody. 
October 15, 1866; E. W. Gantt, July 31, 1868; 
J. M. Harrell, May 5, 1873; M. J. Henderson. 
October 31, 1874; James B. Wood, October 14. 
1878; J. P. Henderson (three terms), October 31, 
1882: W. H. Martin, October 30, 1888. 

Eighth circuit — judges: C. C. Scott, December 
2, 1846; William Davis. July 8, 1848 (abolished 
December 20, 1849); James D. Walker, July 25. 
1861; Elias Harrell, May 8, 1865; William Story, 
March 27, 1867; E. J. Earle, July 23, 1868; T. G. 
T. Steele, February 23, 1873; L. J. Joyner. Octo- 
ber 31, 1874; H. B. Stuart, October 31, 1878; 
R. D. Hearn, October 30, 1886. Prosecuting attor- 
neys: Richard Lyons, February 5, 1847; N. W. Pat- 
terson, October 25, 1865; C. G. Reagan, January 
7, 1865; J. C. Pratt, July 23, 1868; T. M. Gun- 
ter, October 15, 1866; Duane Thompson. January 
4, 1874: George A. Kingston, July 26. 1871; J. 
D. McCabe, October 31, 1874; J. H. Howard, April 
26, 1873; Rufus D. Hearn (three terms), July 6, 
1874; Lafayette Gregg, November 13. 1862; W. 
M. Green (three terms), October 30, 1884. 

Ninth cireuit^udges: H. B. Stuart, Novem- 
ber 28, 1862; W. N. Hargrave, , 1865; E. J. 

Searle, February 25, 1867; G. W. McCowan, July 
23, 1868: J.T. Elliott, April 26. 1873: J. K. Young, 
October 31. 1874; C. F. Mitchell. October 31. 1882; 



L. A. Byrne, November 4, 1884; A. B. Williams, 
vice Mitchell, resigned. September 10, 1884; C. E. 
Mitchell, October 30, 1886. Prosecuting attorneys: 

A. J. Temple, July 8, 1861; A. T Craycraft, 
January 7, 1865; E. J. Searle. Febraary 19, 1866; 
R. C. Parker, October 15, 1866; N. J. Temple. 
January 20, 1867; J. R. Page, January 9, 1869; 
J. M. Bradley, April 26, 1873; Dan W. Jones, 
October 31. 1874; B. W. Johnson, October 13. 
1876; John Cook, October 14. 1880; T. F. Web- 
ber (four terms), October 31, 1882. 

Judges of the Tenth circuit: H. P. Morse, 
July 23, 1868; D. W Carroll, October 28, 1874; 
T. F. Sorrells, October 31, 1874; J. M. Bradley, 
October 30. 1882; C. D. Wood. October 30. 1886. 
Prosecuting attorneys: J. McL. Barton, March 

29, 1869; H. King White, April 20, 1871; M. Mc- 
Gehee, April 29, 1873; J. C. Barrow, October 31, 
1874; C. D. Woods, October 30, 1882; M. L. 
Hawkins, rnce Woods, October 10, 1886; R. C. 
Fuller, October 30. 1888. 

Eleventh circuit — judges: J. W. Fox, April 

30, 1873; H. N. Hutton, July 24, 1874; John A. 
Williams. October 31, 1874; X. J. Pindall. Octo- 
ber 31, 1878; J. A. Williams (two terms). October 
30,1882. Prosecuting attorneys- H. M. McVeigh, 
April 26, 1873; Z. L. Wise, October 31. 1874; T. 

B. Martin. October 10, 1878; J. M. Elliott (five 
terms), October 10, 1880. 

Twelfth circuit — judges: P. C. Dooley. April 
26, 1873; J. H. Rogers, April 20, 1877;" R. B. 
Rutherford, October 2, 1882; John S. Little, Octo- 
ber 20, 1 886. Prosecuting attorneys : D. D. Leach, 
April 26, 1873; John S. Little (three terms), April 
2, 1877; A. C. Lewers (two terms), September 20, 
1884; J. B. McDonough, October 30, 1888. 

Thirteenth circuit — judges: M. D. Kent, April 
26, 1873; B. F. Askew, October 30, 1882; C. W. 
Smith, Octol>er 30. 1886. Prosecuting attorneys: 
W. C. Langford, April 26, 1873; W. F. Wallace, 
June 5, 1883; H. P. Snead (three terms), Octo- 
ber 30, 1884. 

Fourteenth circuit — judges: George A. King- 
ston, April 26, 1873; R. H. Powell, May, 1887. 
Prosecuting attorneys: Duane Thompson, April 
26, 1873; De Ross Bailey. May, 1887. 



.|^ 





y 



^C^--/- <--(-— 



I 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



L. D. Belden was appointed judge of the Fif- 
teenth circuit April 20, 187:^ the prosecuting at- 
torney being G. G. Lotta, elected April 23, 1873. 

Sixteenth circuit— judge: Elisha Mears, April 
2G, 1873. Prosecuting attorneys: H. N. Withers, 



September 27, 1873; V. B. Shepard, April 30, 
1874. 

By an act of April 10, 1873, the Stale was di- 
vided into sixteen judicial circuits, but two years 
later a reduction to eleven in number was made. 



» << - 



lliflt IX. 



The Late Civil War-An.vlytical Viisw of the Troublous Times-Passage of the Ordinanxe or 
.SECE.SSION-THE Call to Aiims-Tiie Fiust Tkoops to Take the Field-Invasion ok the State 
BY THE Federal Army— Sketches of the Regiments-Names ok Officers-Outline ok 
Field Operations-Claibourne and Y ell— Extracts from Private Memo- 
randa—Evacuation OF THE State— Re-Occupation— The War OF 1812— 
The Mexican War— Standard of American (Jeneralsiiip. 




ysiii. 



Tlie cannon's hiishd! nor dium nor claiion sound; 
Helmet and hauberk gleam upon llie giouud; 
Horsemen and horse lie weltering in their gore; 
Patriots are dead, and heroes dare no more; 
While solemnly the moonlight shrouds the plain. 
And lights the lurid features of the s\mn.— Montgomery. 



\ RKANSAS was not among 
the States that may be call- 
' ed leaders in inaugurating 
the late war. It only pass- 
ed a secession ordinance 
'i May 6, 1861, nearly a 
1?^ month after hostilities had 
commenced, and Lincoln had issued 
his call for 7-"), 000 ninety-day troops 
■ ' to put down the rebellion. ' ' The re- 
liictance with which the State finally 
joined its sister States is manifested 
Ijy the almost unanimous refusal of 
the State convention, which met in 
March, 1801 — the day Lincoln was in- 
augurated — and nearly unanimously voted down 
secession and passed a series of conservative resolu- 
tions, looking to a national convention to settle in 



some way tlie vexed (juostion of slavery, and then 
voting a recess of the convention. \\'hen this 
re assembled war was upon the country, and the 
ordinance of secession was passed, only, however, 
after full discussion, pro and con. There was 
but one vote against secession finally, and that wa* 
given by Isaac Murphy— afterward the military 
governor of Arkansas. 

Local authorities received instructions to arm 
and equip forty regiments of State troops. The 
ruling minds of the State were averse to war, 
and resisted it until they were forced into the po- 
sition of siding with their neighbors or with the 
Union cause. In the South, as in the North, 
there were inconsiderate hot-heads, who simply 
wanted war for war's sake — full of false pretexts, 
but eager for war with or without a i:)retext. These 
extremists of each party were, unconsciously, per- 



74 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



haps, but in fact, the two blades of the pair of 
scissors, to cut asunder the ties of the Uuion of 
States. Shivery, possibly not directly the cause of 
the war, was the haudie.st pretext seized upon at 
the time, with such disastrous results. In the dis- 
pensations of heaven, had the fanatics of the North 
and the tire-eaters of the South boon hung across 
the clothes-line, as a boy sometimes hangs cats, 
and left in holy peace to fight it out, what a bless- 
ing for mankind it would have been! 

The history of the late war cannot yet be writ- 
ten. Its most profound effects are not yet evolved. 
The actual fighting ceased nearly a generation ago, 
and the cruel strife is spoken of as over. It is the 
effects that true history observes. The chronicler 
records the dates and statistics, and tiles these 
away for the future historian. It is highly prob- 
able that there is no similar period in history 
where the truth will be so distorted as by him 
who tells ' ' the story of the war. ' ' 

Anyone can begin to see that there are many 
things now that were unknown before the war. 
Great changes are still being worked out, anti 
whether or not yet greater ones are to come, no one 
knows. The abolitionists thirty years ago hated 
the slave owners, — the slave holders loved slavery. 
The former thought to forever end slavery on this 
continent by liberating the slaves, and now the 
once alarmed slave owner has discovered that the 
great benefits of the abolition of slavery have been 
to the whites far more than to the blacks. 

There is little idea of what the real historian 
one hundred years from now will be compelled to 
say of these "' blessed times." He will mo.st prob- 
ably smile in pity upon all this self- laudation and 
wild boast. If men could have known the effects 
to follow in all the important movements of peo- 
ples, it is highly probable there would have been no 
civil war. Those who "sectionally hated" may 
sleep quietly in their graves, because they died 
unconscious as to whether their supposed Ijloody 
revenge, driven hiirtling at the enemy, was a bullet 
or a boomerang. 

The Southern individual may look with envy to 
the pension fund now being poured out in North- 
ern States, while, instead of this, ho should only 



remember that the Southern soldier is making his 
way unaided in the world. It should not be for- 
gotten that the rapid development of the South is 
sadly in want of the constant labor of thousands of 
immigrants, and that the New South is just entering 
upon a period of surprising and unexampled pros- 
perity, which certainly must continue. 

In Arkansas, as in Illinois, when Fort Sumter 
was fired on, instantly there was a storm of excite- 
ment to "let slip the dogs of war." Action took 
the place of argument. The best men in the com- 
munity, those who had so long talked and pleaded 
against war, closed their mouths, and with sore 
hearts turned their eyes away from the sad outlook. 
The young and the inconsiderate seized the power 
to rule, and (though they knew it not) to ruin. 
Bells were rung, drums were beaten, and fifes made 
strident martial music, and people rushed into the 
streets. Open air meetings for the Confederate 
cause gathered, and songs and speeches inflamed 
the wildest passions of men. Poor men ! they 
little r(>cked the cruel- fate into which they were 
plunging their country — not only themselves, but 
generatiotis to come. A tifer and drummer march- 
ing along the streets, making harsh and discordant 
noises, ■\tere soon followed by crowds of men, 
women and children. Volunteers were called for 
by embryo captains, and from these crowds were 
soon recruited squads to be crystallized into armies 
with heavy tramp and flying banners — the noisy 
prologue to one of the bloodiest tragedies on which 
time has ever rung up the curtain. 

The first official action of the State was that 
authorizing the. raising and equipping of seven 
regiments. These were soon ready to report with 
full ranks. Seven regiments ! Even after the 
war was well on foot, men were forming companies 
in hot haste, in fear that before they could reach 
the field of action the war would be over. And 
after they were mustered in and at their respective 
rendezvous, without iiniforms and with sticks for 
guns, learning the rudiments of drill, they were 
restless, troubled seriously with the fear that they 
would never see or feel the glory of battle. The 
youths of the State had rushed to the recruiting sta- 
tions with the eager thoughtlessness with which 



y-. 



i) I'y 



-^ 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



75 



they would have put down their names for picnic, 
hunting or fishing expeditions, and the wild delights 
of a season of camp life. Perhaps to some came 
indistinct ideas of winning glory on the field and a 
triumjjhant return home, to be met by the happy 
smiles of a people saved — when the bells would 
ring and flowers be strewn in the highway. 

The seven regiments first authorized by the 
military board (the board consisting of the gov- 
ernor, Col. Sam W. Williams and Col. B. C Tot- 
ten) had hardly been formed when more soldiers 
were wanted. Ten additional regiments wore 
authorized, and of the ten seven were recruited 
and organized. Fourteen infantry regiments be 
sides the cavalry and artillery had been a strong 
demand on the people, but the calls for men were 
increased. By voluntary eidistments twenty-one 
infantry regiments were finally in the field. In- 
cluding cavalry and artillery, Arkansas had about 
25,000 volunteer soldiery. 

Then came the remorseless conscription. The 
glamour of soldiering was now all gone. Ragged, 
hungry, wounded and worn with hard marches, 
men had suffered the touch of the hand of the 
angel of destruction. The relentless conscripting 
went on. The number of years before old age 
exempted was lengthened, and the age of youth 
exempting was shortened, until as said by Gen. 
Grant, they were "robbing the cradle and the 
grave ' ' to recruit their decimated ranks in the 
army. 

There are no records now by which can be told 
the number of men Arkansas had in the Confeder- 
ate army, but it is supposed by those best informed 
to have had nearly 40,000. In addition to this the 
State furnished soldiers to the Union army. In 
the history of wars it is doubtful if there is anything 
to exceed this in the heroic sacrifices of any people. 

The original seven regiments were authorized 
as the first exuberant war expression of the State. 
They were State troops, armed and equipped by 
the State; but the fact is that the poorest men went 
into the army at their individual expense and armed 
and equipped themselves. This was the rule — not 
by men only who were fighting for their slave 
property, but largely by men who had never owned 



or expected to own a slave. When the Union army 
under Gen. Curtis was bearing down to invade Ar- 
kansas, ten more regiments were autlmrized and 
responded to this call, and seven additional regi- 
ments were raised and mustered into the State's 
service. 

A military board had been provided for, con- 
sisting of three men, the governor and two advis- 
ors, who had a general supervision in organizing 
and equipping the army. 

The first regiment raised in the State is known 
as the Pat Cleburne regiment. Patrick A. Cleburne, 
colonel, was soon made a general, and took his 
brigade east of the Mississippi River. The gal 
lant and dashing leader was killed in the l)attle of 
Franklin, Noveml)er 80, IHO-i. At the first call 
to arms he raised a company and named it the Yell 
Rifles, of which he was first captain, and on the 
formation of the first regiment he became colonel, 
rising up and up by rapid promotions to a major- 
generalship. 

The names of Yell and Pat Cleburne are en- 
twined closely in the hearts of the people of Arkan- 
sas. Yell was killed at the bloody battle of Buena 
Vista, Mexico, at the head of his charging column. 
The military lives and deaths of the two men were 
much alike. Their names and fames are .secure in 
history. There is a touch of romance about Pat 
Cleburne's life in Arkansas. A Tipperary boy, of 
an excellent family, born in 1828, he had, when not 
more than sixteen years of age, joined the English 
army, where he was for more than a year before his 
whereabouts became known. His friends secured* 
his release from the army, when he at once bade 
adieu to his native land and sailed for America. 
Stopping in 1849, a short time in Cincinnati, he 
was for a while a drug clerk. In 1859 he came 
to Helena. Ark. , and engaged here also as a pre- 
scription clerk, in the meantime reading law; he 
was made a licensed attorney in 1856. In the 
bloody street affray soon after, betwe;>n Hindman 
and Dorsey Rice, he was drawn into the fracas and 
was shot through the body by a brother of Rice's, 
who came upon tiie ground during the mel6e. The 
latter noticed the encounter, and seeing that Cle- 
burne stood at one side, pistol in hand, tired. On 



f- 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



tvu-ning to see who had shot him, Ck^burne saw 
James Marriott, a brother-iu-law of Dorsey Rice, 
with pistol in hand, and imder the mistake that 
he was the assailant, shot him dead. Cleburne 
lingered a long time from his wound but finally 
recovered. 

In the yellow fever scourge in Helena, in 1855, 
he was at one time about the only well person re- 
maining to care for the sick and dying. He was a 
strict member of the church and for some years a 
vestryman in St. John's Episcopal Church, Helena. 
He was engacfed to wed Miss Tarleton, of Mobile, 
when he fell upon the battle field, and the dead 
soldier lay upon the ground, with his arms folded 
over his breast, as if even in death he would pro- 
tect the sacred tokens of love that he wore next his 
heart. 

The military board elected two brigadier-gen- 
erals — James Yell and N. B. Pierce. The latter 
was sent to Northwestern Arkansas, where was 
fought the first battle on Arkansas soil — Pea Ridge, 
or as it is better known in the South, Elkhorn. 
This was a severe engagement, and a decisive one. 

There is yet some confusion in referring to the 
respective numbers of the Arkansas regiments. 
Gen. Pierce, supposing he had full power, gave 
numljers Third, Fourth and Fiftli to what the 
board, the proper and only authority, designated 
as numbers Second, Third and Fourth. The fol- 
lowing shows the board's numbering and names 
of the colonels : 

First, Col. P. H. Cleburne; Second, Col. 
Gratiot; Third, Col. Dockery; Fourth, Col. Davis 
Walker; Fifth, Col. D. C. Cross; Sixth, Col. Lyon; 
Seventh, Col. Shaver; Eighth, Col. W. K. Patter- 
son; Ninth, Col. John Roane; Tenth, Col. T. D. 
Merrick; Eleventh, Col. Jabez M. Smith; Twelfth, 
Col. E. W. Gantt; Thirteenth, Col. J. C. Tappan; 
Fourteenth, Col. W. C. Mitchell, (never com- 
pleted); Fifteenth, Col. Dawson; Seventeenth, Col. 
G. \V. Lamar, Lieut. -Col. Sam W. Williams. 

In the scraps of records now to be found there 
are mentioned as the different arms in the Confed- 
erate service of Arkansas men, in addition to those 
above given, the following: Light artillery. Hill's; 
batteries, Blocher's. Brown's, Etter's, Hughey's, 



Marshall's and West's; cavalry battalions, Chris- 
man's, Crawford's, Hill's, Witherspoon's; detached 
companies. Brown's, Coarser' s, Desha's, Ranger's, 
Fitzwilliam's, Miller's and Palmer's; regiments, 
Carroll's, Dobbins', Newton's; infantry, regiments 
from one to thirty-nine, inclusive. 

Four regiments of infantry of Federal recruits 
were raised in Arkansas, the First commanded by 
Col. M. La Rue Harrison; the Fourth by Elisha 
Baxter. The First Arkansas Light Artillery was 
150 strong. The Arkansas Infantry Brigade was 
under command of Col. James M. True. August 
5, 1863, Adj't Gen. Thomas made a trip to the 
Southwest for the purpose of gathering in all the 
negroes possible by scouting bands, and to enlist 
the able bodied men. The First Arkansas Battery 
was commanded by Capt. Dent D. Stark, and the 
First Arkansas Cavalry by Maj. J. J. Johnson. 
The Second Arkansas Cavalry is mentioned. 
Lieut. -Col. E. J. Searle, authorized to raise the 
Third Arkansas Cavalry, reported 400 strong. 
The Foui'th Arkansas Cavalry comprised nine 
companies, commanded by Capt. W. A. Martin. 

The Second and Third Arkansas colored in- 
fantry regiments are mentioned, in addition to the 
Second and Third white regiments. 

In the spring of 1861, the Richmond govern- 
ment authorized Col. T. B. Flournoy to raise a reg- 
iment. It was collected in and about Little Rock 
and Col. Fagan was elected commander. This 
command went to Virginia. Gen. Churchill organ- 
ized the first regiment of cavalry, with rendezvous 
at Little Rock. Gen. T. C. Hindman organized 
Hindman's Legion. It consisted of infantry and 
cavalry and had fifteen companies. He took his 
command east of the river. Under the direction of 
the military board Col. Rosey Carroll's regiment 
of cavalry was raised. The Second Arkansas Reg- 
iment of Mounted Infantry was mustered at Osage 
Springs, by Col. Dandridge McRea. James Mcln 
tosh became colonel and Capt. H. H. Brown, major. 
J. P. Eagle was first lieutenant-colonel and after- 
ward colonel. Col. Mcintosh was killed at Pea 
Ridge, but had been promoted a brigadier-general 
a few days before his death. 

The absence of war archives from the State, 



r 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



77 



the most of them that were proserved until after 
the war being now in Washington, and the pass- 
ing away of so many of tho prominent participants, 
and a common fault of human memory, make it 
well-nigh impossible to gather for permanent form 
any satisfactory roster of the different Confederate 
commands or the order of their organization. No 
Arkansan so far, which is much to be regretted, 
has attempted to write a history of the State in 
the civil struggle. 

Gov. J. P. Eagle happened to keep dupli- 
cates of certain reports he made while in the ser- 
vice, and discovered them recently where they had 
been laid away and forgotten among old papers. 
Fortunately when he made the reports the idea 
occurred to him to keep a copy for himself, that 
some day he might look over them and be inter- 
ested. 

" This is a list of the killed and wounded in my 
regiment," he remarked, "the Second Arkansas, 
from May 8 to August 31, 1864, and the other is a 
report of the same from November 26, 1864, to 
March 21, 1865." 

The Second Arkansas at the beginning of the 
war was a mounted regiment, commanded by Col. 
James Mcintosh. It was dismounted early in the 
conflict. Col. Mcintosh was promoted to the rank 
of brigadier-general in the spring of 1862. He 
led his brigade bravely into the heaviest fighting 
at the battle of Elkhorn (Pea Ridge), where he 
was killed. He was succeeded by Col. Embry, 
who was soon after succeeded by Col. Flannagin, 
afterwards the "War Governor" of Arkansas. 
Flannagin was siicceeded by Col. James William- 
son, who lost a leg at the battle of Resaca, Ga. , 
May 14, 1864. Col. J. T. Smith then became 
colonel. He was killed July 28 following, in the 
fight at Lick Skillet Road, and J. P. Eagle, now 
governor of Arkansas, became colonel. Col. 
Eagle had been wounded at Moore's Mills, and at 
the time of his promotion was not with the famous 
regiment. He remained in command until the 
regiment was consolidated with other regiments 
and the whole formed into one regiment, with Col. 
H. G. Bunn commanding. Gov. Eagle became 
lieutenant-colonel and George Wells, major. 



The battle of Elkhorn checked the advance of 
Curtis' army into Arkansas, and the Federals re- 
mained hovering in the southwest of Missouri and 
northwest of Arkansas for some time. Immedi- 
ately after the fight Van Dom's forces were with- 
drawn and taken east of the Mississippi to resist 
the Federal advance down the river to Vicksburg. 
Gen. T. C. Hindman returned and took command 
of the Confederates in Arkansas and cstablislicd 
headquarters at Little Rock and slightly fortified 
the place. 

Gen. Curtis then moved with the Federal army 
down the valley of White River, acting in con 
junction with the river fleet, and when he reached 
Cotton Plant a flank attack was made on his army 
and the battle of Cotton Plant was fought. The 
Confederates were repulsed, and Curtis moved on 
and took possession of Helena, the Confederates 
retiring. Northern and Northeastern Arkansas 
were then in the possession of the Union army. 
The Federals were in the possession of the Missis- 
sippi down to a point just above Vicksburg. The 
Confederates made a futile effort to re-capture 
Helena, July 4, 1863, but heavy rains, swollen 
streams and impassable roads thwarted every 
move. 

June 2, 1862, Gov. Rector issued the following: 

"It being essential that but one military organization 
shall exist within the Trans-Mississippi department, all 
Arkansas troops are hereby transferred to the Confeder- 
ate service." (Signed) H. M. RKCTOn. 

Gov. «& Prest, Mil. Board. 

The authorities at Richmond, as well as in the » 
Trans- Mississippi district, were anxiously awaiting 
news of the war steamer, "Arkansas," then build- 
ing up the mouth of Red River. June 2, 1862, 
she steamed out of that river and passed the fleet 
guarding the river for the purpose of capturing the 
rebel steamer. The attempt and success in run- 
ning the fiery gauntlet was one of the most exciting 
scenes ever witnessed on western rivers. Proudly 
the vessel kept on her covu'se, sending volleys into 
every vessel to the right and left, and at nearly 
every turn of her wheels encountering new enemies. 
A Federal surgeon of the Union fleet said that 
wonderful trip of the "Arkansas" reminded him 



78 



HISTOKY OF AEKANSAS. 



of the Irishman's advice on going into the "free 
tight " — " wherever you see <i hoail hit it. ' ' The 
Confederate reports say two Federal gun-boats 
were captured and others disabled. 

August 7, following, the "Arkansas," when five 
miles above Baton Rouge on her way down the 
river, again encountered Federal gun -boats. Her 
machinery being disabled, after she had fought 
long and well, her crew "blew her up, and all 
escaped. ' ' 

January 3, 1863 Gen. J. M. Schofield wrote to 
Gen. Curtis, from Fayetteville, Ark. : "The oper- 
ations of the army since I left it have been a series 
of blunders, from which it narrowly escaped dis- 
aster * * At Prairie Grove (fought in Decem- 
ber, 1802) Blunt and Herron were badly beaten in 
detail and owed their escape to a false report of 
my arrival with re-enforcements." It now is 
revealed that Hindman did not know the extent 
of his victory, but supposed he was about to be 
overwhelmed by the enemy. Thus the two armies 
were as secretly as possible running away from 
each other. 

July 13, 1863, Gen. E. Kirby Smith wrote from 
Shreveport, headquarters of the Trans- Mississippi 
district, to Govs. Thomas C. Reynolds, F. R. Liib- 
bock, H. Flannagin and Thomas O. Moore, calling 
on these, as the heads of their respective States, to 
meet him at Marshall, Tex., August 15, following: 
"I have attempted to irajKirtially survey the field 
of my labor. * * j found on my arrival the 
headquarters of Arkansas district at Little 
Rock. * * Vicksburg has fallen. The enemy 
possesses the key to this department. * * The 
possession of the Mississippi River by the enemy 
cuts off this department from all communication 
with Richmond, consequently we must be self- 
sustaining, and self-reliant in every respect. * * 
With God's help and yours I will cheerfully 
grapple with the difficulties that surround us,'' etc. 

This was a gloomy but a correct view of the 
situation west of the Mississippi River after the 
fall of Vicksburg. 

On January 11, 1863, from Helena, Gen. Fiske 
reported to Washington : ' ' Found Gorman actively 
organizing expedition to go up White River to 



co-operate with Gen. McClernand on Arkansas 
River. Twenty-five transports are waiting the 
signal to start. ' ' 

Fi-om "Prairie Landing, twenty-five miles up 
Arkansas. January 13, 1863," Amos F. Eno. sec- 
retary jjro tern of Arkansas and adjutant-general, 
telegraphed Staunton: "Left Helena on 11th. and 
took with me books and papers of ofiice of military 
government of Arkansas. ' ' 

January 14, 1803, the Federals captured St. 
Charles, the Confederates evacuating the day before. 

January 18, Gen. W. A. Gorman occupied 
Devall's Bluff, which the Confederates had also 
evacuated. 

These captures and evacuations were the pre- 
liminary movements looking toward Little Rock, 
the Federals clearing out the small outposts, and 
the Confederates gathering in their forces. 

On August 5, 1863, Gen. Frederick Steele 
"assumed the command of the army to take the 
field from Helena, and advance upon Little Rock." 

In his order for movement mention is made of 
the following: First division — cavalry under 
commandof Gen. J. W. Davidson; Second division 
—Eighteenth, Forty-third, Fifty-fourth, Sixty- 
first, One Hundred and Sixth, and One Hundred 
and Twenty-sixth regiments, Illinois Infantry; 
Twelfth Michigan, Twenty-second Ohio, Twenty- 
seventh Wisconsin, Third Minnesota, Fortieth 
Iowa and Forty-third Indiana Infantry regiments; 
Third division — Twenty-ninth, Thirty-third and 
Thirty-sixth Iowa, Forty-third Indiana, Twenty- 
eighth Wisconsin, and Seventy-first Ohio Infantry 
regiments; and the Fifth Kansas, First Indiana 
Cavalry, and a brigade under Col. Powell Clayton. 
Four batteries of field pieces — five wagons to each 
regiment; 100 rounds of ammunition, 40 rounds to 
each cartridge-box; 400 rounds to each j^iece of 
artillery, and sixty days' rations for the whole 
army, were the supplies granted these forces. 

Gen. Steele was occupied in the expedition 
from Helena to Little Rock, from August 5 to Sep- 
tember 10. The cavalry under Gen. Davidson 
had to scour the country to the right and left as 
they made their slow advance. Twelve miles east 
of Little Rock, at Bayou Meta bridge, was a heavy 



"'^ ® 



Tv" 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



79 



skirmish, indeed, a regular battle, being the first 
serious effort to check the Federal advance upon 
the capital. Again there was heavy fighting sis 
miles east of Little Rock, at what is now the 
Brugman place. Here Confederate Col. Coffee, 
of Texas, was killed. This was the last stand 
made in defense of the city, and in a short time 
Davidson's cavalry appeared in Argenta, and 
trained their Held pieces on the city, and tired a 
few shots, when the place was surrendered by the 
civil authorities, September 10, 1863. The Con- 
federates had evacuated but a few hours before 
the Federal cavalry were galloping through the 
streets, and posting sentinels here and there. 

There was no confusion, no disorder, and none 
of the usual crimes of war under similar circum- 
stances. In an hour after Gen. Steele was in 
possession of the city he had it under strict con- 
trol, and order prevailed. Gen. Reynolds was put 
in command of Little Rock.* 

The Confederates wisely retreated to Arkadel- 
phia. They were pursued by the Federals as far 
as Malvern, but no captures were made and no 
heavy skirmishing occurred. 

It is said that Price evacuated Little Rock un- 
der the impression that his force was far inferior 
to that of Gen. Steele. Those who were Confeder- 
ate officers and in Little Rock now believe that his 
force was equal at least in numbers to Steele's. 

*Abstract from consolidated tri-montbly report of the 
Army of Arkansas. Maj.-Gen. Frederick Steele command- 
ine, for September 10, 1863; headquarters, Little Rock: 



Commaod. 


Present for 
duty. 








1 

o 




£ 

< 


Aggrega 
auu a 

Pieces of 


First Oivisioa (Davidson) 


200 
Mil 
123 
89 
30 
15 
4 


3,3281 5.372 

2.047 2,990 

1,083 2,:iI6 

1,790 2,2511 

445 736 

495! 607 

&»l 91 


7,735 

8,885 
4,007 
2,825 

i.aoo 

844 


18 


Second Division (Enyleiuann) 

Third Divi-'ionfRlce) 






6 




6 


Arlille'rv fHuvden) 


28 




12' 












619 


9,854 


14,362 


23,e30 


57 













Gen Price liad not made a mistake of the comparative 
strength of the two armies. The commissary informs 
me that on the mornins of tlie evacuation he issued 8.000 
rations — full number. 



They think that Price had based his idea of the 
enemy's numbers by allowing the usual propor- 
tion of armies of infantry and artillery t« cavalry. 
They believe also that the Confederates at Little 
Rock at the evacuation had between 11,000 and 
12,000 men present — not the number for duty — 
basing this upon the number of rations issued 
that day. 

After the occupation of Little Rock the Federals 
dominated all that portion of the State north and 
east of the Arkansas River, and yet their actual 
occupied posts were the only grounds over which 
Confederate rangers were not frequently roving 
with impunity. 

The Confederates exercised ruling power all 
south and west of the Ouachita River, and for quite 
a while the territory between the Arkansas and 
Ouachita Rivers was a kind of "No Man's Land " 
so far as the armies were concerned. 

Steele early in 1804, having been re-enforced, 
began to move on Arkadel()hia. Price retreated to 
Camden, where the Confederates had several fac- 
tories for the manufacture of war materials. 

Price made a stand against Steele and fought 
the battle of Prairie D'Ann, but there was noth- 
ing decisive in this engagement, although it was 
a severe one. Price withdrew and fell back on 
Rondo, in the southwest corner of the State. 

In the meantime Banks' expedition was as- 
cending Red River, the plan being to catch Price 
between Banks and Steele, and destroy the Con- 
federate army. Price and Gen. Dick Taylor did 
not wait for Banks, but met and overwhelmingly, 
defeated him. Having defeated Banks, they turned 
and gave Steele battle at Jenkins' Ferry, and de- 
feated him. This was the great and ili'cisiv.> bat- 
tle of the Trans-Mississippi district. 

Steele retreated and fell back on Little Rock, 
his superior generalship lieing shown in extricat- 
ing his badly crippled army and saving it on the 
withdrawal. 

The Federal expeditions were well plannetl for 
"bagging' 'the whole Confederate Trans-Mississippi 
army, but the vicissitudes of war ordained other- 
wise. Banks' expedition and its overwhelming mis- 
fortunes ruined him as a military man throughout 



80 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



the North, while the brilliaat successes of Price 
raised the hopes of the Confederacy. Some, how- 
ever, still criticise. 

Price failed to follow up his advantage and 
either destroy or capture Steele's entire army. 
Had lie fully known the condition of affairs at 
Kichiuoiid possibly he might have adopted that 
course. The Federals were confined within their 
fortified posts and Confederate bands were again 
scouring over the State. 

Price, losing no time, then started on his raid 
back into Missouri to carry out his long cherished 
hope of re-possessing that State. The history of 
that raid and the dissolution and end of the Con- 
federacy are a familiar part of the country's 
history. 

Other wars than that mentioned have occupied 
the attention of people of this section, though 
perhaps not to such an extent as the great civil 
strife. There were not people in Arkansas to go 
to the AVar of 181 2, and the State becomes con- 
nected with that struggle chiefly because Archibald 
Yell, the brave young hero, was at the battle of 
New Orleans, and afterward l)ecame one of the most 
prominent citizens of Arkansas. He was born in 
North Carolina, in August, 1797, and consequently 
was but fifteen years of age when the Ropond war 
with England began. But the lad then and there 
won the inalienable friendship of Gen. Jackson. 

Arkansas acquired no little fame in the Mexican 
War, chiefly, however, through the gallantry and 
death of Gov. Yell, the leader of the Arkansas 
forces. AVhen troops were called for in the year 
1840, in the war with Mexico, Yell was a member 
of Congress. A regiment of cavalry was raised 
and he was asked to take the command, and obedi- 
ent to this request he promptly resigned his seat 
to assume leadership. Albert Pike was a captain 
in the regiment. 

At the battle of Buena Vista, on February 22, 
1847, Yell led' his cavalry command in one of the 
most desperate charges in the annals of war. In 
his enthusiasm he spurred on his horse far in 
advance of his men. He was charging the enemy, 
which outnumbered his force more than five to 
one. He reached the ranks of the enemv almost 



alone, and raising himself in the saddle commenced 
to slash right and left, totally unmindful that it 
was one against thousands. Just as the foremost of 
his men came up he was run through the body and 
killed. William A. L. Throckmorton, of Fayette- 
ville. it is agreed, was the first to reach the side 
and catch the falling form of his loved leader. Mr. 
Throckmorton says he saw the man who gave the 
fatal thrust and quickly killed him, thus avenging 
so far as the wretched greaser's life could go the 
life of as gallant and noble a knight as ever re- 
sponded to bugle call. He was the dashing cava- 
lier, great in peace, superb in war. Leading his 
trusty followers in any of the walks of life, death 
alone could check him, nothing could conquer him. 

After the war was over the government brought 
his remains and delivered them to his friends in 
Fayetteville, his home, who lovingly deposited 
them beneath the cold white marble shaft which 
speaks his fame. The burial ceremony occurred 
August 3, 1847, and a vast concourse of people, 
the humblest and highest in the State, were the 
sincere and deep mourners on the occasion. 

Arkansas won everlasting laurels through its 
gallant soldiers in the Mexican A\'ar. 

Omitting all reference to the Revolutionary 
War, there are conclusions to be drawn from the 
wars our countrymen have been engaged in since 
the days when Gen. Jackson was the national hero. 
None of these were significant enough to be used 
by the philosophic historian from which to draw 
conclusions as to the character of modern or 
contemporary Americans as warriors, or their dis- 
tinguishing characteristics as a warlike nation 
The late Civil War, however, furnishes a wide and 
aniple field for such investigation. An impartial 
view of the late struggle presents first of all this 
remarkable fact. In by far the longest and great- 
est war of modern times, neither side has given 
the age a great captain, as some call greatness, 
though one furnished Grant, the other, Lee, both 
men without a superior; whilst in the ranks and 
among the sub-commands, no battles in history 
are at all comparable for excellence and superior 
soldiership to those of the great Civil War. On 
both sides there were any number of great field 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



81 



commanders, as great as ever drew a sword. But 
they received orders, did not give them, and in 
the execution of orders never were excelled. Lee, 
Grant, Jackson, Sherman, Hancock, Johnston, 
Sheridan and hundreds of others on both sides, to 
the humblest in the ranks, were immortal types of 
the soldier in the field. These men were like 
Napoleon's marshals — given a command or order 
they would risk life itself to execute it. But on 
neither side was there the least exhibition of the 
qualities of a Napoleon or Von Moltke. 

Napoleon was his own secretary of war, gov- 
ernment, cabinet, and commander in the field, and 
for this very reason, he was Von Moltke' s inferior 
as a great commander, whose genius saw the weak 
point, the point of victory on the map of the 
enemy's country, and struck it with a quick and 
decisive blow. 

Our Civil War and the Franco- German War 
were closely together in time. War was hardly over 
in America when it commenced in Europe. Any 
student of German history who has studied the 
German-Prussian war, can not but know that Von 
Moltke was the pre-eminent captain in all the his- 
tories of wars. Had Washington or Richmond had 
his peer at the commencement of our struggle, the 
high probabilities are that the war would have 
been over before the first twelve months had ex- 
pired. 

In war, it is a fact, that it is the strategy be- 
fore the armies meet in battle array which decides 
the struggle. It is only thus that one man can 



become more powerful than a million with guns in 
their hands. It is in this sense — this application 
of the science of modern warfare, that a com- 
mander wins battles and decides victories. He 
conquers enemies, not by di-awing his sword, but, 
studying his maps in his quiet den when others 
sleep, he directs the movements of his armies and 
leaves the details of the actual fight to others. He 
is indifferent to the actual fighting part of it, be- 
cause ho has settled all that long beforehand by 
his orders. 

In all actual battles, as was testified by the 
Federal commanders before Congress about the 
battle of Gettysburg, if victory is not organized 
beforehand, all is chance, uncertainty, and both 
armies are little else than headless mobs — ignorant 
of whether they are whipping or being whipped. 
The field commander may save the day and turn 
the tide and gain a victory, but what is it after all, 
— so many men killed and captured on either side, 
and then recruited up, and rested a little, only to 
repeat the bloody carnage again and again. 

Let it be assumed that the absence of great mil- 
itary genius on both sides is the highest compli- 
ment that can be paid to American civilization. War 
is barbarism. The higher civilization will eradi- 
cate all practical knowledge of the brutality of 
warfare from men's minds. Then there will be 
no wars, save that of truth upon the false — intelli- 
gence upon ignorance How gi-andly divine will 
be, not only the great leaders in this holy stmggle 
for victory, but the humblest of all privates! 




:tx: 



82 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



;iftiTiR X. 



Public Exteuprises— The Real Estate Bank of Arkansas— State Roads and other Highways- 

The Military Roads— Navigation Within the State from the Earliest TniES to the 

Present— Decadence of State Navigation— Steamboat Racing— Accidents to 

Boats— The Rise and Growth of the Railroad Systems— A Sketch 

of the Different Lines— Other Important Considerations. 



From the blessings they bestow 

Our times are dated, and our eras move.- 



-Prior. 




*HE first session of the new 
State legislature, among 
other acts, incorporated the 
State Bank, and as if fur- 
ther determined to show 
that the legislature was at 
least in the front in those 
days of wild-cat bank enterprises, 
))rocoeded to make money cheap 
and all rich by incorporating the 
celebrated Real Estate Bank of 
Arkansas. Already John Law's 
Missis.sippi bubble had been for- 
gotten — the old continental money 
and the many other distressing 
instances of those cruel but fas- 
cinating fictions of attempts to 
make credits wealth. No statesman in the world's 
history has ever yet made an ajsproach to the 
accomplishment of such an impossibility, and still 
nearly all financial legislation is founded upon 
this basic idea. State and national banks have 
been the alluring will-o'-the-wisps in this per- 
sistent folly. All experience teaches that the 
government that becomes a money-changer soon 
becomes the pow(>rful robber, and the places of 
just rulers are filled with tax bandits — there the 



lordly rulers are banditti, and the people the most 
wretched of slaves. 

The State Bank was, as were all such institu- 
tions of that day in any of the States, demoraliz- 
ing in the financial affairs of the people, encourag- 
ing extravagance and debt, and deceiving men with 
the appearances of wealth to their ultimate ruin. 

The Real Estate Bank, as its name indicates, 
was for the purpose of loaning money on real 
estate security. Up to that time the American 
farmer had not learned to base his efforts upon any- 
thing except his labor. To produce something and 
sell it was the whole horizon of his financial educa- 
tion. If, while his crop was maturing, he needed 
subsistence he went to his merchant and bought 
the fewest possible necessities on credit. It was 
an evil hour when he was tempted to become a 
speculator. Yet there were some instances in 
which the loans on real estate resulted in enabling 
men to make finely improved cotton plantations. 
But the rule was to get people in debt and at the 
same time exhaust the cash in the bank. The 
bank could collect no money, and the real estate 
owner was struggling under mortgages he could 
not pay. Both lender and borrower were sufferers, 
and the doable infliction was upon them of a public 
and individual indebtedness. The Real Estate 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



83 



Bank made an assignment in 1842, and for years 
was the source of much litigation. It practically 
ceased to do business years before it had its doors 
closed and was wound up, and the titles to such 
lands as it had become the jiossessor of passed to 
the State. 

The old State Bank building, in front of the 
State house, is the only reminder of the institution 
which promised so much and did so little for the 
public. The old building is after the style of all 
such buildings — a low, two-story brick or stone, 
with huge Corinthian columns in front, having 
stone steps to ascend to the first floor. Similar 
structures can be found in Illinois, Missouri and 
all the Western and Southern States. The one in 
Little Rock is unsightly and gloomy and does little 
else but cumber the ground. It is in the way, ow- 
ing to a difficulty in the title, of such a modern 
and elegant building as would be in keeping with 
the rapidly advancing and beautiful "City of 
Roses." 

Roads and highways have always occupied pub- 
lic consideration. Being so crossed with rivers 
passing from the west toward the Mississippi 
River, the early settlers all over the confines of this 
State passed up the streams and for some time 
used these as the only needed highways. In the 
course of time they began to have bridle-paths 
crossing from settlement to settlement. 

The United States military road from Western 
Missouri passed through Arkansas and led on to 
Shreveport, La. This extended through East- 
ern Ai'kansas, and Arkansas Post was an import 
ant point on the route. It was sui-veyed and 
partially cut out early in the nineteenth century. 
A mimthly mail proceeded over the route on horse- 
back, the mail rider generally being able to carry 
the mail in his pocket. 

A trail at first was the road from the mouth of 
the White River to Arkansas Post. This portage 
soon became a highway, as much of the business 
and travel for the Post was landed at the mouth of 
M'hite River and transported across to the Red 
River. 

In 1821 Congress authorized the sur^'ey and 
opening of a public highway from Memphis, via 



Little Rock, to Fort Smith. The work was com- 
pleted in 1823. This was the first highway of 
any importaiice in the Territory. The other routes 
mentioned above were nothing more than trails, or 
bridle-paths. A weeldy mail between Little Rock 
and Memj)his was established in I82S). 

In 1832 a government road leading on a di 
rect line fi-om Little Rock to Batesville was cut 
out, and the Indians removed from Georgia were 
brought by water to the capital and taken over 
this road. At that time it was the best public 
course as well as the longest in the State, and be- 
came in time the main traveled road from the 
northern part of the State to its center. 

Arkansas was settled sparsely along the Missis- 
sippi River some years before Fulton invented the 
steamboat. The first steaml)oat ever upon western 
waters passed down that river in the latter part 
of 1811— the "Orleans," Capt. Roosevelt. 

The Indians had their light cedar bark canoes, 
and were remarka1)ly e.xpert in handling them. 
These were so light that the squaws could carry 
them on their backs, and in their expeditions in 
ascending the streams frequently saved much time 
by traveling across the great bends of the rivor 
and carrying their conveyances. Of course in going 
with the current, they kept the stream, skimming 
over the waters with great speed. At one time the 
migratory Indians at stated seasons followed the 
buffalo fi-om the Dakotas to the Gulf, the buffalo 
remaining near, and the Indians on the streams. 
The latter could thus out-travel the immense 
herds and at certain points make forays upon 
them and so keep an abundant supply of meat. * 
The buffalo had the curious habit of indulging 
in long stops when they came to a large river in 
their course, as if dreading to take to the water 
and swim across. They would gather on the bank 
of the river at the selected crossing- [)lace, and 
after having devoured everything near at hand 
and hunger began to pinch, would collect into a 
close circle and liegin to move, circling round 
and round, the inside ones ever crowding the out- 
side ones closer and closer to the water. This 
continued until some one, crowded into the deep 
water, had to make the plunge, when all followed. 



84 



HISTOEY OF AKKANSAS. 



These animals when attacked by other animals, 
or when danger threatened, formed in a compact 
circle, with the cows and calves on the inside and 
the bulls on the outer ring. In this battle array 
there was nothing in the lino of beasts that dared 
molest them. 

The white man came and to the canoe he added 
the skiff, the pirogue, the raft, the keel boat and 
the flat boat. The raft never made but one trip 
and that was down stream always, and when its 
destination was reached it was sold to be converted 
into lumber. Other water crafts could be hauled 
back by long tow lines, men walking on the banks 
and pulling them up stream. There are those now 
living who can remember when this was the only 
mode of river navigation. The younger people of 
this generation can form no adequate idea of the 
severity of the toil and the suffering necessarily in- 
volved in the long trij)s then made by these hardy 
pioneers. If the people of to-day were compelled 
to procure the simple commodities of life at such 
hard sacrifices, by such endurance, they would do 
without them, and go back to tig leaves and nuts 
and roots for subsistence. 

When Fulton and Livingston had successfully 
navigated their boat from Pittsburg to New Or- 
leans, they made the claim of a sort of royal patent 
to the exclusive navigation of the Mississippi River 
and its trilmtaries. This claim was put forth in 
perfect good faith and it was a new question as 
well as a serious one for the courts, when these 
claimants arrested Captain Shreve upon his arrival 
in New Orleans with his boat, and carried him be- 
fore the court to answer in damages for navi- 
gating by steam the river that belonged to them 
as the first steam navigators. This curious inci- 
dent indicates how little even the inventor of the 
steamboat appreciated of what vast imjioitance to 
civilization his noble invention really was. To 
him and his friend it was but a small personal 
right or perquisite — a licensed monopoly, out of 
which they could make a few dollars, and when 
they passed away probably the invention too would 
die and be forgotten. How infinitely greater had 
the noble, immortal originator builded than he 
knew! The revolving paddles of the steamboat 



were but the wheels now whirling so rapidly be- 
neath the flying railroad trains over the civilized 
world. From this strange, rude craft, the "Or- 
leans," have evolved the great steamships, iron-clad 
war vessels, and the palatial steamboats plying the 
inland waters wherever man's wants or luxuries 
are to be supplied. The genius and glory of such 
men as Fulton belong to no age, much less to 
themselves — they and theirs are a part of the world, 
for all time. 

In 1812 Jacob Barkman opened up a river 
trade between Arkadelphia and New Orleans, car- 
rying his first freights in a pirogue. It took six 
months to make a round trip. He conveyed to New 
Orleans bear skins and oil, pelts, and tallow se- 
cured from wild cattle, of which there were a great 
many; these animals had originally been brought 
to the country by the Spaniards and French, and 
had strayed away, and increased into great herds, 
being as wild and nearly as fleet as the deer. He 
brought back sugar, coffee, powder, lead, flints, 
copperas, camphor, cotton and wool cards, etc., 
and soon after embarking was able to' own his 
negro crews. He purchased the steamboat ' ' Dime ' ' 
and became one of the most extensive and enter- 
prising men in the State. With his boat he ascended 
rivers, and purchased the cotton, owning his cargo, 
for a return trip. 

In IS 11), James Miller, the first governor of the 
Territory, and a military suite of twenty persons, 
embarked at Pittsburg in the United States keel- 
boat, ' ■ Arkansas, ' ' for Arkansas Post. The trip 
occupied seventy days, reaching the point of desti- 
nation January 1, 1820. It was difficult to tell 
which excited the greatest curiosity among Ihe 
natives — the new governor or the keel-boat. 

The flood-tide of western river navigation 
reached its highest wave soon after the close of the 
late war. The Mississippi River and tributaries 
were crowded with craft, and the wharves of cities 
and towns along the Ijanks were lined with some 
of the finest boats ever built, all freighted to the 
water's edge and crowded with passengers. Build- 
ers vied with each other in tuining out the most 
magnificent floaters, fitted with every elegance and 
luxury money could procure. The main point after 



^1 



M^ — ^ 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



85 



elegance, in which they rivaled most, was the speed 
of their respective craft. From the close of the 
war to 1870, steamboatinar was the overshadowing 
business on western waters. Of the boats of this 
era, some will go into history, noted for their 
fleetness. but unlike the fleet horses of history, 
they could not leave their strain in immortal de- 
scendants, rivaling their celebrated feats. Racing 
between boats that happened to come togetlier on 
the river was common, and sometimes reckless 
and dangerous, as well as exciting. Occasionally 
a couple of "tubs," as the boys called a slow 
boat, engaged in a race and away they would go, 
running for hours side by side, the stokers all 
the time piling in the most iutlammal)le material 
they could lay hands on, especially pine knots and 
fat bacon, until the eager flames poured out 
of the long chimney tops; and it was often told 
that the captain, rather than fall behind in the 
race, would seat a darkey on the end of the lever 
of the safety valve, and at the same time scream 
at the stokers to pile on the bacon, pine knots, oil, 
anything to make steam. Roustabouts, officers, 
crew and passengers were all afi wildly excited as 
the captain, and as utterly regardless of dangers. 
From such recklessness accidents of course did hap- 
pen, but it is wonderful there were so few. 

Not infrequently commanders would regularly 
engage beforehand for a race of their boats; fixing 
the day and time and as regularly preparing their 
vessels as a jockey trains and grooms his race-horse. 
The two most noted contests of this kind on the 
Mississippi River were, first, in the early times, 
between the ' ' Shotwell ' ' and ' ' Eclipse, ' ' from 
Louisville to New Orleans. The next and greatest 
of all was just at the time of the commencement of 
the decline in steamboating, between the steamers 
"Rol)ei-tE. Lee" and "Natchez," from New Or- 
leans to St. Louis. The speed, the handling of 
these boats, the record they made, have never been 
equaled and probably never will be, unless steam- 
lioating is revived by some new invention. The 
race last mentioned took place in 186S. 

Fearful steamboat calamities, from explosions 
and from tires, like the awful railroad accidents, 
have marked the era of steam navigation. 



The most disastrous in history occurred in 1805, 
in the loss of the " Sultana," on the Mississippi, a 
few miles above Memphis, a part of the navigable 
waters of Arkansas. The boat was on her way up 
stream from New Orleans laden principally with 
soldiers, some of them with their families, and 
several citizens as passengers. There were 2,350 
passengers and crew on the vessel. A little after 
midnight the sudden and awful explosion of the 
boilers came, literally tearing the boat to pieces, 
after which the wreck took fire. Over 2,000 peo- 
ple perished. 

The early decline of the steamboat industry 
kept even pace with the building of railroads over 
the country. Main lines of railroads were soon 
built, the streams being used as natural road beds 
through the rock hills and mountains. In passing 
over the country in trains one will now often see 
the flowing river close to the railroad track on one 
hand, when from the opposite window the higli 
rock mountain wall may almost be touched. Then, 
too, the large towns were along the navigable riv 
ers, lakes and ocean. The sage couclusiou of the 
philosopher when he went out to look at the world, 
and was impressed with the curious coincidence 
that the rivers ran so close by the big towns, is a 
trite one: A great convenience to those who used 
water. 

The first railroad built in Arkansas was the 
Memphis & Little Rock Railroad. ^Vork was com- 
menced with the intention of first constructing it 
from Little Rock to Devall's Bluff, on White 
River, whence passengers might |)roceed by boat 
to Memphis. It was started at both ends of the 
lino and finished in 1859. the next year being 
extended to St. Francis River, and then in ISflO 
completed to the river opposite Memphis. When 
the Federal army took possession of the Mississippi 
River, and their forces began to possess the north- 
eastern portion of the State, the Confederates as 
they retired toward Little Rock destroyed the road 
and burned the bridges. Indeed, when the war 
ended in 1865, Arkansas was without a mile of 
railroad. Soon after the war closed the road was 
rebuilt and put in operation, and for some time 
was the only one in the State. 



<s~ 



f 



8G 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



The next was the old Cairo & Fulton Railroad, 
now the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern 
Road. It was organized in IS'tS, and in 1854-55 
obtained a large Congressional land grant in aid 
of the enterprise, and built first from Fulton to 
Beebe, in 1872: it was comi)l(>ted to Texarkana 
in 1873, and soon came to be the most important 
line in the State. The Camden branch, fi-om Gur- 
dou to Camden, was comjileted in 1882. The Mem- 
phis branch, from Bald Knob to Memphis, ninety- 
three miles, was finished and the first passenger 
train passed over the line May 10, 1888. The 
branch from Newport to Cushman, a distance of 
forty-six miles, was built in 1882. The Helena 
branch, from Noble to Helena, 140 miles, was com- 
pleted in 1882. 

The main line of the St. Louis & Iron Moun- 
tain Railroad enters the State on the north, at 
Moark (combination for Missouri and Arkansas), 
and passes out at Texarkana (combination for 
Arkansas and Texas). The distance between these 
two points is 305 miles. 

The first section of the St. Louis, Arkansas & 
Texas Railroad, from Clarendon to Jonesboro, was 
built in 1882, and the next year completed to Tex- 
arkana. It was built as a narrow gauge and made 
a standard gauge in 1886. Its northern terminus 
for some time was Cairo, where it made its St. 
Louis connection over the St. Louis & Cairo Nar- 
row Gauge Road, now a standard, and a part of the 
Mobile & Ohio system. The Magnolia branch of 
this road runs from McNeal to Magnolia, about 
twenty miles, and was built in 1885. The Althei- 
mer branch, from Altheimer to Little Rock, was 
constructed and commenced operation in 1888. 
The main line of this road enters the State from 
the north in Clay County, on the St. Francis River, 
penetrating into Texas at Texarkana. 

The Little Rock, Mississippi River & Texas 
Railroad, now in course of construction, is a much 
needed road from Little Rock to Pine Bluff, on to 
Wai'ren and Mississippi, and will form an important 
outlet for Arkansas toward the Gulf. This was 
built from Arkansas City to Pine Bluff, and then 
completed to Little Rock in 1880. 

The Pine Bluff & Swan Lake Railroad was 



built in 1885. It is twenty-six miles long, and 
runs between the points indicated by its name. 

The Arkansas Midland Railroad, from Helena 
to Clarendon, was built as a narrow gauge and 
changed to a standard road in 1886. 

The Batesville & Brinkley Railroad is laid as 
far as Jacksonport. It was changed in 1888 to a 
standard gauge, and is now in course of construc- 
tion on to Batesville. 

The Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis Rail- 
road enters the State at Mammoth Spring, and 
runs to West Memphis. Its original name was 
Kansas City, Springfield & Memphis Railroad. It 
now is a main line from Kansas City to Birming- 
ham, Ala. 

Work was commenced on the Little Rock & 
Fort Smith Railroad in 1871 at Little Rock, and 
built to Ozark; later it was fini.shed to Van Buren, 
there using a transfer, and was completed to Fort 
Smith. 

The Hot Springs Railroad, from Malvern, on the 
main line of the Iron Mountain Railroad, to Hot 
Springs, was built and is owned by "Diamond 
Joe ' ' Reynolds. Operations were commenced in 
1874. 

The line of the St. Louis & San Francisco Rail- 
road passes near the west line of Arkansas adjacent 
to Fort Smith. There is a branch road of this 
line from Jensen to Mansfield, sixteen miles long. 

It looks a little as though the sponsor for the 
name of the Ultima Thule, Arkadelphia & Missis- 
sippi Railroad intended to use the name for a main 
track through the State. It was built in 1887 for 
the use of the Arkadelphia Lumber Company. 
Eureka Springs branch runs from Seligman to Eu- 
reka Springs. Another branch goes from Rogers 
to Bentonville. Still another, extending from Fay- 
etteville to St. Paul, is thirty-five miles in length. 
The branch from Fayetteville is now in course of 
building. 

The Russellville & Dardanelle Railroad is four 
miles long, extending from the .south hank of the 
Arkansas River to Russellville. 

The Southwestern, Arkansas & Indian Terri- 
tory Railroad indicates that there is nothing in a 
name, as this road is but twenty-seven miles long, 



■^ 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



87 



running from Southland to Okolona on tbe west, 
and also extending east from tho main line. 

A line is being surveyed and steps actively 
taken to build a road from Kansas City to Little 
Rock, which is to cross the Boston Mountains near 
the head waters of White River. 

Several other important lines are at this time 



making preparations to l)nil(l in the near future. 
Charters for nearly 100 routes in the State have 
been secured siuce 1885. There is not only plenty 
of room, but a great necessity for yet hun«lred.s of 
miles of new roads here. They will greatly facili- 
tate the development of the immense resources of 
this favored locality. 



),^^_(^ 



llflliPR XI. 



— >*«^ 



The Counties of the State— Their Formation and Changes of Boundary Lines, etc— Their 

County Seats and other Items of Intere.st Concerning Them— Defunct Counties- New 

Counties— Population of all the Counties of the State at every General Census. 




Not chaos-like, together crush'd and bruised: 
But as tbe world, harmoniously confused: 
Where order in variety we see. 
And where, thouirb all tliitis-'' differ, they agree.- 



-Pope. 



'ERHAPS to many, no more 
interesting subject in the 
history of the State can be 
j)resented than that refer- 
ring to the name, organiza- 
tion, etc., of each county 
within its limits. Careful 
research has brought forth the fol- 
lowing facts presented in a concise, 
but accurate manner: 

Arkansas County was formed 
December 13, 1813. As the lirst 
municipal formation within the 
boundary of the State, in Lower Mis- 
souri Territory, it was first a parish 
under Spanish rule and then under 
French. October 23. 1821, a part 
of Phillips County was added to it; the line be- 
tween Pulaski and Arkansas was changed October 
30, 1823; Quapaw Purchase divided between Ar- 



kansas and Pulaski October 13, 1827; line between 
Arkansas and Phillips defined November 21, 1825); 
boundaries defined November 7, 1830. County 
seat, De Witt; first county seat, Arkansas — oppo- 
site Arkansas Post. 

Ashley, formed November 30. 1848, named for 
Hon. Chester Ashley, who died a Tnited States 
Senator; line between Chicot changed January 19, 
ISfil. County seat. Hamburg, 

Baxter, March 24, 1873; line between Izard and 
Fulton defined October 10, 1875; line between 
Marion changed March 9, 1881. County seat. 
Mountain Home, 

Benton, September 30, 183(5. named in honor 
of Hon. Thomas H. Benton. County seat, Ben- 
tonville. 

Boone, April 9, 1809 ; named for Daniel 
Boone; line between Marion defined December 9. 
1875. Harrison, county seat. 

Bradley, December 18, 1.S40; jjart of Calhoun 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



attached October 1 9, 1 862 ; part restored to Ashley 
County January 1, 1859. Warren, county seat. 

Calhoun, December 0, IS-iO: named for John 
C. Calhoun; part added to Union and Bradley 
November 19, 1862. County seat, Hampton. 

Carroll, Novemlier 1, 1833; named in honor of 
the signer of the declaration; boundary defined 
December 14, 1838; line between Madison defined 
January, 11, 1843, and again January 20, 1843; 
line between Marion defined December 18, 184G; 
line between Madison defined December 29, 1854, 
and again January 16, 1S57: part of Madison 
attached April 8, 1869. Berryville, county seat. 

Chicot, October 25, 1823; boundary defined 
November 2, 1835; part attached to Drew Decem- 
ber 21, 1846; line between Ashley changed 
January 19, 1861; line between Drew changed 
November 30, 1875; line changed between Desha 
February 10, 1879. Lake Village, county seat. 

Clark, December 15, 1818, while Lower Mis- 
souri Territory; named in honor of Gov. Clark, 
of Missouri; the line between Pulaski and Clark, 
changed October 30, 1823; divided November 2, 
1829; line between Hot Springs and Dallas changed 
April 3, 1868; line between Pike defined April 
22, 1873 ; line between Montgomery changed April 
24, 1873; line between Pike changed March 8. 
1887. Arkadelphia, county seat. 

Clay, March 24, 1873; named for Henry Clay. 
This county, formed as Clayton County, was changed 
to Clay on December 6, 1875. The act of March 
24, 1873, changed the boundaries of a large num- 
ber of counties. Boydsville and Corning, county 
seats. 

Cleburne, formed February 20, 1883; named 
in honor of Gen. Patrick A. Cleburne. Heber is 
the county seat. 

Cleveland, formed in 1885; named for President 
Cleveland ; was formed as Dorsey County. Toledo, 
county seat. 

Columbia, December 17, 1852; part of Union 
County added December 21, 1858; line between 
Nevada defined April 19, 1873. Magnolia, county 
seat. 

Conway. December 7, 1825; named after the 
noted Con ways; the northeast boundary defined 



October 27, 1827; line between Pulaski and Con- 
way defined October 20, 1828; part of Indian pur 
chase added October 22, 1828; line between Con- 
way, Pulaski and Independence defined November 
5, 1831; part added to Pope January 6, 1853; 
part added to White January 11. 1853; act of 
March, 1873; line between Pope defined May 28, 
1874. County seat, Morrillton. 

Craighead, formed February 19, 1850. Jones- 
boro, county seat. 

Crawford, October 18, 1820; boundary was 
changed October 30, 1823; divided and county 
of Lovely established October 13, 1827; part of 
the Cherokee Country attached to, October 22, 
1828; boundary defined December 18, 1837; line 
between Scott defined; line between Washington 
defined November 24, 1846; line between Frank- 
lin defined March 4, 1875; line changed between 
Washington March 9, 1881. Van Buren, county 
seat. 

Crittenden, October 22, 1825; named for Rob- 
ert Crittenden; St. Francis River declared to be 
the line between St. Francis and Crittenden Coun- 
ties November, 1831; portion attached to Missis 
sippi County January, 1861; act, March, 1S73. 
Marion, county seat. 

Cross, November 15, 1862, 1866, 1873. Witts- 
burg, the county seat. 

Dallas, January 1, 1845; line between Hot 
Springs and Clark changed April 3, 1869. Prince- 
ton the county seat. 

Desha, December 12, 1838; named for Hon. 
Ben Desha; portion attached to Drew January 21, 
1861; part of Chicot attached February 10, 1879; 
also of Lincoln, March 10, 1879. Arkansas City, 
county seat. 

Drew, November 26, 1846; part Chicot attached 
December 21, 1840; part of Desha attached Jan- 
uary 21, 1861; March, 1873; line between Chicot 
changed November 30, 1875. Monticello, county 
seat. 

Faulkner, April 12, 1873; line defined Decem- 
7, 1875. Conway, county seat. 

Franklin, December 19, 1837; line between 
Johnson defined December 14, 1833; line between 
Crawford defined March 4, 1875. Ozark, countv seat. 



K, 



HISTOR-i OF ARKANSAS. 



89 



Fulton, December 21, 1842; part attached to 
Marion County January 18, 1855; part of Law- 
rence attached January 18, 1855, March, 1873; 
line between Baxter and Izard defined February 
1(5, 1875. County seat, Salem. 

Garland, April 5, 1873; named after Gov. 
A. H. Garland. Hot Springs, county seat. 

Grant, February 4, 1869. Sheridan, county 
seat. 

Greene, November 5, 1833; act March, 1873. 
Paragould, county seat. 

Hempstead, December 15, 1818, when this 
was Lower Missouri Territory; Lafayette County 
carved out of this territory October 15, 1827; line 
between Pike defined December 14, 1838. Wash- 
ington, county seat. 

Hot Spring. November 2, 1829; certain lands 
attached to March 2, 1838; Montgomery taken out 
of December 9, 1842; line between Saline defined 
December 23, 1846; line between Montgomery 
changed December 27, 1848; line between Saline 
changed February 19, 1859, and changed again 
January 10, 1861 ; line between Clark and Dallas 
changed April 3, 1869; March, 1873. Malvern, 
county seat. 

Howard, April 17, 1873. County seat. Centre 
Point. 

Independence, October 20, 1820; part of east- 
ern boundary defined October 30, 1823; Izard 
County formed of October 27, 1825; part of Inde- 
pendence added October 22, 1828; line between 
Independence and Izard defined November 5, 1831 ; 
line between Independence and Conway, November 
5, 1831; between Independence and Jackson, No- 
veuiV)er 8, 1830; between Izard February 21, 1838; 
December 14, 1840; Lawrence changed December 
20, 1840; March. 1873; Sharp County defined Feb- 
ruary 11, 1875. Batesville, county seat. 

Izard, October 27, 1825; western boundary 
line extended October 13, 1827; part of the Indian 
piu-chase added October 22, 1828; between Inde- 
pendence and Izard defined November 5, 1831; 
between Conway and Izard, November 5, 1831; 
southern boundary established November 1 1, 1833; 
line between Independence defined I\?bruary 21. 
1838, and December 14, 1838, and December 21, 



1840; western boundary line defined December 24, 
1840, March, 1873; between Baxter and Fulton 
defined February 16, 1875; between Sharp changed 
March 9, 1877. Melbourne, county sent. 

Jackson, November 5, 1829; line between In- 
dependence defined November 8, 1836; part of 
St. Francis attached January 10, 1851. Jackson- 
port, county seat. 

Jefferson, November 2, 1829; boundaries de- 
fined November 3, 1831. and again October 29, 
1836; line changed between Lincoln and Desha 
March 20, 1879. Pine Bluff, county seat. 

John.son, November 16, 1833; southern line 
defined November 3, 1835; east line defined Octo- 
ber 5, 1836; line between Franklin defined Decem- 
ber 14, 1838, 1848; between Pope Fel^ruary 19, 
1859, again March 27. 1871; line between Pope 
re-established on March 6, 1875; between Pope 
changed March 9, 1877. Clarksville, county seat. 

Lafayette, October 15, 1827; the line between 
Union defined November 26, 1846. Lewisville, 
county seat. 

Lawrence, on January 15, 1815, while Lower 
Missouri Territory; east line defined October 30, 
1823; between Independence changed December 
20, 1840; part attached to Fulton January 18, 
1855; part attached to Randolph January 18, 
1861; nearly half the county cut off the west side 
to form Sharp County, 1868. Powhatan, county 
seat. 

Lee, April 17, 1873. Marianna. county seat. 

Lincoln. March 28, 1871; part transferred to 
Desha County, March 10, 1879. Star City, county 
seat. 

Little River, March 5, 1867. Richmond is the 
county seat. 

Logan, originally Sarber County, March 22, 
1871; amended, Fobrnary 27. 1873; changed to 
Logan, December 14, 1S75; line between Scott 
changed, March 21, 1881. Pari.s, county seat. 

Lonoke, April 16, 1873; named for the lone 
oak tree, by simply spelling phonetically — the 
suggestion of the chief engineer of the Cairo & 
Fulton Railroad. Line laetween Prairie defined 
November 30, 1N75, and again. December 7, 1875. 
Lonoke, county seat. 



V 



90 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



Lovely, October 13, 1827; abolished October 
17. 1828.' 

Madison. September 30, 1830; west bouudary 
changed on November 26, 1838; between Carroll 
defined January 11, 1843, and again January 20, 
1843, 1846; between Newton, December 21, 1848; 
between Carroll. April 8, 1869. Huntsville, county 
seat. 

Mai ion, September 25, 1836; originally Searcy 
County; changed to Marion, September 29, 1836 
(Searcy County created out of December 13, 1838); 
west hounihiry defined November 18,1837; between 
Carrol! defined December IS, 1840; part of Fulton 
attached January 18, 1855; between Van Buren 
and Searcy defined Jannary 20, 1855, and March, 
1873; line between Boone defined December 9, 
1875; line between Baxter changed March 9, 1881. 
Yellville, county seat. 

Miller, April 1, 1820; the greater portions fell 
within the limits of Texas; county abolished there- 
fore, 1836; re-established. December 22, 1874, and 
eastern boundary extended. Texarkana, county seat. 

Mississippi, November 1, 1833, 1859; portion 
of Crittenden attached, January 18, 1S61. Osceola, 
county seat. 

Monroe, November 2, 1829; boundaries defined 
December 25, 1840; line between Prairie changed 
December 7, 1850; line changed April 12, 1869, 
March, 1873, April, 1873, and May 27, 1874. 
Clarendon, county seat. 

Montgomery, December 9. 1842; line between 
Yell defined January 2. 1845; between Perry, 
December 23, 1846; between Perry re-established 
December 21, 1848; between Hot Spring changed 
December 27, 1848; between Polk changed Feb- 
ruary 7,1859. March, 1873; between Clark changed 
April 24, 1873; line between Pike defined Decem- 
ber 16, 1874. Mount Ida, county seat. 

Nevada, March 20, 1871; line between Colum 
bia defined April 10, 1873. Prescott, county seat. 

Newton, December 14, 1842; line between 
Madison defined December 21 , 1848; between Pope 
January 10, 1853. Jasper, county seat. 

Ouachita, November 29, 1842; line between 
Union changed January 6, 1853. Camden, county 
seat. 



Perry, December 18, 1840; line between Pul- 
aski, Saline and Montgomery defined December 
23, 1846; old line between Montgomery re-estab- 
lished December 21,1848. Perryville, county seat. 

Phillips. May 1, 1820; part attached to Arkan- 
sas County October 23, 1881; west boundary 
defined October 30, 1823; act to divide and create 
Crittenden County October 22, 1825; divided and 
St. Francis County created October 13, 1827; line 
between Arkansas County defined November 21, 
1828, 1840, March, 1873. Helena, county seat. 

Pike, November 1, 1833; line between Sevier 
defined November 15,1883; between Hempstead, 
December 14, 1838; between Clark, April 22, 
1873; between Montgomery, December 16, 1874; 
between Clark denned March 8, 1877. Murfi-ees- 
boro, county seat. 

Poinsett. February 28, 1838, 1859. Harris- 
burg, county seat. 

Polk, November 30, 1844; line between Mont- 
gomery changed February 7. 1859; part of Sebas- 
tian County added by ordinance of convention, 
June 1, 1861. Dallas, county seat. 

Pope, November 2, 1829; part added to Yell 
January 5, 1853; part of Conway attached Janu- 
ary 6, 1853; line between Newton, January 10, 
1853; part of Van Buren attached January 12, 
1853; between Van Buren defined February 17, 
1859; between Johnson, October 19, 1859, March, 
27, 1871; between Conway, May 28, 1874; between 
Johnson re-established March 6, 1875; between 
Johnson changed March 9, 1877. Dover, county 
seat. 

Prairie. October 25, 1846; between Pulaski 
changed December 30, 1848; between Monroe 
changed December 7, 1850: line changed April 12, 
1869; between White defined April 17, 1873; line 
changed April 26, 1873, May 27, 1874; between 
Lonoke changed November 30, 1875; separated 
into two districts, 1885. Devall's Bluff, county 
seat. 

Pulaski, December 15, 1818, while a part of 
Lower Missouri Territory; line between Arkansas 
and Pulaski October 30, 1823; between Clark 
changed October 30, 1823; divided October 20, 
1825; Quapaw Purchase divided — Arkansas and 



:rz 



4^^ 



k^ 



HISTORY OF .UtKANSAS. 



91 



Pulaski, October 13, 1827; uorthwost boundary 
defined October 23, 1827; between Pulaski and 
Conway, October 20, 1828; line between Saline 
defined February 25, 1888, December 1-1, 1838; 
between White changed February 3,1843; between 
Saline defined December 21, 1846; between Perry 
defined December 23, 1846; between Prairie 
changed December 30, 1848; between Saline de- 
fined April 12, 1873; again, December 7, 1875. 
Little Rock, county seat. 

Randolph, October 29, 1835; part of Lawrence 
uttacbed January 18, 1864, March, 1873. Poca- 
hontas, county seat. 

Saline, November 2, 1835; boundaries defined 
November 5, 1836; between Pulaski, February 25, 
1838, December 14, 1838, December 21, 1846; be- 
tween Hot Spring, December 23, 1846, February 
19, 1859, January 19,1861; between Pulaski, April 
12, 1873. December 17, 1875. Benton, county 
seat. 

Scott, November 5, 1833; boundaries defined 
October 24, 1835; between Crawford, December 
16, 1838; part of Sebastian attached by conven- 
tion June 1, 1861; line between Logan changed 
March 21, 1873. Waldron, county seat. 

Searcy, November 5, 1835; boundaries defined 
September 26, 1836; name changed to Marion 
September 29, 1830; county created out of Marion 
December 13, 1838; between Van Buren defined 
October 2. 1853; between Van Buren and Marion 
defined October 20, 1855, March, 1873. Marshall, 
county seat. 

Sebastian, January 6, 1851; part attached to 
Scott and Polk by the convention June 1, 1861. 
Fort Smith and Greenwood, county seats. 

Sevier, October 17, 1828; boundaries defined 
November 8, 1833; between Pike, November 15, 
1833; southeast boundary defined October 29, 
1836. Lockesburg, county seat. 

Sharp, July IS. 1868; act March 3, 1873; be- 
tween Independence defined February 11, 1875; 



line between Izard changed March 9, 1877, 1883. 
Evening Shade, county seat. 

St. Francis, Octolier 13, 1827; St. Francis 
River declared boundary lino between Crittenden 
Novembers, 1831; part attached to Jackson Jan- 
uary 1, 1851, March, 1873. Forrest City, county 
seat. 

Stone, April 21, 1873. Mountain View, county 
seat. 

Union, November 2, 1829; boundaries defined 
November 5, 1836; line between Lafayette, 
November 26,1846; line between Ouachita changed 
January 6. 1853; part added to Columliia, Decem- 
ber 21, 1851; part of Calhoun attached October 
19, 1862. El Dorado, county seat. 

Van Buren, November 11. 1833; boundaries 
defined November 4, 1836; part attached to Po])e 
January 12, 1853; between Searcy and Marion 
defined January 20, 1855; between Pope defined 
February 17, 1859. Clinton, county seat. 

Washington, October 17, 1828; certain lands 
declared to be in Washington County October 2'), 
1831; line between Crawford defined November 
24, 1846; line changed between Crawford March 
8, 1883. Fayetteville, county seat. 

White, October 23, 1835; line between Pulaski 
changed February 3, 1843; part of Conway at 
tachod January 11, 1853; line between Prairie 
defined April 17, 1873. Searcy, county seat. 

Woodruff, November 20, 1862; but vote, in 
pui-suance to ordinance of conventions 1861, 1806, 
1869; line changed April 26, 1873. Augusta, 
county seat. 

Yell, December 5, 1840; northern boundary, 
December 21, 1840; line between Montgomery, 
January 2. 1845; part Pope attached January 6, 
1853. Danville and Dardauelle, county seats. 

The following table will prove valuable for 
comparison in noting the growth in poimlation 
of the counties throughout the State in the various 
decades from their organization: 




AGGBEQ4TE 


POPULATION BY 


COUNTIES 






AGGREGATE POPULATION BY 


COUNTIES. 






Counties in 


1880 


1870 


1860 


1850 


1840 


1830 j 1820 
:.0,388 14,255 


1810 
1,062 


Counties in 
tbe SUte. 


1880 1 1870 1860 


1850 I 1340 

1 


1830 i 1820 

1 


1810 


the State. 


802,525 


484,471 


485,460 209,897 

1 


97,574 


802,525| 484,471 


435,450:209,897 97,574 


30,388; 14,255 


1,062 




8,038 

10,156 

6,004 

20,837 

1A146 

6,285 

.■i.U"! 

13,337 

10,117 

15,771 

7,213 

M.O'.IO 

l-.',7.'\5 

7,037 

;4,740 

9,415 

5,030 

6,5' >5 

8,873 

8,870 

12,231 

1J,7H6 

14.9.il 

6,720 

9,023 

6,185 

7,480 

19,015 

7,775 

9,917 

18,086 

10,857 

10,877 

22,386 

11,565 

5,730 

8,782 


8,238 
8,042 


8,884 
8,690 


3,245 
:i,058 


1,346 


1 426 t •3(^ 


1,062 


Lee 

Lincoln 

Lilile River 


13,288 
9,255 
6,405 
14,885 
12 146 














Ashley 


















Baxter 








3,246 
















13,831 
7,032 
8,646 

6,780 
7,214 
11,953 


9,306 


3,710 


2,228 




I i 














Booue 








Lonoke 

Madison 

Marion 
















Bradley ,... 


8,.388 
4,103 
9,383 
9,2.34 
9,785 


3,829 










11,4,55 
7,907 
9,919 
7,142 
9,574 
8,739 

12.959 
6,120 

11,758 
3,873 

21,262 
6,345 
2 192 


8,231 
3,979 


7,740 
6,192 


4,823 
2,308 


3,775 
1 ,325 
























1 4,617 

■ 5,115 

4,070 


2,814 

3,8U« 
2,300 








Miller 










1,165 
1,369 






Mississippi 

Monroe 

Montgomery 

Nevada 


3,6.33 
8,336 
2,984 


3,895 
5.657 
3,633 


2,368 
2,049 
1,958 


1,410 
936 








Clark 


1.040 




461 






Clay 










11,307 
8,112 
4,577 
8,9,57 
8,831 
3,915 
5,707 
6,125 


12,459 

6,697 
8,066 
7,8,50 
4,920 














' 






3,.583 


2,892 


982 




4,374 
12,975 

2,685 
15,372 

3,788 

1 790 


3..393 
12,9.36 
2,465 
14,877 
4,025 
3,621 
4,262 
7,883 
8,854 
11,699 
6,261 
8,672 
6,540 
5.142 
.5,271 


1,7.58 
9,591 
978 
6,9.35 
1,801 
2,308 
1,263 
4,710 
2,097 
6,657 
3,375 
4,457 
3,903 
3,083 
1,979 


























7,960 
2,648 


4,200 
1,561 


2,440 
1,273 


















Phillips 


3,547 

969 

1,.320 


1,1,52 


1.197 





Cross 




Pike 




Dallas 


8.283 
6,459 


6,877 
2,911 






1 


Poinsett . 










1,698 




■ 


Polk 














I 


Pope 


14,322 
8.435 
32,616 
11,724 
8.389 
8,953 
9.174 
7,278 


8,386 
5,604 
32,006 
7,466 
6.714 
3,911 
7,483 
5 613 


2,(!50 


1,483 








9,960 


9,087 


3,276 









Prairie 








Pulaski 


5.350 
2,196 
2,499 
2,061 
1,694 
9.3R 


2,395 
'i','56'5 


1.921 






9,027 
4,843 

3,943 
7,573 
13.768 

6,877 


7,898 
4,024 

"s.'si's 

13989 
5,636 


3,972 
1,819 

"2,.593 
7,672 
3,609 


2,065 














St. Francis 

Saline 




Garland 


'1,58(1 
4,921 
1,907 





:::::::::l::::::::: 






Grant 


gpott 










Searcy ~ 

Sebastian 

Sevier 

Shatp 








Hempstead 

Hot Spring 


2,512 

4.58 


2,?46 




19 560 1 12 940 












6,192 
9,047 
5,089 
13,419 


4.492 
5,400 


10,516 


4,240 


2,810 


634 






Independence... 
Izard 


14,666 
6,806 
7,268 

15,733 
9,1.52 
9.1.39 
5,981 


14,307 
7,215 
10,493 
14,971 
7,612 
8,464 
9,373 


7,767 
3,212 

3,086 
6,834 
5.227 
6.220 
6,274 


3,669 
2,340 
1,640 
2..';66 
3,4.33 
2,280 
2,835 


2.031 

1,266 

333 

772 

'748 

2,806 





Stone 
















10571 


12,288 
5,357 

14,673 
8,316 


10,298 
3,884 
9,97(1 
2,619 


2,889 

1 518 

7,148 

920 


640 










Van Buren 

Washington 

White 


9,565 ' 6,107 
23,884 ' 17,266 
17,794 1 10.347 

8.(146' 6,981 
13,853 8.048 










5,182 














Lafayptie 


Woodruff. 

YpII 








5,592 




6,333 


... 
3,341 
















' 










1 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



98 



®iiAiTit xn. 



o » < « 



Edtjcation-The Mental Type Considered-Tekritorial Schools, Laws and Funds-Constitutional 

Provisions for Education— Legislative Provisions— Progress since the War— The State 

Superintendents— Statistics-Arkansas Literature— The Arkansaw Traveler. 




Delightful task! to rear the tender thought. 
To teach the young idea how to shoot; 
To pour the fresh instructions o'er the mind, 
To breathe th' enlivening spirit, and to fix 
The generous purpose in the glowing breast.- 



Thormon. 



J^Titre^ each other 



ERE is oue subject 
at least in the economic 
institutions of our country 
where men do not divide 
on political lines. To the 
historian it is a restful 
and refreshing oasis in 
the arid desert. From 
the Canadas to the Gulf commun- 
ities and States earnestly vie with 



'«&j eacn otner in the establishment of 
the best public schools. The pres- 
ent generation has nearly supplant- 
ed the former great universities 
with the free public high schools 
A generation ago the South sent its 
boys to the North to school; the 
Nortli sent its boys to the old universities of Europe. 
Oxford and Heidelburg received the sons of ambi- 
tious, wealthy Americans of the North, while Yale, 
Harvard and Jefferson Colleges were each the alma 
mater of many of the youths of the South. The 
rivalry in the schools between the two sections at 
that time was not intense, but the educa'.ed young 
men of the South met in sharpest rivalry in the 
halls of Congress the typical Northern man. As 
the highest types of the North and the South in 



active political life may be placed Thomas Jeffer- 
son and Daniel Webster. In peace or in war the 
differences in the intellectual advancement of the 
two sections were more imaginary than real. The 
disadvantage the South met was tlie natural ten- 
dency to produce an aristocratic class in the com- 
munity. Cotton and the negro wore impediments 
in the Southern States that clogged the way to the 
advancement of the masses. They retarded the 
building of great institutions of learning as well as 
the erection of large manufactories. This applied 
far more to collegiate education than to the com- 
mon or public school system. The Southern man 
who was able to send his children away from his 
State to school realized that he gave them two ad- 
vantages over keeping them at home; he aided 
them in avoiding negro contact and association, 
and provided the advantage of a better knowledge 
of different peoples in different sections. 

Arkansas may have Ligged somewhat in the 
cause of education in the past, but to-day, though 
young as a State, it is far in advance of many older 
communities who are disposed to boast greatly of 
their achievements in this direction. 

When still a Territory the subject of education 
received wise and considerate attention. March 
2, 1827, Congress gave the State seventy-two 



^ 



w 

zrr^" — r * 
-n jfv 



94 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



sections of land for the purpose of establishing 
"a seminary of learning." A supplemental act 
was passed l)y Congress, June '23, 183(5, one week 
after it became a State, offering certain propo- 
sitions for acceptance or rejection: 1. The six- 
teenth section of every township for school pur- 
poses. 2. The seventy- two sections known as the 
saline lands. By article 9, section 4, State con- 
stitution of 1S()9, these lands were given to the free 
schools. 3. The seventy-two sections, known as 
the seminary lands, given to 'the Territory in 1827, 
were vested and conhrmed in the State of Arkansas 
for the use of said seminary. October 18, 1836, 
the State accepted the propositions entire; and the 
legislature passed the act known as " the ordinance 
of acceptance and compact." December 18, 1844, 
the general assembly asked Congress for a modi- 
fication of the seminary grant, so as to authorize 
the legislature to appropriate these seventy-two 
sections of land for common school purposes. 
Congress assented to this on July 29, 1840, and 
the lands were added to the free school fund. 
These congressional land grants formed the basis of 
the State's free school system. 

The first State constitution of 1836 recognized 
the importance of popular education, and made it 
the duty of the general assembly to provide by 
law for the improvement of such lands as are, or 
may be, granted by the United States for the use 
of schools, and to pass such laws as "shall be cal- 
culated to encourage intellectual, scientific and 
agricultural improvement." 

The general assembly of 1842 established a sys- 
tem of common schools in the State, which was ap- 
proved and became a law February 3, 1853, pro- 
viding for the sale of the sixteenth section, and 
election of school trustees in each township, to ex- 
pend the money from the sale of land in the cause 
of education. The act required schools to be main- 
tained in each township ' ' for at least four months 
in each year, and orthography, reading, writing, 
English grammar, arithmetic and good morals 
should be taught." The trustees were required 
to visit the schools once in each month, and the 
school age was fixed at from five to twenty-one 
years. The act also provided for the establishment 



of manual labor schools. It went to the extent of 
appropriating a sum of money for the purchase of 
text-books. This was a long step in advance of 
any other portion of the country at that time. To 
the fund arising from lands the act added "all 
tines for false impri.sonment, assault and battery, 
breach of the peace, etc." This act of the assem- 
bly placed the young State in the vanguard of 
States in the cause of free schools. It is an 
enduring monument to the men of that legis- 
lature. Under this law the reports of the county 
commissioners of education were ordered to be 
made to the State auditor, but if so made none can 
be found in the State archives. 

A State board of education was provided for 
by the act of 1843, and the board was required to 
make a complete report of educational matters, 
and also to recommend the passage of such laws 
as were deemed advisable for the advancement of 
the cause of education. By an act of January 1 1 , 
1853, the secretary of State was made ex- officio 
State commissioner of common schools, and re- 
quired to report to the governor the true condition 
of the schools in each county; which report the 
governor presented to the general assembly at 
each regular session. The provisions of an act of 
January, 1855, relate to the sale of the sixteenth 
section, and defined the duties of the school trus- 
tees and commissioners. Article 8, in the consti- 
tution of 1807, is substantially the same as the pro- 
visions of the law of 1836. 

From 1830 to 1807, as is shown by the above, 
the provisions of the law were most excellent and 
liberal toward the public schools; legislative enact- 
ments occur at frequent intervals, indicating that 
the State was well abreast of the most liberal school 
ideas of the time, and large funds were raised 
sacred to the cause. 

Investigation shows that from the date of the 
State's admission into the Union, until 1867, there 
were many and admnable stipulations and statutes, 
by which large revenues were collected from the 
sale of lands, but the records of the State depart- 
ment give no account of the progress of free 
schools during this period, leaving the inference 
that but little practical benefit accrued to the 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



95 



cause from these wise and libonil measures put 
forth by Congress and the State. 

By act approved May 18, 1807, the legislature 
made a marked forward movement in the cause of 
education. Considering the chaotic conditions of 
society, and the universal public and private bank- 
ruptcy, the movement is only the more surprising. 
The act stipulated that a tax of 20 cents on every 
$100 worth of taxable pro]ierty should be levied 
for the purpose of establishing and maintaining 
a system of public schools. The second section 
made this fund sacred — to be used for no other 
purpose whatever. The fourth section provided 
for a superintendent of public instruction and 
defined his duties. The eighth section provided 
for a school commissioner, to be chosen by the 
electors of each county, who should examine any 
one applying for a position as school teacher; 
granting to those qualified to teach a certificate, 
without which no one could be legally em- 
ployed to teach. Prior to this a license as teacher 
was not considered essential, and there was no one 
authorized to examine applicants or grant certifi- 
cates. The Congressional township was made the 
unit of the school district, the act also setting 
forth that in the event of the trustees failing to 
have a school taught in the distiict at least three 
months in the year, the same thereby forfeited 
its portion of the school revenue. These wise and 
liberal arrangements were made, it must be remem- 
bered, by a people bankrupt by war and suffering 
the hard trials of reconstruction. 

No regular reports were made — at least none 
can be found — prior to 1867, the date of the ap- 
pointment of a superintendent. Though reports 
were regularly received ^om the year mentioned, 
the most of them were unsatisfactory and not 
reliable. 

The constitution of 1868 created some wise 
amendments to the previous laws. It caused the 
schools to become free to every child in the State; 
school revenues were increased, districts could have 
no part of the school fund unless a free school had 
been taught for at least throe mouths. The leg- 
islature following this convention, July 23. ISfiS, 
amended the school laws to conform to this con- 



stitutional provision. In addition to State super- 
intendent, the office of circuit superiiitendi'iit was 
created, and also the State board of education. 

The constitutional convention of 1874 made 
changes in the school law and provided for the 
school system now in force in the State. The act 
of the legislature, December 7, 187^, was passed 
in conformity with the last preceding State con- 
vention. This law with amendments is the present 
school law of Arkansas. 

Hon. Thomas Smith was the first State super- 
intendent, in office from 1808 to 1873. The 
present incumbent of that position, Hon. Wood- 
ville E. Thoujpson, estimates that the commence- 
ment of public free schools in Arkansas may prop- 
erly date from the time Mr. Smith took possession 
of the office — schools free to all ; every child entitled 
to the same rights and privileges, none excluded: 
separate schools provided for white and black; 
a great number of schools organized, school houses 
built, and etKcient teachers secured. Previous to 
this time people looked upon free schools as largely 
pauper schools, and the wealthier classes regarded 
them unfavorably. 

Hon. J. C. Corbin, the successor of Mr. Smith, 
continued in office until December 13, 1875. 

Hon. B. W. Hill was appointed December 18, 
1875, and remained in office until 1878. It was 
during his term that there came the most marked 
change in public sentiment in favor of public 
schools. He was a zealous and able worker in the 
cause, and from his report for 1870 is learned the 
following: State apportionment. §213,000; dis- 
trict tax, $88,000; school population, ISU.OCO. 
Through the directors" failure to report the enroll- 
ment only shows 10,000. The total revenue of 
1877 was $270,000; of 1878, 8270,000. 

Mr. Hill was succeeded in 1878 by Hon. J. L. 
Denton, whose integrity, earne-itnesa and great 
ability resulted in completing the valuable work so 
well commenced by his predecessor— removing the 
Southern prejudices against public schools. He 
deserves a lasting place in the history of Arkansas 
as the advocate and chami)ion of free schools. 

The present able and efficient State superin- 
tendent of public instruction, as previou.sly men- 



-* 9 



Vt6 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



tioned, is Hon. Woodville E. Thompson. To his 
eminent qualificationa and tireless energy the 
schools of Arkansas are largely indebted for the 
rapid advance now going on, and which has 
marked his past term of oflSce. From his bien- 
nial report are gleaned most of the facts and sta- 
tistics given below. 

The growth of the institution as a whole may 
be detined by the following statistics: In 1879 
the revenue raised by the State and county tax was 
$271,000; in 1880, $285,000; in 1881, $710,000; 
in 1882, $722,000; in 1883, .'{;740,000; iu 1884, 
$931,000; in 1885, $1,199,000; in 1886, $1,327,- 
000. The district tax in 1884 was $34(3,521; in 
1885, $343,850, and in 1886, $445,563. The dis- 
trict tax is that voted by the people. 

Arkansas to-day gives the most liberal sup- 
port to her free schools, all else considered, of any 
State in the Union. It provides a two mill tax, a 
poll tax, and authorizes the districts to vote a live 
mill tax. This is the rule or rate voted in nearly 
all the districts, thus making a total on all taxable 
property of seven mills, besides the poll tax. 

The persistent neglect of school officers to re- 
port accurate returns of their school attendance is 
to be regretted. The number of pupils of school 
age (six to twenty-one years) is given, but no ac- 
count of attendance or enrollment. This leaves 
counties in the unfavorable light of a large school 
population, with apparently the most meager at- 
tendance. The following summaries exhibit the 
progress of the public schools: Number of school 
children, 1869, 176,910; 1870, 180,274; 1871, 
196,237; 1872, 194,314; 1873, 148,128; 1874, 168,- 
929; 1875, 168,929; 1876, 189,130; 1877, 203,567; 
1878, 216,475: 1879, 236,600; 1880, 247,547; 1881, 
272,841; 1882, 289,617; 1883, white, 227,538; 
black, 76,429; total, 304,962; 1884. white, 247,- 
173; black, 76,770; total, 323,943; 1885, white, 
252,290; black, 86,213; total, 338,506; 1886, 
white, 266,188; black, 91,818; total, 358,006; 
1887, white, 279,224; black, 98,512; total, 377,- 
730; 1888, white, 288,381; black, 99,747; total, 
388,129. The number of juipils enrolled in 1869 
was 67,412; 1888, 202,754, divided as follows: 
White, 152,184; black, 50,570. Number of teach- 



ers employed 1869, 1,335; number employed 1888, 
males, 3,431, females, 1.233. Total number of 
school houses, 1884, 1,453; erected that year, 263. 
Total number school houses, 1888, 2,452; erected 
in that year, 269. Total value of school houses, 
1884, $384,827.73. Total value, 1888, $705,- 
276.92. Total amount of revenues received, 1868, 
$300,669.63. For the year, 1888: Amount on 
hand June 30, 1887, $370,942.25; received com- 
mon school fund, $315,403.28; district tax, $505,- 
069.92; poll tax, $146,604.22; other sources, 
$45,890.32; total, $1,083,909.32. 

While there were in early Territorial days great 
intellectual giants in Arkansas, the tendency was 
not toward the tamer and more gentle walks of lit- 
erature, but rather in the direction of the fiercer bat- 
tles of the political arena and the rostrum. Oratory 
was cultivated to the extreme, and often to the 
neglect apparently of all else of intellectual pur- 
suits. The ambitious youths had listened to the 
splendid eloquence of their elders — heard their 
praises on every lip, and were fired to struggle for 
such triumphs. Where there are great orators one 
expects to find poets and artists. The great states- 
man is mentally cast in molds of stalwart pro- 
portions. The poet, orator, painter, and eminent 
literary character are of a finer texture, but usually 
not so virile. 

Gen. Albert Pike gave a literary immortality to 
Arkansas when it was yet a Territorial wilderness. 
The most interesting incident in the history of 
literature would be a true picture of that Nestor of 
the press. Kit North, when he opened the mail 
package from that dim and unknown savage 
world of Arkansas, and turned his eyes on the 
pages of Pike's manuscript, which had been offered 
the great editor for publication, in his poem en- 
titled "Hymn to the Gods." This great but mer- 
ciless critic had written Byron to death, and one 
can readily believe that he must have turned pale 
when his eye ran over the lines — lines from an un- 
known world of untamed aborigines, penned in the 
wilderness by this unknown boy. North read the 
products of new poets to find, not merit, but weak 
points, where he could impale on his sharp and 
pitiless pen the daring singer. What a play must 



;^ 




:> 



\r> 




DsCE QLR . 

Mississippi Cdunty Arkansas . 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



i»7 



have swept over his features as his eye followed 
line after line, eager and more eager from the first 
word to the last. To him could this be possible — 
real — and not the day dream of a disturbed im- 
agination. This historical incident in the litera- 
ture of the wild west — the pioneer boy not only on 
the outer coufines of civilization, but to the aver- 
age Englishman, in the impenetrable depths of a 
dark continent, where dwelt only cannibals, select- 
ing the great and severe arbiter of English litera- 
ture to whom he would transmit direct his fate as 
a poet; the youth's unexpected triumph in not 
only securing a place in the columns of the leading 
review of the world, but extorting in the editorial 
columns the highest meed of praise, is unparalleled 
in the feats of tyros in literature. The supremacy 
of Pike's genius was dulled in its brilliancy be- 
cause of the versatility of his mental occupations. 
A poet, master of belles leitres, a lawyer and a poli- 
tician, as well as a soldier, and eminent in all the 
varied walks he trod, yet he was never a book- 
maker — had no ambition, it seems, to be an author. 
The books that he will leave, those especially by 
which he will be remembered, will be his gathered 
and bound writings thrown ofP at odd intervals and 
cast aside. His literary culture could produce only 
the very highest type of effort. Hence, it is prob- 
able that Lord North was the only editor living to 
whom Pike might have submitted his " Hymn to 
the Gods" with other than a chance whim to de- 
cide its fate. 

There was no Boswell among the early great 
men of Arkansas, otherwise there would exist biog- 
raphies laden with instruction and full of interest. 
There were men and women whose genius com- 
pelled them to talk and write, but they wrote dis- 
connected, uncertain sketches, and doubtless often 
published them in the columns of some local news- 
paper, where they sank into oblivion. 

The en-atic preacher- lawyer, A. W. Arrington, 
wrote many and widely published sketches of the 
bench and bar of Ai-kansas, but his imagination 



so out-ran the facts that they became mere fictions 
— very interesting and entertaining, it is said, 
but entirely useless to the historian. Arrington 
was a man of superior natural genius, but was so 
near a moral wreck as to cloud his memory. 

Years ago was published Nutall's History of 
Arkansas, but the most diligent inquiry among 
the olde.st inhabitants fails to find one who ever 
heard of the book, much less the author. 

Recently John Hallum pulilished his History 
of Arkansas. The design of the author was to 
make three volumes, the first to treat of the 
bench and bar, but the work was dropped after 
this volume was published. It contains a gi-eat 
amount of valuable matter, and the author has 
done the State an important service in making his 
collections and putting them in durable form. 

A people with so many men and women com- 
petent to write, and who have written so little of 
Arkansas, its people or its great historical events, 
presents a curious phase of society. 

A wide and inviting field has been neglected 
and opportunities have been lost; facts have now 
gone out of men's memories, and important histor- 
ical incidents passed into oblivion beyond recall. 

Opie P. Read, now of Chicago, will be known 
in the future as the young and ambitious literary 
worker of Arkansas. He came to Little Rock 
from his native State, Tennessee, and engaged in 
work on the papers at that city. He soon had 
a wide local reputation and again this soon grew 
to a national one. His fugitive pieces in the news 
papers gained extensive circulation, and in quiet 
humor and unaffected pathos were of a high order. . 
He has written several works of fiction and is now 
running through his paper. The Arkansaw Traveler, 
Chicago, a novel entitled ' ' The Kentucky Colonel," 
already pronounced by able critics one among 
the best of American works of fiction. Mr. Read 
is still a comparatively young man, and his pen 
gives most brilliant promise for the futui'e. His 
success as an editor is well remembered. 



^^ 



98 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



DO 



The Churches ok Arkansas— Appearance of the Missionaries— Church Missions Established in the 
Wilderness— The Leading Protestant Denominations— Ecclesiastical Statistics- 
General Outlook from a Heligious Standpoint. 



No silver saints bj' dying misers giv'n 

Here bribed the rage of ill-requited Heav'n; 

B\it such plain roofs as piety could raise. 

And onlj' vocal with the Maker's praise. — Pope. 



V<» 










N all bistories of the early 
settlers the pioneer preach- 
ers and missionaries of the 
Church are of first inter- 
est. True missionaries, re- 
gardless of all creeds, are 
a most interesting study, 
and, in the broad principles of Chris- 
tianity, they may well be considered 
^ ■«« as a class, with only incidental refer- 
■^Jfe^r enees to their different creeds. The 
^\.^ essence of their remarkable lives is 
^^( i the heroic work and suffering they so 
cheerfully undertook and carried on 
so patiently and bravely. Among the 
iirst of pioneers to the homes of the 
red savages were these earnest church- 
men, carrying the news of Mount Calvary to the 
benighted peoples. It is difficult for us of this 
age to understand the sacrifices they made, the 
privations they endured, the moral and physical 
courage required to sustain them in their vrork. 
The churches, through their missionaries, carried 
the cross of Christ, extending the spiritual empire 
in advance, nearly always, of the temporal empire. 
They bravely led the way for the hardy explorers, 
and ever and anon a martyr's body was given to 



the flames, or left in the trackless forests, food for 
ravenous wild beasts. 

The Iirst white men to make a lodgment in 
what is now Arkansas having been Marquette and 
Joliet, France and the Church thus came here 
hand in hand. The Spanish and French settlers 
at Arkansas Post were the representatives of Cath- 
olic nations, as were the French-Canadians who 
came down from the lakes and settled along the 
banks of the lower Mississippi River. 

After 1803 there was another class of pion- 
eers that came in — Protestant English by descent 
if not direct, and these soon dominated in the 
Arkansas country. The Methodists, Baptists and 
Cumberland Presbyterians, after the building of 
the latter by Rev. Finis Ewing, were the pre- 
vailing pioneer preachers. Beneath God's first 
temples these missionaries held meetings, traveled 
over the Territory, going wherever the little col- 
umn of blue smoke from the cabin directed them, 
as well as visiting the Indian tribes, proclaiming 
Christ and His cause. Disregarding the elements, 
swollen streams, the dim trails, and often no other 
guide on their dreary travels than the projecting 
ridges, hills and .streams, the sun or the polar star; 
facing hunger, heat and cold, the wild beast and the 
far fiercer savage, without hope of money compen 



3 J 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



IW 



sation, regardless of sickness and even death, these 
men took their lives in their hands and went forth. 
Could anything be more graphic or pathetic of the 
conditions of these men than the extract from a 
letter of one of them who had thus served his God 
and fellow-man more than fifty years: "Inmylong 
ministry I often suffered for food and I spent 
no money for clothing. * * The largest 
yearly salary I received was $100." Were ever 
men inspired with more zeal in the cause of their 
Master ? They had small polish and were as rugged 
as the gnarled old oaks beneath whose branches 
they so often bivouacked. They never tasted the 
refinements of polite life, no doubt despising them 
as heartily as they did sin itself. Rude of speech, 
what eloquence they possessed (and many in this 
respect were of no mean order) could only come 
of their deep sincerity. 

These Protestant missionaries trod closely upon 
the footsteps of the pure and gentle Marquette in 
the descent of the Mississippi, and the visits to 
the Indians amid the cane-brakes of the South. 
Marquette's followers had been the first to ascend 
the Arkansas River to its source iu the far distant 
land of the Dakotas in the Northwest. Holding 
aloft the cross, they boldly entered the camps of the 
tribes, and patiently won upon them until they laid 
down their drawn tomahawks and brought forth 
the calumet of peace. These wild children gath- 
ered around these strange beings — visitors, as they 
supposed, from another world, and wherever a 
ci'oss was erected they regarded it with fear and 
awe, believing it had supreme power over them 
and their tribes. 

He who would detract from the deserved im- 
mortality of any of these missiocaries on account of 
their respective creeds, could be little else than a 
cynic whose blood is acid. 

Marquette first explored the Mississippi River 
as the representative of the Catholic Church. 

The old church baptismal records of the mis- 
sion of Arkansas Post extend back to 1764, and the 
ministrations of Father Louis Meurin, who signatl 
the record as "missionary priest." This is the 
oldest record to be found of the church's recog- 
nition of Arkansas now extant. That Marquette 



held church service and erected the cross of Chriet 
nearly one hundred years anterior to the record 
date in Arkansas is given in the standard histories 
of the United States. Rev. Girard succeeded 
Meurin. It may be gleaned from these records 
that in 1788 De La Valliere was in command of 
Arkansas Post. la 1780 the attending priest was 
Rev. Louis Guignes. The record is next signed Ijy 
Rev. Gibault in 1792, and next by Rev. Janniii in 
1796. In 1820 is found the name of Rev. Chau- 
dorat. In 1834 Rev. Dupuy, and in 1838 Father 
Donnellj' was the priest in charge. These remained 
in custody of the first mission at Arkansas Post. 
The second mission established was St. Mary's, 
now Pine Bluff. The first priest at that point was 
Rev. Saulmier. Soon after, another mission, St. 
Peter's, was established in Jefferson County, and 
the third mission, also in Jefferson County, was 
next established at Plum Bayou. In order, the 
next mission was at Little Rock, Rev. Emil Saul- 
mier in charge; then at Fort Smith; then Helena, 
and next Napoleon and N(>w Gascony, respectively. 

The Catholic population of the State is esti- 
mated at 10,000, with a total number of churches 
and mi.ssions of forty. There are twenty-two 
church schools, convents and academies, the school 
attendance being 1,600. The first bishop in the 
Arkansas diocese was Andrew Byrne, 1844. He 
died at Helena in 1802, his successor being the 
present incumbent, Bishop Edward FitzGerald. 
who came in 1807. 

From a series of articles published in the -Vr 
kansas Methodist, of the current year, by the emi- 
nent and venerable Rev. Andrew Hunter, D. D. , • 
are gleaned the following important facts of this 
Church's history in Ai'kausas: Methodism came to 
Arkansas by way of Missouri about 1814, a com- 
pany of emigrants entering from Southeast Mis- 
souri overland, and who much of the way had to 
cut out a road for their wagons. They bad heard 
of the rich lauds in Mound Prairie, Hempstead 
County. In this company were John Herirey, a 
local preacher, Alexander and Jacob Shook, broth- 
ers, and Daniel Props. In their long slow travels 
they reached the Arkansas River at Little Rock, 
and waited on the opposite bank for the comple- 



100 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



tion of a ferry-boat then building. When these 
people reached their destination they soon set iip 
a church, and erected the first Methodist "meet- 
ing-house" in Arkansas, called Henrey's Chapel. 
"Father Henrey," as he was soon known far and 
wide, reared sons, all preachers. This little col- 
ony were all sincere Methodists, and nearly all 
their first generation of sons became preachers, 
some of them eminent. Jacob Shook and three 
of his sons entered the ministry; Gilbert Alex- 
ander, his sons and grandsons, became ministers 
of God's word, as did two of Daniel Props' sons. 
The small colony was truly the seed of the church 
in Arkansas. 

In 1838 two young ministers were sent from 
Tennessee to the Arkansas work, and came all 
the way to Mound Prairie on horseback. 

The church records of Missouri show that the 
conference of 1817 sent two preachers to Arkan- 
sas — William Stevenson and John Harris. They 
were directed to locate at Hot Springs. It is 
conceded that these two missionaries "planted 
Methodism in Arkansas." 

In 1818 the Missouri Conference sent four 
laborers to Arkansas, with William Stevenson as 
the presiding elder of the Territory. The circuits 
then had: John Shader, on Spring River; Thomas 
Tennant, Arkansas circuit; W. Orr. Hot Springs; 
William Stevenson and James Lowrey, Mound 
Prairie. What was called the Arkansas circuit in- 
cluded the Arkansas River, from Pine Bluff to the 
mouth. After years of service als presiding elder, 
Stevenson was succeeded by John Scripps; the ap- 
pointments then were: Arkansas circuit, Dennis 
Willey; Hot Springs, Isaac Brookfield; Mound 
Prairie, John Harris; Pecan Point, William Town- 
send. The Missouri Conference, 1823, again made 
William Stevenson presiding elder, with three itin- 
erants for Arkansas. In 1825 Jesse Hale became 
presiding elder. He was in charge until 1829. He 
was an original and outspoken abolitionist, and 
taught and preached his faith unroservedl}' ; so 
much so that large numbers of the leading fam- 
ilies left the Methodist Episcopal Church and 
joined the Cumberland Presbyterians. This was 
the sudden building up of the Cumberland Pres- 



byterian Church, and nearly fatally weakened the 
Methodist Church. Some irreverent laymen desig- 
nated Elder Jesse Hale's ministrations as the 
"Hail storm" in Arkansas. Fortunately Hale 
was succeeded by Rev. Jesse Green, and he poured 
oil on the troubled waters, and saved Methodism 
in Arkansas. ' ' Green was our Moses. ' ' 

The Tennessee Conference, 1831, sent eight 
preachers to Arkansas, namely: Andrew D. Smyth, 
John Harrell, Henry G. Joplin, William A. Boyce. 
William G. Duke, John N. Hammill, Alvin Baird 
and Allen M. Scott. 

A custom of those old time preachers now 
passed away is worth preserving. When possi- 
ble to do so they went over the circuit together, 
two and two. One might preach the regular ser- 
mon, when the other would ' ' exhort. ' ' Under these 
conditions young Rev. Smyth was accompanying 
the regular circuit rider. He was at first difiS- 
dent, and ' ' exhorted ' ' simply by giving his hearers 
" Daniel in the lion's den." As the two started 
around the circuit the second time, on reaching a 
night appointment, before entering the house, and 
as they were returning from secret prayer in the 
brush, the preacher said: "Say, Andy, I'm going 
to preach, and when I'm done you give 'em 
Daniel and the lions again." Evidently Andy and 
his lions were a terror to the natives. But the 
young exborter soon went up head, and became a 
noted divine. 

The Missouri Conference, 1832, made two dis- 
tricts of Arkansas. Rev. A. D. Smyth had charge 
of Little Rock district, which extended over all the 
country west, including the Cherokee and Creek 
Nations. 

The formation of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, occurred in 1844. This is a well 
known part of the history of our country. In Ar- 
kansas the church amid all its trials and vicissi- 
tudes has grown and flourished. The State now 
has fifteen districts, with 200 pastoral charges, and, 
it is estimated, nearly 1,000 congregations. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church has a com- 
fortable church in Little Rock, and several good 
sized congregations in different portions of the 
State. This church and the Methodist Episcopal 



f 



^k 



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HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



101 



Church, South, are separate and wholly distinct 
in their organization. 

The Baptists are naturally a pioneer and fron- 
tier church people. They are earnest and sincere 
proselyters to the faith, and reach very effectively 
people in general. The Baptist Church in Ben- 
ton -celebrated, July 4, 1889, its fifty-third anni- 
v(>rsary. Originally called Sjiring Church, it was 
built about two miles from the town. The organi- 
zation took place under the sheltering branches of 
an old oak tree. One of the first churches of this 
order was the Mount Bethel Church, about six 
miles west of Arkadelphia, in Clark County. This 
was one of the oldest settled points l>y English 
speaking people in the State. The church has 
grown with the increase of population. 

Rev. James M. Moore organized in Little Rock, 
in 1828, the first Presbyterian Church in Arkan- 
sas. He was from Pennsylvania, eminent for his 
ability, zeal and piety. For some time he was 
the representative of his church in a wide portion 
of the country south and west. He was succeeded 
by Rev. A. R. Banks, from the theological sem- 
inary of Columbia, S. C. , who settled in Hempstead 
County in 1835-3G and organized and built Spring 
Hill Church, besides another at Washington. The 
next minister in order of arrival was Rev. John 
M. Erwin. He located at Jackson, near the old 
town of Elizabeth, but his life was not spared long 
after coming. He assisted Revs Moore and Banks 
in organizing the first presbytery in Arkansas. 

In 1839 Rev. J. M. Moore, mentioned above, 
removed to what is now Lonoke County, and or 
ganized a congregation and built Sylvania Church. 
His successor at Little Rock was Rev. Henderson, 
in 1840. The death of Rev. Henderson left no 
quorum, and the Arkansas presbytery became /unc- 
tui> officio. 

Rev, Aaron Williams, from Bethel presbytery, 
South Carolina, came to Arkansas in 1842, and 
settled in Hempstead County, taking charge of a 
large new academy at that place, which had been 
built by the wealthy people of the locality. He at 
once re-organized the church at Washington, which 
had been some time vacant. Arkansas then be- 
longed to the synod of Mississippi. In 1842, in 



company with Rev. A. R. Banks, he traveled 
over the swamps and through the forests 400 miles 
to attend the Mississippi synod at Port Royal. 
Their mission was to ask the synod to allow Revs. 
Williams, Moore, Banks and Shaw to organize the 
Arkansas presbytery. They obtained the permis 
sion, and meeting in Little Rock the first Sunday 
in January, 1843, organized the Arkansas presby- 
tery. The Rev. Balch had settled in Dardanelle. 
and he joined the new presbytery. In the next 
few years Revs. Byington and Kingsbury, Con- 
gregational ministers, who had been missionaries to 
the Indians since 1818, also joined the Arkansas 
presbytery. The synod of Memphis was subse- 
quently formed, of which Arkansas was a part. 
There were now three presbyteries west of Mem- 
phis: Arkansas, Ouachita and Indian. In lS3ft 
Arkansas was composed of four prpsbytories — twu 
Arkansas and two Ouachita. 

Rev. Aaron Williams assumed charge at Little 
Rock in 1843, where he remained until January, 
1845. There was then a vacancy for some years 
in that church, when the Rev, Joshua F, Green 
ministered to the flock. He was succeeded iiy 
Rev. Thomas Fraser, who continued until 1859. 
All these had been supplies, and in 18r)9 Little 
Rock was made a pastorate, and Rev. Thomas R. 
Welch was installed as first pastor. Ho filled the 
position the next twenty five years, and in 1885 
resigned on account of ill health, and was sent 
as counsel to Canada, where he died. About the 
close of his pastorate, the Second Presbyterian 
Church of Little Rock was organized, and their 
house built, the Rev. A. R. Kennedy, pastor. He' 
resigned in September, 1888, being succeeded by 
James R. Howerton. After the resignation of Dr. 
Welch of the First Church. Dr. J. C. Barrett was 
given charge. 

Rev. Aaron Williams, after leaving the synod, 
became a synodical evangelist, and traveled over 
the State, preaching wherever he found small col- 
lections of people, and organizing churches. He 
formed the church at Fort Smith and the one in 
Jackson County. 

A synodical college is at Batesville, and is 
highly prosperous. 



T' 



-4^ 



HM 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



IfiCTlt XI¥. 



Names Illl-striol's in Arkansas History— Prominknt Mention of Noted Individuals— Ambrose 

H. Sevier— William K. Woodruff— John Wilson— John Hemphill— Jacob Barkman— Dr. 

Bowie— Sandy Faulkner— Samuel H. Hempstead— Trent, \Villiams, Shinn Families, 

AND Otheiis— The Conways— Robert Crittenden— Archibald Yell— Judge 

David Walker- Gen. G. D. Bovston— Judge James W. Bates. 



The gen'ial voice 
Sounds him, for courtesy, behaviour, language 
Aud ev'ry fair demeanor, an e.xamplc; 
Titles of honour add not to liis worth. 
Who is himself an honour to his lilli'. — Ford. 




O history of Arkansas, worthy 
of the name, could fail to 
refer to the lives of a num 
her of its distinguished 
citizens, whose relation to 
■^ great public events has 
,-?r%^ made them a part of the 
tine history of their State. 
The following sketches of repre- 
sentative men will be of no little 
interest to each and every reader 
of the present volume. 

Ambrose H. Sevier, was one of 
the foremost of the prominent men 
of his day, and deserves es|)i'cial 
mention. The recent removal of 
the remains of Gen. John Sevier from 
Alabama to Knoxville, Tenn. (June 19, 
1S89), has awakened a widespread inter- 
est in this historic family name. The re-interment 
of the illustrious ashes of the first governor, found- 
er and Congressman of Tennessee, by the State he 
had made, was bttt an act of long deferred justice 
to one of the most illustrious ;md j)icturesque char- 
acters in American history. He founded two States 





and was the lirst governor of each of them; one of 
these States, Tennessee, he had, in the spirit of dis- 
interested patriotism, erected on the romantic ruins 
of the other— the mountain State of "Franklin." 
A distinguished Revolutionary soldier, he was the 
hero of King's Mountain, where he and four broth- 
ers fought. He was first governor of the State 
of "Franklin," six times governor of Tennessee, 
three times a member of Congress, and in no in- 
stance did he ever have an opponent to contest 
for an office. He was in thirty- five hard fought 
battles; had faced in bitter contest the State of 
North Carolina, which secretly arrested and ab- 
ducted him from the new State he had carved out 
of North Carolina territory; was rescued in open 
court by two friends, and on his return to his ad- 
herents as easily defeated the schemes of North 
Carolina as he had defeated, in many battles, the 
Cherokee Indians. No man ever voted against 
" Nolichucky Jack," as he was familiarly called — 
no enemy ever successfully stood before him in 
battle. A great general, statesman, and patriot, 
he was the creator and builder of commonwealths 
west of the Alleghanies, and he guided as greatly 
and wisely as did Washington and Jefferson the 



' -^ i 



V 



a w. 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



103 



new States and Territories ho formed in the paths 
of democratic freedom; and now, after he has slept 
in an obscure grave for three quarters of a century, 
the fact is beginning to dawn upon the nation that 
Gov. John Sevier made Washington, and all that 
great name implies, a j)Ossibilit}'. 

The name, illustrious as it is ancient, numer- 
ous and wide spread, is from the French Pyrenees, 
Xavier, where it may be traced to remote times. 
St. Francis Xavier was of this family, and yet the 
American branch were exiles from the old world 
because of their revolt against papal tyranny. 
Sturdy and heroic as they were in the faith, their 
blood was far more virile, indeed stalwart, in de- 
fense of human rights and liberty, wherever or by 
whomsoever assailed. 

In France, England and in nearly every West- 
ern and Southern State of the Union are branches 
of the Xaviers, always prominent and often emi- 
nent in their day and time. But it was reserved 
to the founder of the American branch of the 
Seviers to be the supreme head of the illustrious 
line. He builded two commonwealths and was im- 
j)elled to this great work in defense of the people, 
and in resistance to the encroachments of the cen- 
tral powers of the paternal government. 

In Arkansas the Seviers, Conways and Rectors 
were united by ties of blood as well as by the ever 
stronger ties of the sons of liberty, independence 
and patriotism. Here were three of the most 
powerful families the State has ever had, and in 
Iiublic affairs they were as one. The political 
friend and worthy model of Gov. John Sevier was 
Thomas Jefferson. Indeed, Gen. Sevier was the 
fitting and immortal companion piece to Jefferson 
in those days of the young and struggling repub- 
lic. The Seviers of Arkansas and Missouri were 
naturally the admirers of Andrew Jackson - cham- 
pions of the peo[>le's rights, watchdogs of liberty. 

Ambrose H. Sevier, was the son of John, who 
was the son of Valentine and Ann Conway Sevier, 
of Greene County, Tenn. Ann Conway was the 
daughter of Thomas and Ann Rector Conway. 
Thus this family furnished six of the governors of 
Arkansas. 

In 1S'21. soon after Mr. Sevier's coming to Ar- 



kansas, he was elected clerk of the Territorial 
house of representatives. In 182:^ he was elected 
from Pulaski County to the legislature, and con- 
tinued a member and was elected speaker in 1827. 
He was elected to Congress in August, 1828, to 
succeed his uncl(>, Henry W. Conway, who had 
been killed in a duel with Crittenden. Ho was 
three times elected to Congress. When the State 
came into the L'nion, Sevier and William S. Fulton 
were elected lirst senators in Congress. Sevier 
resigned his seat in the Senate in 18-18, to accept 
the mission of minister plenipoteutiaiy to Mexico, 
and, in connection with Judge Clifford, negotiated 
the treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo. This was the 
last as well as crowning act of his life. He died 
shortly after returning from bis mission. The 
State has erected a suitable monument to his mem- 
ory in Mount Holly Cemetery, Little Rock, where 
sleeps his immortal dust. 

How curiously fitting it was that the Sevier 
of Arkansas should follow so closely in the foot- 
steps of the great governor of Tennessee, his lineal 
ancestor, and be the instrument of adding so ira- 
- mensely to the territory out of which have grown 
such vast and rich commonwealths. As builders 
of commonwealths there is no name in American 
history which approaches th<it of Sevier. A 
part of the neglect — the ingratitude, possibly — of 
republics, is shown in the fact that none of the 
States of which they gave the Union so many besir 
their family name. 

William E. Woodruff was in more than one 
sense a pioneer to Arkansas He was among 
the distinguished men who first hastened here 
when the Territory was formed, and brought with 
him the pioneer newspaper press, and established 
the Arkansas Gazette. This is now a flourishing 
daily and weekly newspaper at the State capital, 
and one of the oldest papers in the country. Of 
himself alone there was that in the character and 
life of Mr. Woodruff which would have made him 
one of the historical pioneei-s to cross the Missis- 
sippi River, and cast his fortune and future in this 
now world. But he was a worthy disciple and 
follower of Ben. Franklin, who combined with the 
art preservative of arts, the genius that lays found- 



k. 



lOJ- 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



ations for empires in government, and the j'et far 
greater empires in the fields of intellectual life. 

He was a native of Long Island, Suffolk Coun- 
ty, N. Y. Leaving his home in 1818, upon the 
completion of his apprenticeship as printer, with 
the sparse proceeds of his earnings as apprentice 
he turned liis face westward. Reaching Wheel- 
ing, Va. , he eml larked in a canoe for the falls of 
the Ohio, now Louisville, where he stopped and 
worked at his trade. Finding no sufficient open- 
ing to permanently locate in this place, he started 
on foot, by way of Russellville, to Nashville, Tenn., 
and for a time worked at his trade in that place 
and at Franklin. Still looking for a possible 
future home further west, he heard of the Act of 
Congress creating the Territory of Arkansas, to 
take effect July 4, 1819. He at once purchased 
a small outKt for a newspaper office and started to 
the newly formed Territory, determined if possible 
to be first on the ground. He shipped by keel-boat 
down the Cumberland river, the Ohio and the 
Mississippi Rivers to Montgomery's Point, at the 
mouth of White River; thence overland to Arkansas 
Post, the first Territorial capital. Montgomery 
Point was then, and for some years after, the main 
shipping point for the interior points of the 
Arkansas Territory. From this place to the capi- 
tal, he found nothing but a bridle-path. He 
therefore secured a pirogue, and with the services 
of two boatmen, passed through the cut off to 
Arkansas River and then up this to Arkansas Post, 
reaching his point of destination October 31, 1819. 
So insignificant was the Post that the only way he 
could get a house was to build one, which he did, 
and November 20, 1819, issued the first paper — 
the Arkansas Gazette. He was the entire force of 
the office — mechanical, clerical and editorial. To- 
day his own work is his fitting and perpetual 
monument — linking his name indissolubly with 
that of Arkansas and immortality. 

His genius was in the direct energy and the 
impelling forces which drove it with the sure cer- 
tainty of fate over every opposing obstacle. Broad, 
strong and great in all those qualities which 
characterize men pre eminent in the varied walks 
of life; a true nation founder and builder, his 



useful life was long spared to the State, which will 
shed luster to itself and its name by honoring the 
memory of one of its first and most illustrious 
pioneers — William E. WoodruU'. 

Reference having been made to John W^ilson 
in a previous chapter, in connection with his un- 
fortunate encounter with J. J. Anthony, on the 
floor of the hall of the legislature, it is but an act 
of justice that the circumstances be properly ex- 
plained, together with some account of the man- 
ner of man he really was. 

John Wilson came from Kentucky to Arkansas 
in the earl}' Territorial times, 1820. His wife was 
a Hardin, of the noted family of that State — a sis- 
ter of Joseph Hardin, of Lawrence County, Ark., 
who was speaker of the first house of representa- 
tives of the Territorial legislature. The W'ilsons 
and Hardins were prominent and highly respecta- 
ble peo[)le. 

When a very young man, John Wilson was 
elected to the Territorial legislature, where he was 
made speaker and for a number of terms filled that 
office. He was a member of the first State legis- 
lature and again was elected speaker. He was the 
first president of the Real Estate Bank of Arkan- 
sas. Physically he was about an average sized 
man, very quiet in his manner and retiring, of dark 
complexion, eyes and hair, lithe and sinewy in 
form, and in his daily walk as gentle as a woman. 
He was devoted to his friends, and except for 
politics, all who knew him loved him well. There 
was not the shadow of a shade of the bully or des- 
perado about him. He was a man of the highest 
sense of personal honor, with an iron will, and even 
when aroused or stung by injustice or an attack 
upon his integrity his whole nature inclined to 
peace and good will. He was a great admirer of 
General Jackson — there was everything in the 
natures of the two men where the ' ' fellow feeling 
makes us wondrous kind." 

The difficulty spoken of occurred in 1836. Wil- 
son was a leader in the Jackson party. Anthony 
aspired to the lead in the W^hig party. At that 
time politics among the active of each faction meant 
personality. It was but little else than open war, 
and the frontier men of those days generally went 



"ir^ 



armed, the favorite weapou being the bowie 
knife— a necessary part of a Imnter's ecjiiipment. 
Unfriendly feelings existed between Wilson and 
Anthony. 

Upon the morning of the homicide (in words 
the substance of the account given by the late 
Gen. G. D. Royston, who was an eye witness) 
Mr. Wilson came into the hall a little late, evi- 
dently disturbed in mind, and undoubtedly ruf- 
fled by reason of something he had been told that 
Mr. Anthony had previously said about him in dis- 
cussing a bill concerning wolf-scalps. A serio- 
comic amendment had been offered to the bill to 
make scalps a legal tender, and asking the presi- 
dent of the Real Estate Bank to certify to the 
genuineness of the same. Anthony had the floor. 
When Wilson took the speaker's chair he com- 
manded Anthony to take his seat. The latter 
brusquely declined to do so. Wilson left the chair 
and approached his opponent, who stood in the 
aisle. The manner of the parties indicated a per- 
sonal encounter. As Wilson walked down the aisle 
he was seen to put his hand in the bosom of his 
vest. Anthony drew his knife. Gen. Koyston said 
that when he saw this, hoping to check the two 
men he raised his chair and held it between them, 
and the men fought across or over the chair. They 
struck at each other inflicting great wounds, which 
were hacking blows. Wilson's left hand was nearly 
cut off in warding a blow from Anthony's knife. 
Wilson was physically a smaller man than Anthony. 
Royston held the chair with all his strength be- 
tween the two now desperate individuals. So far 
Anthony's longer arm had enabled him to give the 
greatest wounds, when Wilson with his shoulder 
raised the chair and jslunged liis knife into his 
antagonist, who sank to the floor and died immedi- 
ately. It was a duel with bowie-knives, without 
any of the preliminaries of such encounters. 

Wilson was carried to his bed, where for along 
time he was confined. The house expelled him 
the next day. The civilized world of course was 
shocked, so bloody and ferocious had been the 
engagement. 

Wilson removed to Texas about 1842, locating 
at Cedar Grove, near Dallas, where he died soon 



after the close of the late war. Mrs. A. J. Gentry, 
his daughter, now resides in Clark County, Ark. 
The Hardins, living in Clark County, are of the 
same family as was Mrs. Wilson. 

John Hemphill, a South Carolinian, was born 
a short distance above Augusta, Ga. He immi- 
grated west and reached (now) Clark County, Ark. . 
in 1811, bringing with him a large family and a 
mxmber of slaves, proceeding overland to Bayou 
Sara, La. , and from that point by barges to near 
where is Arkadelphia, then a settlement at a place 
called Blakeleytowu, which was a year old at the 
time of Mr. Hemphill's location. He found living 
there on his amval Adam Blakeley, Zack Davis, 
Samuel Parker, Abner Highnight and a few others. 

Mr. Hemphill was attracted by the salt waters 
of the vicinity, and after giving the subject intel- 
ligent investigation, in 1814 built his salt works. 
Going to New Orleans, he procured a barge and 
purchased a lot of sugar kettles, and with these 
completed his preparations for making salt. His 
experiment was a success from the start and he 
carried on his extensive manufactory until his 
death, about 1825. The works were continued by 
his descendants, with few intermissions, until 1S51. 
Jonathan O. Callaway, his sonin-law, was, until 
that year, manager and proprietor. 

There is a coincidence in the lives of the two 
men who were the founders of commerce and man- 
ufacturing in Arkansas, Hemphill and Barkman, 
in that by chance they became traveling compan- 
ions on their way to the new country. 

Two brothers, Jacob and John Barkman, came 
to Arkansas in 1811. They worked their passage 
in the barge of John Hemphill, from Bayou Sara, 
La., to Blakeleytown, near Ai'kadelphia. They 
were a couple of young Kentuckians. full of cour 
age, hope, and strong sense, seeking homes in the 
wilderness. Their coming antedated that of the 
first steamboat on western waters, and the history 
of the river commerce of this State with New Or- 
leans will properly credit Jacob Barkman with 
being its founder. • Considering the times and real- 
izing what such men as Jacol> Barkman did, one 
is constrained to the belief that among the first 
settlers of Arkansas were men of enterprise, fore- 



1(1(1 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



sight and ilaiiiig in commerce that have certainly 
not been surpassed by their successors. 

On a previous page the methods of this pioneer 
merchant in the conduct of his business have been 
noted. His miscellaneous cargo of bear oil, skins, 
pelts, tallow, etc., found a ready market in New 
Orleans, which place he reached by river, return- 
ing some six months later well laden with commod- 
ities best suited to the needs of the people. In- 
deed his "store" grew to be an important institu- 
tion. He really carried on trade from New Orleans 
to Arkadelphia. In 1820 he purchased of the gov- 
ernment aboiit 1,200 acres of land on the Caddo, 
four miles from Arkadelphia, and farmed exten- 
sively and had many cattle and horses, constantly 
adding to the number of his slaves. Having 
filled the field where he was he sought wider op- 
portunities, and in 1840, in company with J. G. 
Pratt, opened an extensive cotton commission busi- 
ness in New Orleans, building large warehouses 
and stores. Mr. Barkman next purchased the 
steamboat "Dime," a side- wheeler, finely built 
and carrying 400 bales of cotton. He ran this in 
the interest of the New Orleans commission house; 
owned his crews, and loaded the boat with cot- 
ton from his own plantation. In 1844 his l)oat 
proudly brought np at New Orleans, well laden with 
cotton. The owner was on board and full of hope 
and anticipated joy at his trip, and also to meet 
his newly married wife (the second), when the.se 
iiopes were rudely dashed by the appearance of an 
officer who .seized the boat, cargo and slaves, every - 
tiling — and arrested Mr. Barkman and placed him 
in jail undc^r an attachment for debts incurred by 
the commission house. His partner in his absence 
had wrecked the house. 

To so arrange matters that he might get out of 
jail and return to his old home on the Caddo, with 
little left of this world' s goods, was the best the poor 
man could do. He finally saved from the wreck- 
age his fine farm and a few negroes, and, nothing 
daunted, again went to work to rebuild his fortune. 
He erected a cotton factory on the Caddo River, 
and expended some $80,000 on the plant, having 
it about ready to commence operating when the 
water came dashing down the mountain streams in 



a sudden and unusual rise, and swept it all away. 
This brave pioneer spent no hour of his life in idle 
griefs at his extraordinary losses. Though unscru- 
pulous arts of business sharks and dire visitations 
of the elements coniViined to make worthless his 
superb foresight and business energy, he overcame 
all obstacles, and died about 1852, a wealthy man 
for that time. 

When Arkansas was yet a Territory, among its 
early pioneers was Dr. William Bowie, whose name 
has become familiar to the civilized world, though 
not in the way that most men are emulous of im- 
mortality. Dr. Bowie had located, or was a frequent 
visitor, in Helena, Ark., and was a typical man of 
his times —jolly, careless and .social, and very fond 
of hunting and fishing. 

Among the first settlers in Little Rock was a 
blacksmith, named Black. He possessed skill in 
working in iron and steel, and soon gained a wide 
reputation for the superior hunting knives he 
made. When nearly every man hunted more or 
less, and as a good knife was a necessity, it will 
be seen that Black was tilling a general want. 
The material he worked into knives consisted of 
old files. 

One day while he was just finishing a superior 
and somewhat new style of hunting knife. Dr. 
Bowie happened to enter the shop. The moment 
he saw the article he determined to possess it 
at any price. Black had not really made it to 
sell — simply to gratify a desire to see how fine a 
blade he could make, and keep it. But a bargain 
was finally arranged, the blacksmith to cpmplete it 
and ]iut Bowie's name on the handle. The inscrip- 
tion Ix'ing neatly done read: "Bowie's Knife.'" Its 
beauty and finish attracted wide attention, and all 
who could afford it ordered a similar one, the name 
of which was soon shortened into " Bowie Knife. " 
Bowie died, a patriot's death, fighting for the in- 
dependence of Texas, by the side of David Crockett. 

The one pre-eminent thing which entitles the 
Arkansas pioneer, Sandy Faulkner, to immortality 
is the fact that he is the real, original "Arkansaw 
Traveler. ' ' He was an early settler, a hunter, a wild, 
jolly, reckless spendthrift, and a splendid fiddler. 
He was of a wealthy Kentucky family, and settled 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



HIT 



first ill Chicot County iitid then on the river only a 
few miles below Little Rock. By inheritance he 
received two or three moderate fortunes, and spent 
them royally. Of a roving nature, a witty and rol- 
licking companioti. he would roam through the 
woods, hunting for days and weeks, and then en- 
liven the village resorts for a while. He was born 
to encounter just such a character as he did chance 
to dnd, playing on a three -stringed fiddle the first 
part of a particular tune. Now there was but one 
thing in this world that could touch his heart with 
a desire to possess, and that was to hear the re- 
mainder of the tune. 

After meeting this rare character in the woods 
what a world of enjoyment Sandy did carry to the 
village on his next return! "With just enough 
and not too much." with fiddle in his hand, the 
villagers gathered about him while he rejjeated the 
comedy. His zest in the ludicrous, his keen wit 
and his inimitable acting, especially his power of 
miniici'j' and his mastery of the violin, enabled him 
to offer his associates an entertainment never 
surpassed, either on or off the mimic stage. 

After the war Faullaier lived in Little Rock 
until his death in 1875, in straitened circumstan- 
ces, residing with a widowed daughter and one son. 
Another sou was killed in the war; the two daugh- 
ters married and are both dead, and the son and 
only remaining child left this portion of the coun- 
try some years ago. 

When Faulkner died — over eighty years of age 
— he held a subordinate office in the l(»gislature 
then in session, which body adjourned and respect- 
fully buried all that was mortal of the "Arkansaw 
Traveler," while the little morceau from his 
harmless and genial soul will continue to travel 
around the world and never stop, the thrice wel- 
come guest about every fireside. 

What a comment is here in this careless, aim- 
less life and that vaulting ambition that struggles, 
and wars and suffers and sows the world with 
woe that men's names may live after death. Poor 
Sandy had no thought of distinction; his life was a 
laugh, so unmixed with care for the morrow and 
so merry that it has filled a world with its cease 
less echoes. 



Though there may be in this country no titled 
aristocracy, there are nobles, whose remotest de- 
scendants may claim that distinction of race and 
blood which follows the memory of the great deeds 
of illustrious sires. It is the nobles whose lives 
and life's great work were given to the cause of their 
fellowmen in that noblest of all human efforts — 
liberty to mankind. There is something forever 
sacred lingering about the graves, nay, the very 
ground, where these men exposed their lives and 
struggled for each and all of us. All good men 
(and no man can really be called good who does not 
love liberty and independence above everything in 
the world) cannot but feel a profound interest in 
the lineal descendants of Revolutionary fathers. 
"My ancestor was a soldier in the war for inde- 
pendence!" is a far nobler claim to greatness than 
is that of the most royal blue blood in all heraldry. 

W. P. Huddleston, of Sharp's Cross Roads, 
Independence County, has the following family 
tree: Israel McBee was for seven years a soldier 
in a North Carolina regiment in the Revolutionary 
War. He died in (irainger County, Teiin.. aged 
110 years. He was the father of Samuel JIcBee, 
who was the father of Rachel McBee, who married 
John Huddleston. the'grand father of W. P. Hud- 
dleston, Jr. The McBees were originally from 
Scotland. 

Samuel S. \\'elborn. of Fort Douglas, Johnson 
County, was the youngest son of Elias. Samuel 
was born December 30, 1842. His grandfather. 
Isaac Welborn, was seven years a soldier in a 
Georgia regiment, and died at Hazel Green, Ala., 
in 1833, aged eighty-four years. 

Samuel H. Hempstead is a name illustrious in 
Arkansas outside of the fact that it is descended 
directly from a soldier in the war for independ- 
ence. The above-named was born in New London, 
Conn., iu 1814, and died in Little Rock in 18t')2. 
He was a son of Joseph Hempstead, born in New 
London in 1778, and died '\n St. Louis in 1N31. 
Joseph was a son of Stephen Hempstead, born in 
New London in 1742, and died in St. Louis iu 
1832. Stephen was a soldier in the American 
Revolution, serving under Col. Ledyard at the 
l>attle of Fort Griswold, near New London, when 



iy£ 



108 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



these towns were captured by the British under 
Benedict Arnold, September 6, 1781. Hempstead 
was wounded twice during the engagement — a 
severe gunshot wound in the left elbow disabling 
him in the arm for life. He wrote and published 
in the Missouri Republican in 1826, a detailed ac- 
count of the battle. 

Stephen Hempstead's father was also Stephen 
Hempstead, born in 1705 and died in 1774. The 
records of Connecticut, Vol. VII, show that he 
was made an ensign in a train band company, 
by the colonial council, in October, 1737, where he 
served with distinction through this war, known as 
King George's War. In May, 1740, he was made 
sui'veyor by the council. He was the son of 
Joshua Hempstead, born in 1(378, and died in 
1758. He was a representative in the Connecticut 
council in October, 1709; a member of the Royal 
council in October, 1712; ensign in train band com- 
pany in 1721 ; lieutenant in same company in May, 
1724; auditor of accounts in May, 1725. He was 
the son of Joshua Hempstead, Sr., born in 1649, 
and died in 1709; Joshua Hempstead, Sr., was a 
son of Robert Hempstead, born in 1600 and died 
in 1665. The last-named was the immigrant to 
America, one of the original nine settlers of New 
London, Conn., the founder of the town first called 
Hempstead, on Long Island. In 104() Robert 
Hempstead built a house at New London for a res- 
idence, which is still standing, an ancient relic of 
great interest. It is occupied by descendants of 
the builder, named Gaits, from the female branches. 
Though much modernized the old house still shows 
the port- holes used for defense against the Indians. 
A daughter of Robert Hempstead, Mary, was the 
first white child born in New London, March 26, 
1647. 

Fay and Roy Hempstead, Little Rock, are de- 
.scendants of this family. Other descendants live 
in St. Louis, Mo. 

Jesse Williams, of Prince William County, Va., 
enlisted under Dinwiddle's call in the French- 
Indian War on the English settlers in 1754, 
under then Lieut. -Col. Washington, of the First 
Virginia Regiment of 1 50 men. The command at- 
tempted to reach where is now Pittsburg to relieve 



Trent's command at that place. Two descendants 
of the Trents now live in Washington County. In 
this hard march to Fort Duquesne the men dragged 
their cannon, were without tents and scant of pro- 
visions, and deprived of material or means for 
bridging rivers. They fought at Fort Necessity. 
Washington cut a road twenty miles toward Du- 
quesne. On July 3 the fight took place, and July 
4 Washington capitulated on honorable terms. 

In 1755 Jesse Williams again entered the ser- 
vice under Washington and joined Braddock at 
Fort Cumberland. In 1758 he was once more with 
Washington when Forbes moved on Fort Duquesne, 
being present at the capture, and helped raise the 
flag and name the place Pittsburg. 

In the Revolutionary War he was one of the 
first to enlist from Virginia, and was commissioned 
captain, and was present in nearly all the battles 
of that long war. 

The maternal ancestor of the Williams family 
was Thomas Rowe, of Virginia, a colonel in the war 
for independence, who was at the surrender of 
Yorktown. 

David Williams, a son of Jesse, married Betsy 
Rowe. He was a soldier in the War of 1812, and 
served with distinction, and also in the Seminole 
War. He settled in Kentucky, Franklin County. 
His children were Jacob, Urban V., Betty, Mil- 
lie, Hattie and Susan; the children of Urban V. 
Williams being John, Pattie and Minnie. Bettie 
married Jeptha Robinson, and had children, David, 
Owen, Austin, May, Hettie, Ruth, Sue, Jacob, 
Frank and Sallie. Hettie married Dr. Andrew 
Neat, and had children, Thomas, Estelle (Brink- 
ley), Ella (Ford), Addis and Ben. Sue married 
George Poor, and had children, George, Lizzie. 
Sue and Minnie. Jacob Williams, the father of 
Mrs. Minnie C. Shinn (wife of Prof. J. H. Shinn, 
of Little Rock), Otis Williams and Mattie Wil- 
liams, Little Rock; Josi>])h Desha Williams and 
Maggie Wells, Russell ville; Lucian and Virgil, 
Memphis, are all of this family. Jacob Williams 
was a private in the Fifth Kentucky, in the late 
war, under Humphrey Marshall. 

Among the pioneers of what is now the State 
of Arkansas, there was perhaps no one family that 



^^ 



.-"it 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



lOU 



furnished so many noted characters and citizens 
jis the Conway family. Their <:fenealogy is traced 
' ■ Itack to the reign of Edward I, of England, in the 
latter part of the thirteenth century, to the cele- 
brated Ca.stle of Conway, on Conway River, in 
the north of Wales, where the lords of Conway, 
in feudal times presided in royal style." Thomas 
Conway came to America about the year 1740, 
and settled in the Virginia colony. Henry Conway 
was his only sou. The latter was first a colonel 
and afterward a general in the Revolutionary War. 
His daughter, Nellie, after marriage, became the 
mother of President Madison, and his son, Mon- 
cure D., was brother-in-law to Gen. Washington. 

Thomas Conway, another son of Gen. Henry 
Conway, settled, during the Revolutionary period, 
near the present site of Greenville, Tenn. He 
married Ann Rector, a native of Virginia, and 
member of the celebrated Rector family. To this 
union seven sons and three daughters were V)orn, 
and all were well reared and well educated. 

In 1818, Gen. Thomas Conway mov(^d with 
his family from Tennessee to St. Louis, in the 
Territory of Missouri, and soon after to Boone 
County, where he remained until his death, in 
1835. Henry Wharton Conway, the eldest son, 
was born March IS, 1793, in Greene County. 
Tenn., and served as a lieutenant in the War of 
1812-15; subsequently, in 1817, he served in the 
treasury department at Washington, immigrated 
to Missouri with his father in 1818, and early in 
1820, after being appointed receiver of public 
moneys, he immigrated in company with his next 
younger brother, James Sevier Conway, who was 
born in 1798, to the county of Arkansas, in the 
then Territory of Missouri. These two brothers 
took and executed large contracts to survey the 
public lands, and later on James S. became 
surveyor-general of the TeiTitory. During the 
twenties Henry W. Conway served two terms as a 
delegate in Congress, and received the election 
in 1827 for the third term, but on the 29th of 
October of that year, he was mortally wounded in 
a duel with Robert Crittenden, from the effects of 
which he died on the 9th of November, following. 
[See account of the duel elsewhere in this work.] 



A marble shaft with an elaborate inscription, 
erected by his brother, James S. Conway, stands 
over his grave in the cemetery at Arkansas Post. 

James S. Conway became the first governor 
of the State of Arkansas, upon its admission into 
the Union, serving as such from 183(5 to 1840, 
after which he settled on his princely possessions 
on Red River in the southern part of the State. 
He was a large slave holder and cotton planter. 
He died on the 3d of March, 1855, at Walinit 
Hill, his country seat, in Lafayette County. 

Frederick Rector Conway, the third son of 
Gen. Thomas Conway, was a noted character in 
Missouri and Illinois. John Rector Conway, the 
fourth son, was an eminent physician, who died in 
San Francisco in 1868. William B. Conway was 
born at the old homestead in Tennessee, about 1806. 
He was thoroughly educated, read law under 
John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, and commenced 
the practice at Elizabethtown in that State. He 
moved to Arkansas in 1840, and in 1844 was 
elected judge of the Third circuit. In December, 
1846, he was elected associate justice of the 
supreme court. He died December 29, 1852, and 
is buried by the side of his noble mother, in 
Mount Holly Cemetery, Little Rock. The sixth 
son, Thomas A., died in his twenty-second year in 
Missouri. 

The seventh and younge.st son, Gov. Elias N. 
Conway, was born May 17, 1812, at the old home 
stead in Tennessee, and in November, 1833, he 
!(>ft his parents' home in Missouri, and came to 
Little Rock, and entered into a contract to survey 
large tracts of the public lands in the northwest- 
ern part of the State. Having executed this con- 
tract, he was. in 1836, appointed auditor of State, 
a position which he held for thirteen years. In 
1852 and again in 1856. he was elected on the 
Democratic ticket as governor of the State, and 
served his full two terms, eight years, a longer 
period than any other governor has ever served. 
Much could be said, did space permit, of the emi 
nent services this mau has rendered to Arkansas. 
Of the seven brothers named he is the only one 
now living. He leads a retired and secluded life 
in Little Rock, in a small cottage in which he has 



[ 






k 



no 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



resided for over forty years. He has no family, 
having never been married. 

Robert Crittendon, yontif^cst son of John Crit- 
tenden, a major in tlid Revolutionary War, was born 
near VersailleH, Woodford County, Ky. , January 
1, 1797. Ho was educated by and read law with 
his brother, John J. Crittenden, in Russellville, 
that State. Being appointed first secretary of 
ArkaiiKas Territory, he removed to Arkansas Post, 
the temporary seat of government, where on the 
Sd day of March, 1819, he was inaugurated and 
HSKUmed the duties of his office. On the same 
day James Miller was inaugurated first gov(>rnor 
of the Territory. It seems, however, that Gov. 
Miller, though he held his office until succeeded by 
Gov. George Izard, in March, 1825, was seldom 
present and only occasionally performed official 
duties. This left Oittenden to assume charge of 
the position as governor a great portion of the 
time while Miller held the office. Crittenden con- 
tinued as secretary of the Ten'itory vintil succeeded 
by William L'ulton, in April, 1829, having served 
in that capacity a little over ten years. In 1827 
he fought a duel with Henry W. Conway, the ac- 
count of which is given clsf^whcre. According to 
Gen. Albert Pike, with whom ho was intimately 
associated, ' ' he was a man of fine presence and 
handsome faoe, with clear bright eyes, and unmis- 
takable intellect and genius, frank, genial, one to 
attach men warmly to himself, impulsive, generous, 
warm hearted. " " He was the first great leader of 
the Whig party in the Territory, and continued as 
such until his death, which occurred December 18, 
18154, at Vicksburg, Miss., whither he had gone 
on business. He died thus young, and before the 
Territory, which he had long and faithfully served, 
became a State. 

Archibald Yell, not unfamiliar to Arkansans, 
was born in North Carolina, in August, 1797, and 
while very young immigrated to Tennessee, and 
settled in Bedford County. He served in the Creek 
War as the boy (ra])tain of the Jackson Guards, 
under Gen. Ji^ckson, also under the same general 
in the War of 1812-13, participating in the battle 
of New Orleans, and also in the Seminole War. 
He was a man of moderate education, and when 



the War of 1812 closed, he read law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in Tennessee. After the close of 
the Seminole War, he located at Fayetteville, Lin- 
coln County, Tenn. , and there practiced law until 
1832, when President Jackson gave him the choice 
to till one of two vacancies, governor of Florida 
or Territorial judge in the T(U'ritory of Arkansas. 
He chose the latter and in due time located at 
Fayetteville, in Washington County. Ho was a 
man of tine personal appearance, pleasant and 
humorous, and possessed the faculty of making 
friends wherever he went. He was elected and 
sei-ved us grand master of the Masonic fraternity 
in tlu! jurisdiction of Arkansas; was a Democrat 
in jwlitics, and the tirst member of Congress from 
the State of Arkansas; was governor of the State 
from 1840 to 1844; was elected again as a member 
of Congi-ess in 1844, and served until 1S46, when 
he resigned to accept the colonelcy of an Arkansas 
regiment of volunteers for the Mexican War. He 
was killed in the battle of Buena Vista, February 
22, 1847. 

In his race for Congress in 1844, he was op- 
posed by the Hon. David Walker, the leader of the 
Whig party, and they made a joint canvass of the 
State. Yell could adapt himself to circumstances 
— to the different crowds of people more freely than 
could his antagonist. In 1847 the Masonic fra- 
ternity erected a monument to his memory in the 
cemetery at Fayetteville. Gov. Yell was a man of 
great ability, and one of the great {)ionoer states- 
men of Arkansas. 

The eminent jurist. Judge David Walker, de- 
scended from a lin(> of English (Quakers, of whom 
the last trans-Atlantic ancestor in the male line 
was Jacob W' alker, whose son (ieorge emigrated to 
America prior to the war of the Revolution, and 
settled in Brunswick County, Ya. Here he mar- 
ried a lady, native to the manor born, and be- 
came" the tirst American jiucestor of a large and 
distinguished family. One of his sons, Jacob 
Wythe Walker, born in the decade that ushered 
in the Revolution, early in life removed to and 
settled in what is now Todd County, Ky. Here, 
on the 19th day of February, ISOfi, was born un- 
to him and his wife, Nancy (Hawkins) Walker, 









HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



the subject of this sketcli — David Walker. Youug 
Wiillcei's oppoitunities for obtaining a school edu- 
cation in that then frontier country were limited, 
but, being the son of a good lawyer, ho inherited 
his father's energetic nature, became selfodueatod, 
read law and was admitted to the bar in Scotts- 
ville, Ky., early in 1829, and there practiced 
until the fall of 1830, when he moved to Little 
Kock, Ark., arriving on the 1 0th of October. 
Soon after this he located at Fayetteville, Wash- 
ington County, and remained there, except when 
temporarily absent, until his death. From ]833 
to 1835 he was prosecuting attorney in the Third 
circuit. He was one of the many able members of 
the constitutional convention of 1830. In 1840 he 
rode "the tidal wave of whiggery " into the State 
senate, in which he served four years. In 1844 he 
led the forlorn hope of his party in theever memor- 
able contest with Gov. Yell for Congress. In 
1848, while on a visit to Kentucky, and without 
his knowledge, a legislature, largely Democratic, 
elected him associate justice of the supreme court 
over strong D(>mocratic opposition, embracing such 
men as Judges English and William Conway, both 
of whom afterwards succeeded to the office. 

He had always been a lover of the Union, but 
when the Civil War came on, having been born 
and reared in the South, and having become 
attached to its institutions, he finally chose rather 
to cast his fortunes with the proposed Confederacy 
than with the Federal Union. In February 1861, 
he was elected a delegate to the State convention 
which convened on the 4th of March, and linally, 
at its adjourned session, passed the ordinance of 
secession. He and Judge B. C. Totten were can- 
didates for the chairmanship of this convention, 
the former re[>resenting the Union strength, and 
the latter the disunion element as it was then 
developed. Walker received forty out of the sev- 
enty-five votes cast, and thereupon took the chair; 
but owing to the rapid change of sentiment all ot 
the majority, save one, finally voted with the 
minority, and Arkatisas formally withdrew from the 
Union, with Judge Walker as a leader. In 18(5(5 
he was elected chief justice of the State, but in 
less than two years was removed from the office by 



military power. .\t the close of the reeonBtruction 
period he was again elected to the supreme bench 
and served thereon until September. 1878, when 
he resigned at the age of seventy-two, and retired 
to private life. He died September 30, 1879. He 
was a pious and conscientioiis man, an able jurist, 
a pioneer of Arkansas, highly res)>eefed liy its citi 
zens. 

(ien. Grandison D. Koyston, a ^ui\ of Joshua 
Itoyston and Elizabeths. (Watson) Royston, na- 
tives, respectively, of Maryland and Virginia, and 
both of j)ure English descent, was born on the 
9tli of December, 180it, in Carter County, Tenu. 
His father was an agriculturist and Indian trader 
of great en(*rgy and character, and his mother 
was a daughter of that eminent Methodist divine, 
Rev. Samuel Watson, one of the pioneers of 
the Holstein conference in East Tennessee. He 
was educated in the common neigliborhood schools 
and in a Presbyterian academy in Washington 
County, Tenn. In 1829 he entered the law office 
of Judge Emerson, at Jonesboro, in that State, 
and two years after was admitted to the bar. Sub- 
sequently he emigrated to Arkansas Territory, and 
in April, 1832, located in Fayetteville, Washing- 
ton County, wh(>re he renniined only (>ight months, 
teaching school five days in the week and practic- 
ing law iii justices' courts on Saturdays. He then 
moved to \\'ashington, in Hempstead County, 
where he continued to reside until his death. In 
the performance of his professional duties he trav- 
eled the circuits (jf the Tenitory and Sfafe in that 
cavalcade of legal lights composed of such men as 
Hemijstead. Fowler, Trajmall, Cummins, Pike, 
AValker, Yell, Ashley, Bates, Searcy and others. 

In 1833 he was elected |)rosecuting attorney 
for the Third circuit, and performed the duties of 
that office for two years. In January. 183(5. he 
served as a delegate from Hempsteail County in 
the convention at Little Rock, which framed the 
first constitution of the State: and in the fall of 
the same year he was elected to represent his 
county in the first legislature of the State. After 
the expulsion of .lohn Wilson, speaker of the house, 
who killed Representative John J. Anthony, Roy- 
ston was on joint ballot elected to till the vacant 



-* V 




speakership but declined the office. In 1841 
President Tyler appointed him United States dis- 
trict attorney for the district of Arkansas, which 
office he held a short time and then resigned it. 
In 1858 he represented the counties of Hempstead, 
Pike and Lafayette in the State legislature, and 
became the author of the levee system of the State. 
In 1861 he was elected to the Confederate Con- 
gress, serving two years. In 1874 he was a dele- 
gate from Hempstead County to the constitutional 
convention, and was elected president of that 
body. In 1876 he represented the State at large 
in the National Democratic convention at St. Louis, 
and voted for Tilden and Hendricks. He was al- 
ways a Democrat, a man of culture, refinement and 
winning manners, and enjoyed in a large degree 
the confidence of the people. He obtained his 
title as general by serving on the stafF of Gov. 
Drew with the rank of brigadier-general. He 
died August 14, ]S89, in his eightieth year. He, 
too, was one of the last prominent pioneers of Ar- 
kansas, and it is said he was the last surviving 
member of the constitutional convention of 1836. 
Judge James Woodson Bates was born in 
Groochland County, Va. . about the year 1 788. He 
was educated in the Yale and Princeton Col- 
leges, graduating from the latter about 1810. 
\A'hen quite youug he attended the trial of Aaron 
Burr, for treason, at Eichmond. Soon after grad- 
uating he read law. In the meantime his brother, 
Frederick Bates, was appointed first secretary of 
Missouri Territory, and was acting governor in 
the absence of Gov. Clark. About 1811) he fol- 
lowed his brother to the West, and settled in St. 
Louis. In 1820 he removed to the Post of Arkan- 
sas and there began the practice of his profession, 
but had scarcely opened his office when he was 
elected first delegate to Congress from Arkansas 
Territory. In 1823 he was a candidate for re- 



election, but was defeated by the celebrated Henry 
W. Conway, an able man, who commanded not 
only the influence of his own powerful family, but 
that of the Rectors, the Johnsons, Roanes and 
Ambrose H. Sevier, and all the political adherents 
of Gen. Jackson, then so popular in the South 
and West. The influence and strength of this 
combined opposition could not be overcome. 

After his short Congressional career closed, he 
moved to the newly settled town of Batesville, and 
resumed the practice of his profession. Batesville 
was named after him. In November, 1825, Presi- 
dent Adams appointed him one of the Territorial 
judges, in virtue of which he was one of the 
judges of the superior or appellate court organized 
on the plau of the old English court in banc. On 
the accession of Gen. Jackson to the presidency, 
his commission expired without renewal, and he 
soon after removed to Crawford County, married 
a wealthy widow, and became stationary on a rich 
farm near Van Buren. In the fall of 1835 he 
was elected to the constitutional convention, and 
contributed his ability and learning in the forma- 
tion of our first organic law as a State Soon 
after the accession of John Tyler to the presidency, 
he appointed Judge Bates register of the land 
office at Clarksville. in recognition of an old 
friend. He discharged every public trust, and 
all the duties devolved on him as a private citizen, 
with the utmost fidelity. Strange to say, whilst 
he possessed the most fascinating conversational 
powers, he was a failure as a public speaker. He 
was also a brother to Edward Bates, the attorney- 
general in President Lincoln's cabinet. He was 
well versed in the classics, and familiar with the 
best authors of English and American literature. 
He died at his home in Crawford County in 1846, 
universally esteemed. 




^i 



GKEENE COT'NTY. 



118 



Gkkkne County— Piiysioal Features— Streams— Forests— Kind of Soil— Agricultural Products 
—Stock Interests— Real and Personal Property— Population— Railways— Era of Settle- 
ment—A Noted Hunter- Acts of the County Board— County Seat and Buildinos- 
Officers— Political Outlook— Legal Matters— Military Affairs 
— MuNrciPALiTiES—SciiooLS— Churches— Biography. 




Be mindful 
With iron teeth of rakes and prongs to move 
The crusted eartli. —Dri/den. 



7'- 



•■.!^ 



KEENE COUNTY, Ark., 
lies in the northeastern part 
of the State, in latitude 3(5° 
37 ' North, and longitude 
91° west from Greenwich, 
England. It is bounded on 
the north by Clay County, 
east by the St. Francis 
River, which separates it from Dunk- 
lin (Jounty, Mo., south by Craig- 
head, and west by Lawrence and Ran- 
dolph Counties. It has an area of 
600 square miles, of which less tlian 
one tenth is improved. Its boundary 
lines are as follows: Commencing 
where the line between Sections 21 
and 28, Township 19, Range 9, intersects the mid- 
dle of the main channel of the St. Francis River; 
thence down the middle of the main channel of that 
river to the line between Townships 15 and 16; 
thence west on the township line to the Cache 
River; thence up said river, with its meanderings. 
to the line between Townships 17 and 18; thence 
west on the township line to the line between 
Ranges 2 and 3; thence north on the range line to 
the northwest corner of Section 30, Township 19, 
Range 3; thence east on the section lines, and on 
the county line, to the place of beginning. 



Crowley's Ridge, from its continuation in Clay 
County, extends in a rather southwesterly direction 
through Greene County, with a width varying from 
five to ten miles, and slopes gently on either side 
to the level of the bottom lands. This ridge in 
the southern part of the county is more rolling 
than elsewhere, and farms have been opened en- 
tirely across it, though generally speaking its sum- 
mit is not much cultivated. The early settlers, for 
the most part, selected their homes on the foot of 
the ridge and on ridges between the creeks. The 
farms now extend from both slopes of the ridge 
far out into the rich level lands. 

From Crowley's Ridge the waters flow through 
several small streams in a southeasterly direction 
and empty into St. Francis River; and west of the 
ridge the waters course through small streams in 
a southwesterly direction, emptying into Cache 
River; thus all that portion of the county lying 
between these rivers is drained. That part north 
west of Cache River is drained through the streams 
tributary to Cache and Black Rivers. 

"The entire county with the exception of 
places where the forest has been cleared and farms 
opened — is finely timbered with unequaled quality 
of white oak, red oak, hickory, sweet gum. ash, 
po])hir, pine, and walnut timber. The Crowley's 
Ridge summit is timbered its entire length through 



,J^ 



114 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



the county with pitch or red pine of the finest 
qualit}', and the slopes with other timber named. 

"The soil is varied. One discovers ])oor, thin 
and rocky points on the summit and almost any 
grade between sandy soil of the bottom lands. It 
produces good crops of corn, wheat, rye, barley, 
oats, sorghum cane, broom corn, cotton, potatoes, 
turnips, tame grasses, clover and millet, while the 
range for cattle from eight to ten months of the 
year, and for hog.s through the fall, is almost in- 
inexhaustible." * 

At present lumbering is, and until the timber 
supply becomes exhausted will continue to be, 
one of the leading if not the principal industry of 
the county, and a great source of income. In 
April of the current year there were thirty-four 
steam power saw-mills, six stave factories, one shin- 
gle-mill, and two planing-mills, within the county 
— all engaged in cutting the timber into lumber, 
etc. One of these mills — that of the J. M. Reed 
Lumber Company — has capacity for cutting 100,- 
000 feet of lumber per day. The most profitable 
source of revenue to the farmers consists in the 
raising of cotton and corn, which yield probably a 
nearly eqiial income. Most of the saw-mills have 
cotton gins, and some grist-mills attached. 

In 1880 there were, according to the United 
States census, 1,181 farms, with 80,596 acres of 
improved lands in the county, and from these the 
vegetable productions were as follows: Indian 
corn, 347,926 bushels; oats, 29, 110 bushels; wheat, 
10,475 bushels; hay, 124 tons; cotton, 3,711 bales; 
Irish potatoes, 5,181 bushels ; sweet potatoes, 18,989 
bushels; tobacco, 5,785 pounds. A large acreage 
has since been cleared, and the vegetable produc- 
tions correspondingly increased. 

The numbers of head of live stock within the 
county, as indicated by the same census, were as 
follows: Horses, 7,694; mules and asses, 760; 
neat cattle, 8,975; sheep, 1,727; hogs, 16,984. 
The following show the number of head of live 
stock in the county as declared by the assessment 
rolls for 1888: Horses, 2,826; mules and asses, 
991; neat cattle, 10.125; sheep, 1,685; 'hogs, 
16,481. The comparison of these figures is inter 

* Quotations from Greene County Record. 



esting. The decrease in the number of sheep is 
probably due to the reduction in the price of wool, 
while the decrease in the number of hogs is appar- 
ent but not real. The census of 1880 gives the 
number raised, sold and slaughtered during the 
year, while the assessment rolls show only the 
number on hand when listed for taxation; hence 
the increase must have been large. As previously 
stated, all parts of the county are well supplied 
with streams, and an abundance of good well 
water can be obtained at a depth of from thirty to 
forty feet, without blasting through any rock, and 
as the lands are well adapted to the raising of 
grains, tame grasses and clover, this country must 
eventually — after the lumber industry ceases — 
become excellent for diversified farming, and 
especially for the raising of live stock, the climate 
being mild, and the shipping facilities to the great 
commercial centers unusually superior. 

The country is also well adapted to the growing 
of all manner of fruits common to this latitude. 

The assessed value of the real estate of Greene 
County for the year 1880 was $426,685, and of the 
personal property $254,361, making a total of 
$681,046, and the total amount of taxes charged 
thereon was $16,099. The assessed value of the 
real estate of the county for 1888, including the 
railroad j)roperty, was $1,313,392.72, and of the 
personal property, $562,719, making a total of 
$1,876,111.72. upon which the total amount of 
taxes charged was $29,103.63. This demonstrates 
that the taxable wealth of the county has about 
doubled since 1880, but that the taxes have not 
increased in the same ratio. The railroads, which 
now constitute a considerable portion of the tax- 
able wealth of the county, and pay a large percent- 
age of the taxes, were assessed for the year 1888 
as follows: St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, 
$330,750; St. Louis, Arkansas & Texas, $200,677: 
Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis, $4,560; total, 
$585,987. 

The county has excellent public buildings, and 
a floating debt of only about $7,000, which will be 
canceled after another year's taxes are collected. 
This covers the whole indebtedness — there being 
no bonded del)t at all. Such favorable facts prove 



-4-2L,- 




that Greene County haB many attractions for home : 
seekers. Lands are yet cheap, and immigrants from ! 
the over-crowded Eastern and Northern States can 
certainly do much V^etter by coming to this country 
than by going west to points beyond the improve- 
ments of civilization. Capital is beiug rapidly 
invested here, thus insuring employment to the 
laborer. Here an industrious man with but small 
capital may soon possess and own a home, where 
society is good and the climate unexcelled; here he 
may gain, by application and energy, just recogni- 
tion, and here, too, may he avoid the tinancial 
burdens which characterize other less- favored com- 
munities. 

The population of Greene County in 1860, in- 
cluding what is now the Eastern district of Clay 
County, was 5,654 — 189 of whom were colored. 
The population of 1870, comprising the same terri- 
tory, was 7,417 — 156 of whom were colored. The 
population in 1880, embracing only the present 
area of the county, was 7,405, of whom only 75 
' were colored. Considering the recent rapid in- 
crease by way of immigration, together with the 
natural accession, it is safe to estimate the popula- 
tion of the county at the present vwiting, at more 
than double that of 1880. 

The main line of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain 
& Southern Railroad — completed about 1872 — 
runs in a southwesterly direction across the north- 
western portion of the county, a distance of nine 
and three-fourth miles. The Helena branch of 
the same road, finished in 1882, runs through in a 
southeasterly and southerly course across the 
entire county, by way of Gainesville, Paragould 
and minor points, a distance of twenty-three miles. 
The St. Louis, Arkansas & Texas Railroad, com- 
pleted in 1882, passes through the entire county 
in a southwesterly direction along the eastern side 
of Crowley's Ridge, by way of Paragould and 
other points, a distance of twenty- four miles and 
2,904 feet. The Kansas City, Fort Scott & Mem- 
phis Railroad, constructed in 1883, runs in a south- 
easterly direction across the extreme southwestern 
corner of the county, a distance of only 2,400 feet. 
The Paragould & Buffalo Island Narrow Gauge 
Railroad runs eastward from Paragould to the St. 



Francis River, a distance of ten miles. It was 
built in 1888, by a local company, for the purpose 
of shipping out timber and lumlier. The combined 
length of the llirough lines of railroad is fifty -seven 
miles and 3,984 feet, which added to the ten miles 
of narrow gauge road, makes over seventy-seven 
miles of railway in the county. 

The settlement of the territory now composing 
Greene County began almut the year 1820. Ben- 
jamin Crowley, grandfather of Hon. Benjamin H. 
Crowley, and his family were the first settlers, and 
their nearest neighbors were then at Pocahontas, 
now the county seat of Randolph County. Crow- 
ley's Ridge was named in honor of this pioneer 
settler. The Pevehouse family, Wiley Hutchins, 
Jerry Gage, Samuel Willcockson, the Robertsons 
and J. W. Gage, were among the first settlers of 
the Crowley neighborhood, which is some twelve 
miles west of Paragould. William Pevehouse 
was the first child born in the county, and his 
brother, Wiley, and Hon. Ben. H. Crowley were 
first among the next children born. James McDan- 
iol and Jesse Payne were early settlers on Village 
Creek. Isaiah Hampton and Lewis Bramlet set- 
tled in 1848, four miles east of Gainesville. John 
Mitchell, an early settler near Gainesville, put u)) 
the first cotton gin in the county, and Samuel 
Wilcockson erected the first steam grist mill on 
Crowley's Ridge, it being on Pojilar Creek in the 
Crowley settlement. Parson William Nutt located 
near Gainesville; and Aaron Bagwell, from whom 
Bagwell Lake in the eastern part of the county 
took its name, and C. G. Jones, after whom Jones 
Ridge on the western border of the county is called, 
were also early settlers. 

The Bradshaws — noted hunters — settled on the 
upper end of the ridge, iu what is now Clay 
County, and A. J. Smith, "the great Arkansas 
bear hunter." settled near the Bradshaws and mar- 
ried into their family. He subsecpiently located 
and cleared up a farm a few miles east of the pres 
ent town of Paragould, where he lived until his 
death. He was known far and near, and was the 
most noted eccentric character in all of Northeast 
em Arkansas, possessing many of the traits of the 
famous Col Butv Crockett. He was a veritable 



'Xl 



116 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



backwoodsman, not accustomed to the finer com- 
forts of advanced civilization. He owned slaves, 
raised large numbers of cattle, and undoubtedly 
killed more wild animals than any other man in 
the State. He usually went bareheaded and bare 
footed, with his collar opened and sleeves rolled 
up, and nearly always carried with him his rifle, 
shot pouch and large hunting knife. Upon his ap- 
pearance in this plight he was much feared, espec- 
ially by those not acquainted with him. He was, 
however, kind and benevolent, brave and generous, 
and had but few enemies, being a firm friend to 
those he respected, but a dangerous man in a 
quarrel. 

On one occasion after having sold a herd of cat- 
tle to Gov. "Jack" Drew, he went, equipped as 
usual, to the governor's residence to collect his 
pay. The governor happened to be absent. He 
was met at the door by Mrs. Drew, who though 
much frightened invited him to step in and take a 
seat at the fire. He looked down and said he did 
not like ' ' to step on that quilt. ' ' The carpet be- 
ing loose he took it by the edge, folded it over and 
then sprang across and took a chair near the fire. 
Mrs. Drew felt convinced that her unwelcome 
guest was a horse thief, and thereupon had his 
horse put into the stable and locked, knowing that 
her husband would return soon. On seeing the 
latter she went out to meet him, and related the 
appearance of the mysterious stranger, whereupon 
the governor, with a hearty laugh, replied, "O! 
that is Jack Smith, it's just like him." 

Angeline, his wife, was an excellent shot with 
the rifle, and often accompanied him on his hunt- 
ing excursions. Once while returning home upon 
a trail, desiring to " prowl around a little longer," 
he requested his companion not to wait for him. 
Accordingly she rode on, but had not gone far un- 
til the dogs — remaining with Jack — chased up a 
huge bear, pursuing it so closely that it stopped 
and turned its back against the roots of a fallen 
tree, and began to cuff the dogs right and left. 
Jack ran to their assistance, whereupon the bear, 
having cowed the dogs, sprang forward and rushed 
upon him. Jack in retreating, stumbled and fell. 
Just at this critical moment, Angeline, who had 



heard the confusion, wheeled her steed about, took 
deliberate aim and shot and killed the monster 
beast, thus saving her husband's life. Ever there- 
after upon relating this incident, he never failed 
to declare that Angeline was the best woman ever 
created. 

This gi-eat hunter generally wore ' ' buckskin 
breeches." He was of a humorous disposition, 
and on one occasion was visited by a party of well 
dressed gentlemen from Memphis, who, upon seeing 
the large quantity of peltry he had on hand, asked 
how he came to be so successful in hunting. His 
reply was that formerly when dressed in his buck- 
skin trousers and other outfit, the animals, espec- 
ially the deer, had become so well acquainted with 
him that they knew him by sight, and were always 
on the outlook for him, in consequence of which 
he could not get near enough to shoot them. It 
then occurred to him that he must change his 
garb, and thus deceive the animals. So now, he 
said, that upon approaching a herd of deer, the 
sentinel buck seeing him would inform the rest 
that there was no danger — that it was only some 
finely dressed gentleman from Memphis, who was 
harmless. In this way he claimed to delude the 
deer, succeeding in killing a great many. The 
numerous eccentricities, bear and deer hunts and 
the like, of this famous hunter, if compiled would 
make an interesting book on frontier life. 

Wiley Clarkson was an early settler and hunt- 
ing companion of Smith. The county settled very 
slowly prior to 1855, but after that more rapidly 
until the war period, during which time it received 
no new comers. Soon after the war the growth in 
population was renewed and continued gradual 
until four years ago, since which time it has been 
and still is very rapid. For additional mention 
of settlers, with more specific dates, the reader is 
referred to the biographical pages of this volume. 

Greene County was organized in accordance 
with an act of the legislature of Arkansas Terri- 
tory, approved November 5. 1833, and was made 
to embrace the territory it now comprises, except- 
ing that portion lying west of Cache River, to- 
gether with the whole of what is now the Eastern 
district of Clay County, and a j)ortion of Craig- 



5j^ 



head County, all formerly lielonging to Lawrence 
County. When Clay County was formed in 1873, 
that portion of Greene now lying west of the 
Cache River was attached from Randolph County. 

The original seat of justice was located about 
1835, at a point five miles northeast of Gaines- 
ville, and was named Paris. Here a log court- 
house was erected and one or two stores opened. 
Afterward the question of re-locating the county 
seat was agitated, and of the different points com- 
peting for it, the one where Gainesville is situated 
gained the location, henco the name Gainesville. 
To this place the seat of justice was moved about 
the year 1840. A log court-house and subsequent- 
ly a log jail were erected. The former was soon 
abandoned and in its stead a three-story frame 
court house, about thirty feet square, was con- 
structed. The first floor of this building was 
occupied with the county ofl[ices, the second with 
the court-room, and the third with a Masonic hall. 
The building, with a portion of the records, was 
burned in 1874. A store room was then rented 
for a court- house, and soon thereafter, in the 
same year, it was, with all the balance of the 
records, also burned. These buildings were sup- 
posed to have been set on fire by certain parties, 
that the records, noting their rather questionable 
conduct, might be destroyed. This led to the 
shooting and killing of Sheriff Wright, by a citizen 
whom the people justified by not prosecuting. 
Two other persons, supposed to bo implicated in 
the crime of burning the buildings, were arrested 
and placed in jail, from which they escaped and 
were not afterward apprehended. One of them, 
it is said, confessed his guilt. 

The next court-house was another store room, 
which, with all accumulated records, was burned 
in 1876, presumably by an incendiary resting un- 
der indictments for crime. A one-story frame 
court-house was then erected, and continued to 
be used until 1884, when the county seat was 
removed from Gainesville to its present site, at 
Paragould. In 1884 the one story frame build- 
ing now standing east of the court-house square 
was erected for a temporary court-house. In 1888 
the present beautiful and well-proportioned two- 



story brick building, with the halls and oUices on 
the first floor and the court-room on the second, 
was erected by Contractors Boone and Mcfxinnis, 
at a cost of $14,700. The clock in the tower cost 
$700 more. In 1877 the same contractors l)uilt 
the present two-story jail, containing four iron 
cells or rooms, and the jailer's residence, at a cost 
of $7,000. 

Following is a list of the names of the county 
officers of Greene County from its organization to 
the present, together with the term of service of 
each: 

Judges: I. Brooktield, 1833-35; W. Hanes, 
1835-36; George Daniel, 1836-1838; L. Thomp 
son, 1838-40; J. M. Cooper, 1840-42; H. Powell, 
1842-44; N. Mmphree, 1844-46; J. M. Coopei. 
1846^8; C. G. Steele, 1848-50; H. T. Allen, 
1850-52; J. Bellinger, 1852-54; H. T. Allen, 
1854-60; T. Clark, 1860-64; J. J. Wood, 1864- 
66; H. T. Allen, 1866-68; A. Seagroves, 1868- 
72; David Thorn. 1874-76; J. P. Culver. 1876-78; 
J. McDauiel, 1878-80; M. C. Gramling, 1880-82; 
J. O'Steen, 1882-88; W. C. Jones, present in 
cumbent, elected 1888. 

Clerks: L. Thompson, 1833-36; G. L. Mar- 
tin, 1836-38; H. L. Holt, to November. 1838: J. 
L. Atchison, 1838-44; H. L. Evans, 1844-46; H. 
Powell, 1846-50; M. T. C. Lumpkins, 1850-54; 
J. W. McFarlaud, 1854-56; L. B. McNeil. 1S56- 
I 58; H. W. Glasscock, 1858-64; R. H. Gardner. 
I 1864-68; E. R. Seeley, 1868-72; D. B. Warren, 
j 1872-82; R. H. Gardner, 1882-88; T. B. Kitch- 
ens, present incumbent, elected in 1888. 

Sheritt's: James Brown. 1833-34; Charles Rob- 
ertson, 1834-36; J. Stotts, 1836-38; J. Clark, 
1838-44; J. R, Ragsdale, 1844-46; A. F. Puryer. 
1846-48: J. Clark. 1S4S-50: William Pevehouse, 
1850-52; W. M. Peebles, IS52-58; F. S. White, 
1858-62; A. Eubanks. 1862-64: F. S. White. 
1864-68; M. Wright, 1868-72; M. C. Gramling. 
1872-74: J. P. WiUcocU.son. 1S74-76: J. A. Owen. 
1876-77; F. S. White. 1877-80; T. R, WiUcock 
son, 1880-84; J. M. Hightield, 1884-86; T. H. 
Willcockson, present incumbent, first elected in 
1886. 

Treasurers: James Katchford 1S36-38: H. X. 



' > 



118 



HLSTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Reynolds, 1840-42; G. W . Hurley. 1842-44: M. 
Carter, 1844-46; J. W. Poole, 1846-52; C. G. 
Jones, 1852-54; W. Meredith, 1854-56: J. Payne, 
1856-58: T. H. Wyse. 1858-62; C. Wall, 1862- 
64; M. C. Gramling, 1864-66; Alex. Wood, 1866- 
68; Sam Newberiy, 1868-72: R. Jackson. 1S72- 
76; H. C. Swindle, 1876-78; G. W. Stevenson, 
1878-80;* R. Jackson, 1880-84: J. N. Johnson, 
1884-86; H. S. Trice, jiresent incumbent, first 
elected in 1886. 

Coroners: J. Sutfin, 1833-35; J. Fowler, 1835 
-36; John Anderson, 1838-42: P. K. Lester, 
1842-44; J. Lawrence, 1844-46; J. Hunt, 1846- 
48; W. H. Mack, 1848-50; R. W. Dorsey, 1850- 
54; J. S. Hibbs, 1854-56; M. McDaniel, 1856-58; 
A. P. Bobo, 1858-60; H. B. Wright, 1860-64: J. 
R. Gentry, 1864-66; H. Jackson, 1866-68: L. 
Steadman, 1868-72; J. H. Dudley, 1872-74: E. 
Daniels, 1874-76; J. A. Little, 1876-78: W. M. 
McKay, 1878-80; J. W. Hardy, 1880-82: J. R. 
Gross, 1882-84; V. Looney, 1884-86; J. M. Ham- 
mond, 1886-88; B. Terrell, present incumbent, 
elected in 1888. 

Surveyors; G. Hall, 1833-36; William Hatch, 
1838-40; J. J. Johusou; 1840-42; J. B. B. Moore, 
1842-44: James Mitchell, 1844-56; E. M. Allen, 
1856-58; W. C. Reyburn, 1858-60; R. G. Mc- 
Leskey, 1860-62; J. P. Harris, 1862-64: R. C. 
Mack, 1864-66; L. M. Wilson, 1866-68: J. See- 
ley, 1870-72; R. H. Gardner, IS72-82: O. S. 
Newsom, 1882-88; Len Merriweather, present in- 
cumbent, elected in 1888. 

Assessors: R. H. Gardner, 1859-62: T. C. 
Murphy, 1862-64; H. W. Glasscock, 1864-66; 
M. C. Gramling, 1866-68; D. J. Edwards, 1868- 
70; P. G. Straughn, 1870-72; W. F. Clements, 
1872-74; W. S. Ledbotter, 1874-76; J. Huckabay, 
1876-78; J. F. Lytle, 1878-80; P. G. Light, 
1880-84: J. R. Thompson, 1884-88; E. L. Bab- 
bett, present incumbent, elected in 1888. 

Representatives of Greene County in constitu- 
tional conventions: G. L. Martin, January 4 to 
13, 1836; J. W. Bush, March 4 to 21, and'May 6 
to June 3, 1861; Benjamin H. Crowley, July 14, 
to Oct ober 31, 1874. " 

*R. Jackson on resignation of Stevenson. 



Representatives in general assembly; Alex. 
Tucker was the first representative of the county 
in the State legislature, and Hon. A. P. Cos is the 
present one. The Senatorial district, composed of 
Greene. Clay and Craighead Counties, is repre- 
sented in the State Senate by Hon. Ben. H. 
Crowley. 

To show the political aspect of the county the 
vote cast therein for the candidates for governor at 
the September election in 1888 is here given, it 
being as follows: J.P.Eagle, Democrat, 1,378 votes; 
C. M. Norwood, combined opposition, 841 votes. 

Upon the organization of Greene County and 
prior to the location of the original county seat, 
courts were held at the house of Mr. Crowley the 
first settler, as before mentioned, on Crowley's 
Ridge. A portion of the time the sessions were 
held in the house and. also, under the adjacent 
trees. It is said that the judge of the circuit court, 
after charging the grand jury, usually sent them in 
charge of the sheriff or bailiff under a certain white 
oak tree to make their deliberations. Since those 
days the courts have been held in the various court 
houses elsewhere described. The regular terms 
of the county court commence on the first Monday 
in January, April, July and October, and of the 
probate court on the third Monday of the same 
months in each year. The regular terms of the 
circuit court have heretofore commenced on the 
first Monday of February and August of each year, 
but probably the last legislature has slightly 
changed the time. This court has not been over- 
biu'dened with murder trials, as but few murders 
have been committed within the county. No one 
has ever been executed in Greene County for a 
capital offense except one person who killed an 
individual in another county, and was brought 
here and tried on a change of venue. 

The following are the resident members of the 
legal bar of Greene County: Hon. L. L. Mack, 
Judge J. E. Reddick. now on the bench; Hon. 
Ben. H. Crowley, J. B. Boykin, A. P. Mack, W. 
S. Luna, Eugene Parrish, W. W. Bandy, S. R. 
Simpson, A. Knox and J. F. Lytle. Mention of 
many prominent citizens of the county is also 
made in subsequent pages. 




At the outbreak of the Civil War of 1801-65, 
the citizens of Greene County, being mostly immi- 
gi'ants or descendants of immigrants from the 
former slave-holding States, were found to be 
almost to a man, in full sympathy with the South- 
ern cause, and consequently lent their energies to 
sustain it. As might be expected great excitement 
then prevailed, and in the spring of 1861 Capt. 
W. G. Bohaning raised a full company of soldiers 
mostly in the territory now composing Cireenc 
County, for the First Regiment of Arkansas Con- 
federate Infantry. Soon thereafter Capt. J. L. 
Kuykendall formed another company in the same 
territoiy for the same regiment, and later Capt. 
D. G. Byers recruited a company for the Twenty 
Fifth Regiment of Arkansas Confederate Infantry. 
In 1864 Capts. Park Willcockson, John McHenry 
and H. W. Glasscock, each raised a company of 
cavalry in Greene County for Maj. J. F. Davies' 
liattalion of Col. Kitchens' regiment. The pop- 
ulation being then small, these were the only or- 
ganized bodies of soldiers raised in that part of the 
county as it is now composed. Other troops were 
obtained in that portion since set off to Clay. No 
skirmishes or l)attles took place in the county dur- 
ing the war, and it was but little over-run with 
soldiers, consequently not suffering the devasta- 
tions incident to many other counties in the State. 

Only two Federal commands, together with a 
few small scouting parties, passed through the 
county, and as a result the people fortunately es- 
caped the raids of foragers; owing also to their 
unanimity of sentiment, there was but very little 
l)ushwhacking done. In addition to the com- 
panies above mentioned some individuals went out 
of the county and enlisted in other commands. 
Notwithstanding the natural preferences of the 
people here in the war period, they are now vieing 
with the immigrants from both North and South, 
in developing the resources of this section. Uni- 
versal peace and harmony prevail, and all just and 
upright newcomers are received with a hearty wel- 
come. The survivors of both armies have organ- 
ized an association in Paragould known as the 
"Blue and Gray" — there being many ex-Federal 
soldiers among the recent arrivals in the countv. 



and together they meet and rejoice that the con- 
flict is forever settled, and that while they were 
enemies in war they are friends in peace. 

(ireene is well supplied with villages, towns, 
postotlices. etc.. as the following facts indicate: 

Bethel is a postoffice and flag station on the 
railroad, five miles south of Paragould. 

Crowley is a postoffice twelve miles northwest 
of Paragould. 

Finch is a postoffice ten miles southwest of 
Paragould. 

Gainesville, on the Helena branch of the St. 
Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad, eight 
miles north of Paragould, formerly the seat of 
justice for Greene County, was established about 
the year 1840. In 184t) it contained a log court- 
house, two store buildings and five dwelling houses 
— all log except one dwelling house, which was a 
frame, sided up with clapboards. The town has ever 
been of slow growth, but situated as it is in a good 
community far from other villages, it is a point of 
considerable trade, containing four general stores, 
one drug store, four family groceries, two black- 
smith shops, one steam grist mill and cotton-gin 
combined, two hotels, one printing office, from 
which is published the Greene County Event, by 
F. M. Dalton, one livery stable, two church edi- 
fices — Cumberland Presbyterian and Methodist- 
one public school-house, three physicians, and one 
lawyer, the latter being the Hon. J. E. Reddiek, 
present judge of the circuit court of this judicial 
circuit. 

Halliday, a postoffice and flag station on tlie 
"Cotton Belt" Railroad, is six miles north of 
Paragould. 

Herndon is a postoffice in the so\ithwost part of 
the county. 

Lorado, also but a postoffice, is in the south- 
west part of the county. 

Marmaduke, a town of about 200 inhabitants on 
the " Cotton Belt" Railroad, twelve miles north- 
east of Paragould, contains four stores, a black 
smith shop, cotton gin and press, church, school 
house, a saw-mill and boarding house. From lierc 
a tramway is run a mile out on the St. Franci.-^ 
River, where other mills are located. The village 



\ 



2iJ« 



120 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



was first laid out in 1882 by the Railroad Company. 
Paragould, the county seat of Greene County, 
situated at the connection and crcssiug of the St. 
Louis, Arkansas & Texas and the St. Louis, 
Iron Mountain & Southern Railroads, was laid 
out in April, 1882, by the Southwestern Improve- 
ment Company, Willis Pruet and wife and J. A. 
Laml)ert and wife. It was named after President 
Paramore of the former and President Gould of 
the latter of these routes, the name Gould being 
substituted for the last syllable of Paramore, mak- 
ing it Paragould. The town has grown rapidly, and 
in the seven years of its existence has attained a 
population of about 2,000. It contains the Greene 
County Bank, nine general stores, five family 
groceries, four drug stores, one hardware, saddlery 
and farm implement store, six saloons, two baker- 
ies, two millinery stores, four hotels and many 
boarding houses, two livery stables, two butcher 
shops, one shoe, four blacksmith and one foundry 
shop, five stave factories, three saw-mills, one 
cotton gin, a feed store, photograph galleries, bar- 
ber shops, laundry and many other industries, four 
church edifices --Methodist, Baptist, Cumberland 
Presbyterian and Christian, a public school-house, 
seven physicians, three dentists, a lodge each of 
Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Honor, Knights 
of Pythias and a Post of the G. A. R. ; also these 
newspapers — the Paragould Evening Times, pub- 
lished daily, by W. A. H. McDaniel, editor and pro- 
prietor; the Record, published weekly, by Messrs. 
Taylor & Carter, the Press recently being consoli 
dated with this journal. In politics the entire 
press of the county is Democratic, but the papers 
are published in the interest of the people, and are 
doing their best to promote and increase the pros- 
perity of the county. Near Paragould on the west 
side are situated the grounds and buildings of the 
"Greene County Fair Association," which held 
its second annual exhibition in October, 1888. 
Paragould is incorporated as a city, and has a mayor, 
recorder, marshal, and a board of five aldermen. 
The present officers ai'e H. W. Glasscock, mayor: 
T. P. Cole, recorder; John M. Winder, marshal. 
A vast amount of capital is here invested. The 
town is beautifully located, and its growth is rapid 



and permanent. It is surroimded by a good agri- 
cultural and stock-raising country, which insures its 
future pi'osperity. The Bank of Paragould which 
was organized on March 19, 1889, is deserving of 
mention. It was incorporated with C. Wall, 
president, E. S. Bray, cashier, and A. A. Knox as 
secretary of the board of directors. The directors 
are as follows: Dr. C. Wall, A. Berteg, A. P. 
Mack, W. H. Jones, J. W. Crawford, D. D. 
Hodges and A. A. Knox. They have a capital 
stock of $30,000. The new bank building, which 
is a neat two-story structure located on the corner 
of Pruet and Emerson streets, was completed and 
occupied on the 1st of July, 1889. 

Stonewall, a post village on the Iron Mountain 
Railroad, fourteen miles north of Paragould, con- 
tains a store, saw-mill and shingle factory. 

Tilmanville is a postoffice fifteen miles north 
of Paragould. 

Walcott is a postoffice twelve miles west of 
Paragould. 

As was common throughout Arkansas in early 
days, the pioneer schools of Greene County were 
"few and far between," and of the most inferior 
nature. A few of the pioneer settlers employed 
such teachers as could be obtained for what might 
be considered ordinary laborers' wages, and thus 
afforded some meager facilities for the educa- 
tion of their childi'en. Though the State had a 
school system, there were practically no free schools 
prior to the inauguration of the present school sys- 
tem, which has taken place since the Civil War. 
Owing to the inadequate facilities for education, 
many of the citizens of the county reached their 
manhood without ever attending school. The 
children of this generation have great advantages 
over those of their parents. Seven years ago, as 
shown by reports of the State superintendent of 
public instruction, there were thirty-nine school 
districts organized in Greene County, with only 
seven* wood school-houses, to accommodate a 
scholastic population of 2,191. The following 
statistics, taken fi'om the superintendent's report 
for the year ending June 30, 1888, will show the 
improvements since made within the temtory: 

*Tbere were perhaps others not reported. 



^. 




The white schoolchildren number 4,387; col- 
ored, 14; total, 4,401. The minil)er taught in 
the public schools is: White, 2,219; colorc'd, none; 
number of school districts, 59; number of teachers 
employed, males, 37; females, 14; total, 51; 
average monthly wages paid teachers of the first 
grade, males, $42.50; females, $37.50; second 
grade, males, |40; females. $85; third grade, males, 
$32.50; females, $30; frame and log school-houses 
reported, 28, valued at $4,338. 75; revenue rai.sed 
for the support of common schools, $18,957.09; 
amount expended, $9,690.58; amount unexpended, 
$9,260.51. These figures show a great increase 
over those of seven years ago. The schools are 
increasing in number and quality — the wages paid 
being sufficient to secure teachers of good ability. 
The figures show also that of the scholastic pop 
ulation of the county only a little over one-half 
were taught in the public schools, which is con 
elusive that the people do not as yet fully sustain 
and patronize the free school system. However, 
the outlook for popular education is encouraging. 
A. Knox is the present county examiner. 

Religious meetings were held, and preaching 
was had in Greene County soon after it was or- 
ganized, and from the best information obtainable 
societies of the Methodist and Baptist denomina- 
tions were probably formed during the 40' s. The 
Methodist Episcopal Church. South, has now at 
least seventeen organizations within the county. 
The Paragould circuit consists of the following: 
Mount Carmel, Pleasant Grove, New Bethel, 
Wood's Chapel, a congregation four miles west 
of Paragould, and Greensboro and Pine Log, in 
Craighead County, with Itev. W. W. Anderson, 
pastor in charge. Lorado circuit consists of Pleas- 
ant Hill, Shady Grove, Warren's and Owen's 
Chapels, Old Bethel and Salem, with Rev. T. B. 
Williamson, pastor in charge. Gainesville circuit 
includes Friendship, Hurricane, Harvey's Chapel, 
Starne's (Jhapol. Scatter Creek, Beech Grove and 
Strong's Chapel, with Rev. N. W. Farrar. pastor 
in charge. Another congregation in the eastern 
part of the county, belongs to an outside circuit. 
Rev. W. W. Watson is pastor of the charge com- 
posed of Gainesville and Oak Grove, and Rev. 



J. C. Ritter is pastor of the charge at Paragouhl. 

The Bai>tist(*hurch has at least fourteen organ- 
izations within th(> county, one of which is the 
colored church at Paragould. Tin- others are 
named New Providence, Friendship. Liberty. 
Epsaby, Fairview, Unity, New Hop(>, Rock Hill, 
Pleasant Grove, Cedar Hill, Mount Zion, Para 
gould, and another, name not learned. New 
Providence, Friendship, Fairview, New Hope, and 
perhaps others, were organized long before the 
Civil War. All of these organizations have an 
average membership of about fifty, and the Meth- 
odist denomination is about equal in strength. 
Elders David Thorn, Lively, W. C. Jackson, 
Faulkner, J. T. Edmonds, and Halcomb are the 
ministers now officiating at these several churches, 
all of which are designated as Missionary Baptists. 

The several organizations of the Christian 
Church within the county are known as Paragould, 
Pine Knot, Sugar Creek, Gainesville and Liberty, 
with a combined membership of nearly 400. Pine 
Knot was organized in a very early day — long 
before the Civil War. and has had a very large 
membership. Liberty, which was organized in 
1879, was composed mostly from the membership 
of Pine Knot. The Christian Church in Para 
gould was organized in 1885. 

The organizations of the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church within Greene County are known as 
Gainesville, Friendship and Paragould, the latter 
having been organized in 1884. The one at or 
near Gainesville was organized early in the 80' s. 
In point of numbers this is probably the weakest 
denomination in the county. There are no Roman 
Catholic organizations here, but this sect is pre- 
paring to build a church edifice in Paragould. 

Nearly all of the church organizations named 
have houses of their own in which to worship, and 
all, except a few not supplied with pastors, have 
regular preaching, and are doing good work. In 
the summer season Sunday-schools are connected 
with them, but only a few in the more populous 
districts continue throughout the year. 

The people of (ireene County are almost with- 
out exception moral, law abiding, kind, generous 
and hospitable, and welcome anil protect all de- 



122 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



serving immigrants that come among them. Here 
the opportunities for securing a home in a com 
paratively new country, where the climate is mild, 
the railroad facilities good, churches and schools 
numerous, all without the inconveniences of front- 
ier lite, are unexcelled. 



W. T. Allison was born on the 25th of Decem- 
ber, 1850, in Gibson County, Tenn., being the 
eldest of six children, two now living, born to 
John W. and Elizabeth (Harrington) Allison, who 
were born in the ' ' Old North State ' ' and emigrated 
to Gibson County, Tenn., in 1828, where the 
father engaged in cabinet making and farming, 
and made his home until 1867, when he moved to 
Weakley County, Tenn. , where he now resides. In 
1802 he enlisted in the army and served imder 
Gen. Forrest until nearly the close of the war. 
He is a Democrat. His wife died in 1801. W. 
T. Allison attended the schools of Gib.son County, 
and in his youth also followed the plow, which 
occupation has been his chief calling ever since. 
In January, 1876, he removed to Stoddard County, 
Mo., and for a number of years was engaged in 
teaching school in Dexter and other places. While 
there he was married on the 8th of May, 1879, to 
Miss Minnie A. Walker, a native of Carroll County, 
Tenn. , and a daughter of John and Sarah (Gib- 
bons) Walker, also Tennesseeans and farmers by 
occupation; after residing in Stoddard County, 
Mo., for five years, the father died in 1877. The 
mother is still a resident of that county. Remain- 
ing in Stoddard County until the 5th of Sep- 
tember, 1882, Mr. Allison and wife then moved 
to Craighead County of this State, and after work- 
ing as salesman in that county until March, 1888, 
he came to Greene County, Ark., and i)urchased 
two years later eighty acres of improved land, 
to which he has since added 122 acres, making 
202 acres in all, of which forty are under culti- 
vation. He has taken an active part in politics, 
and votes the Democratic ticket, being the present 
justice of the peace and is filling his second term. 
Socially, ho is a member of the Agricultural Wheel 
at Halliday, and he and wife belong to the Baptist 



Church. Three of the four children born to their 
union are living: Clyde Eugenia, Dero Dean, and 
Vernie Pearl. Adolphus Burdette died in 1881 at 
the age of six months and three weeks. Mr. Alli- 
son is still engaged in teaching, having followed 
that occupation a part of four years in Greene 
County, and is considered one of the successful 
educators of his district. 

T. J. Archer. Among the many sturdy "sons 
of the soil ' ' of Greene County, Ark. who have 
attained wealth and prominence in their calling by 
the sweat of their brow, and who command an en- 
viable social position, is Mr. Archer, the subject of 
this biograpliy. He was born in Alabama in 1S47 
and is the youngest in a family of nine children 
born to the marriage of Eev. Philip Archer and 
Artemisa Maxwell. The father, in connection with 
his ministerial duties, was engaged in farming, 
and followed these two occupations until his death 
which occurred on the 10th of August, 1808, his 
death being preceded by that of his wife by 
twenty-one years. The paternal grandfather left 
Alabama and settled in Arkansas during the early 
history of that State, being an extensive farmer for 
many years. His death occurred very suddenly. 
T. J. Archer was reared to farm labor, and at the 
age of twenty-one years married Miss Lenora 
Amorine, of Alabama, and two years later came to 
Arkansas, settling first in Polk County, remaining 
one year, and then went to Monroe County, where 
he stopped five years. Since 1875 he has resided 
in Greene County, and the first few years was 
engaged in tilling rented land, and since 18S5 has 
been the owner of 160 acres of land near the 
Cache bottoms, which was at first wild land but is 
now well improved, with seventy-five aci-es under 
fence and cultivation. His land is among the best 
in this section and is devoted principally to raising 
corn and cotton. To the union of Mr. and Mrs. 
Archer have been born the following children: 
Philip William Thomas, who is married and resides 
on his father's place; Benjamin O. , Adolphus, 
Osceola, Thome and Moses Ray, living; and Jolin, 
Ida, Eldora and Daniel, deceased. 

H. L. Ayers, a wealthy farmer of Greene 
County, Ark., was born in Bedford County, Tenn., 



^^ 



V 






U^r. 




Craibhcao Couhty, Arkansas. 



GREENE COUNTY. 



123 



in 1858, jitul is the second in a family of four chil- 
li ion born to the miirriage of Frank and Loddie 
(^\'illiams) Ayers, tho former a native of Pennsyl- 
vania and the latter of Tennessee. At the early 
age of eight years H. L. Ayers loft home and 
began depending on his own resources for obtain- 
ing a livelihood, and up to the age of seventeen 
years worked on farms and did teaming. In 187U 
he was married in Gibson County, Tenn., to Miss 
Addie Rosson, who was born, reared and educated 
in that State, being a daughter of Joiin Rosson, 
who was known as one of the best farmers in West 
Tennessee, his farm of 300 acres being valued at 
|i),000. After his marriage, Mr. Ayers worked 
with his father-in-law until 1883, when he made a 
trip to Arkansas and traveled over the greater ]X)r- 
tion of that State, as well as Missouri, the Indian 
Territory, Texas, New Mexico, Louisiana and 
Mississippi. After one year he returned to M'est 
Tennessee, and at the end of one year went to 
Fulton County, Ky., where he resided two years. 
In August, 1886, he moved his family to Greene 
County, Ark. , where he engaged in the teaming 
business, which he followed for two years, and then 
acted as stave inspector for J. F. Hasty & Son for 
one year. He next began farming on a tract of 
IfiO acres of land in Greene County in December, 
1S88, and on this he immediately began to make 
improvements, and has introduced many new 
methods of farming. He has thirty-five acres in 
corn, fifteen in oats, thirty-five in rye and oats for 
pastiu'e, and two in |)otatoes. On this farm is a 
tine orchard of 540 trees, mostly peach, beside a 
tine assortment of other fruit. He is doing well 
in his calling and promises to become in time a 
wealthy man. He and wife are the jjarents of one 
daughter, Lizzie May. 

Josej>h Bleier, proprietor of the Vienna Bakery, 
at Paragould, was born in Bohemia, Austria, 
December 17, JS4f5, and is the son of Ignatz and 
Anna (Freitle) Bleier, also natives of Austria. 
The parents are still living in their native country, 
and the father follows the occupation of a farmer. 
In their family were eight children: Joseph, 
Frank, Robert, Ignatz. John and Otto (twins), 
Barbara and Anna. Joseph Bleier received his 



education in Austria, and remained on the farm 
with his father until fourteen years of age, when 
he began learning the baker's trade. In 1807, 
when in his twc'ntieth year, he took i)a8sage from 
Bremen to America on the steamer ' ' Ocean, ' ' 
which was stranded one year later, and lauded at 
New York City. He came on to Cincinnati, where 
he worked for about eight years itj and around the 
city. He then went to Chicago, remained there 
about three years and then engaged in business 
for himself at Joliet, 111. In 1880 he came to 
Paragould and immediately engaged in his present 
business, at which he has been very successful. 
He is an excellent Ijaker and keej)8 a good stock of 
everything carried in his line. He was married in 
October, 1873, to Miss Mary Gaker, a native of 
Hamilton County, O. , and a daughter of John and 
Rosa (Schleer) Gaker, who were natives of Ger- 
many and early settlers of Ohio. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Bleier have been born five children, three now liv- 
ing: John K. , Frank and Joseph E. The two 
deceased were Robert and Mathew. Mr. and Mrs. 
Bleier are members of the Catholic Church. 

E. M. Bobo. Among Greene County's self- 
made, enterprising and successful citizens, none 
deserve more favorable mention than the subject 
of this sketch, E. M. Bobo, who was born in South 
Carolina in 1840. His father, A. P. Bobo, came 
from the Palmetto State to Arkansas in 1857, and 
entered 160 acres of land, upon which he lived 
engaged in farming and stock raising until his 
death in 1S86. He was held in favor by his fel- 
low farmers, and was for two years coroner of^ 
Greene County. Of his family of seven children, 
two sons and five daughters, four are still living, 
one in North Carolina, two in Texas, and one in 
Arkansas. They are Mary (Bobo) Prince, E. M. 
Bobo, Virginia (Bobo) Swindle, and Spotana 
(Bobo) Love. E. M. Bobo was seventeen years of 
age when he came with his father to this State, 
where he has since made his home. He has about 
154 acres of laud, with eighty under cultivation, 
forty of which he has cleared himself, and his farm 
is well stocked with horses, cattle, hogs and fine 
sheep. October 2. 1861, Mr. Bobo enlisted in 
the Fifth Arkansas Infantrv, and though twice 



124 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



wounded, continued in service during the entire 
war. He and wife have reared a family of nine 
children: M. A., horn in 1862: Matilda, horn in 
186(3; G. M., born in 1867; Olive, horn in l«6y, 
Victoria, born in 1871; Arthur E., born in 1872; 
J. E.. born in 1874; Alice, horn in 1875, and Ada, 
in 1878. Mr. Boho belongs to the Agricultural 
Wheel, and he and wife and family are active 
members of the Methodist Church. 

M. W. Boyd (deceased) was an enterprising 
and industrious farmer of Greene County, Ark. 
He was born in Tennessee on the l'2th of October, 
1846, and came to Arkansas with his father when 
a child, where the latter died shortly after. In 
1868 M. W. Boyd was united in the bonds of 
matrimony to Miss M. J. McMillin. who was born 
in the "Palmetto State" and came to Arkansas 
with her parents, W. P. and Adaline (Cooley) Mc- 
Millin in 1853, settling on what is known as the 
old Willcockson estate, consisting of 500 acres. 
Here Mr. McMillin greatly improved his farm, 
became a well-known citizen of the county, and 
died on the 19th of May, 1862. After his marriage 
Mr. Boyd began improving his farm on an exten- 
sive scale by erecting good buildings, setting out 
orchards, etc., and did considerable in the way of 
stock raising. He was interested in all things that 
promised to promote the welfare of his section, and 
was a liberal contributor to churches and schools. 
He died on the 27th of May, 1885, leaving his 
wife and children one of the beat farms in the 
county, on which is a roomy and substantial 
dwelling-house, surrounded by ornamental trees 
and shrubbery. Mrs. Boyd is ably managing the 
farm, and besides the usual crops is engaged in 
raising cotton. She and Mr. Boyd became the 
parents of the following childi-en; Onie, Alice, 
Clara and Selma. 

E. S. Bray, postmaster at Paragould, and cash- 
ier of the Bank of Paragould, is classed among 
the prominent and successful business men of that 
town. He was born in Chatham County, N. C, 
and is the son of Solomon and Sarah (Brooks) 
Bray, natives of North Carolina, where they passed 
their entire lives. They were the parents of nine 
children, seven now living, three in North Carolina, 



two in Tennessee, and two in Arkansas. E. S. 
Bray was but a lad when his parents died, and he 
went to live with an elder brother in Tennessee, 
where he remained until grown. He received his 
education in that State and remained engaged in 
assisting on the farm until 1878, when he came to 
Arkansas. Previous to this, in 186U, he married 
Miss Margaret E. Cox, a native of Tennessee, and 
after coming to Arkansas he located three miles 
from Paragould and followed agricultural pursuits 
until July 14, 1885, when he was appointed post- 
master. He is the owner of 440 acres of good 
land with about fifty acres under cultivation, and 
has made many improvements since purchasing 
the farm. He has been magistrate for a number 
of years, and was one of the enumerators of the 
census of Greene County in 1880. He is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic Fraternity, and represented 
his lodge at the Grand Lodge. He is also a 
member of the K. of P. He and wife belong to 
the Baptist Church. 

William B. Breckenridge. Few men in the 
county have made agricultural pursuits such a de- 
cided success, or have kept more thoroughly apace 
with the times, than has the above mentioned 
gentleman, Mr. Breckenridge, who was lioru in 
Missouri, on Castor River, March 13, 1843, and 
who is the son of James Harvey and Susan (Huff- 
stettler) Breckenridge, the parents of European 
descent. In 1844 Mr. and Mrs. Breckenridge left 
Missouri and located in Arkansas near the farm 
where their son, William B. , is now residing. 
Here the father tilled the soil until his death, 
which occurred in 1888, the day he was sixty-sis 
years old. He enlisted in the Confederate service 
in 1864, and was with Gen. Price on his raid 
through Missouri. He was a member of the Metho 
dist Episcopal Church, South. He had been mar- 
ried three times, his second marriage being to Miss 
Maggie Light, a native of Missouri, who died one 
year later. He then married Miss Mary Ann Batto, 
and the result was a large family of children. One 
child was born to the second union, l)ut it died in 
infancy. William B. Breckenridge was but ten years 
of age when his mother died, and he was the eldest of 
five children: William B., A. (t., Eli Greene, James 



^ 



Jd- 



l^ 



GREENE COUNTY. 



125 



Franklin, and Jane (deceased). The mother of these 
children was a worthy member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. The eldest of the above 
mentioned family reached manhood on the farm, 
and at the age of nineteen years began tilling 
the soil for himself, which occupation he has 
carried on ever since. At the beginning of the 
war he enlisted in the Confederate army, was at 
the battles of Corinth, luka and Port Hudson, and 
was soon after paroled and returned home. In 
1S63 he married Miss Sarah E. Mielar, a native of 
Tennessee, born in 1S43, and who came to Arkan- 
sas with her parents, John and Ann Mielar, in 
1 851 , when a child. Both her parents are deceased. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Breckenridge were born twelve 
children, four of whom are deceased. The chil- 
dren are named as follows: James Henry, William 
Lee. Mary Jane (wife of Ezekiel Williams), Sarah A. 
(wife of James Branch), Minnie A., Edward Jef- 
ferson, Eli Blanton, Arra Frances, and Charles 
McCarsy. Those deceased were named James Hen- 
ry, Samantha, Vira and Joseph R. The family are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South. Mr. Breckenridge is an active worker in 
school matters, and a liberal contributor to all public 
enterprises reflecting credit on the community in 
which he has made his home. His father had live 
brothers and three sisters : John I. , Thomas 
W.. James H., Mary (Chrits), a widow, Sarah, 
David I., Andrew J. (who moved to Wright 
County, Mo., in 1879, and died in 1880), Anne, 
(Taylor), a widow, and Jackson. Those not liv- 
ing were active, enterprising farmers of Northeast 
Arkansas, and m\ich esteemed. They left a 
large number of cousins, among whom is W. B. 
Breckenridge, our subject. His wife's brothers 
and sisters are: Nicholas M. Mielar, Sarah E. , 
Milliam H. , Neuben R., James R.. Louisa A.. 
Lucy A., Nancy C, Arra S., and Mary E. 

Daniel W. Breckenridge. who is one of the 
sturdy sons of toil of Crowley Township, and the 
son of David and Caroline (Yoekum) Breckenridge. 
was born in Greene County, Ark., in 1856, and 
grew to manhood in that county. His parents 
were natives of North Carolina, where they re- 
mained until about 1838, and then moved to Mis- 



souri, coining from there to Arkansas, where the 
father died in 1877 at the age of fifty-five years. 
He was a soldier in the late war, on the Confed- 
erate side, and served until cessation of hostilities. 
He took an active part in church and school affairs. 
He was married four times; first to Miss Kinder, 
who bore him four children, all deceased, and after 
her death he married Miss Caroline Yoekum, and 
by her became the father of six children, three 
now living: James D., Daniel W. and Sarah C, 
now Mrs. Taylor. Those deceased were named 
Malinda Ann, Nancy J. and Julia Aim. After his 
second wife's death Mr. Breckenridge married 
again, and five children were the result of this 
union: One deceased, Parthenia, Amelia J., Elihu 
and Parris. The one deceased was named George 
W. Daniel W. Breckenridge, the fourth child by 
the second marriage, attained his majority in his 
native county, and commenced working for himself 
at the age of twenty-one. He followed tilling the 
soil on the farm given him by his father at the 
time of his death, and there he has remained ever 
since. He was man'ied in 1878 to Mrs. Maria 
Spain, a native of Tennessee, born in 1848, and 
who came to Arkansas when twenty-two years of 
age. She is the daughter of Hugh Spain, now de- 
ceased, but her mother is still living and is a 
resident of the ' 'Lone Star" State. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Breckenridge were born six children: Rufus 
W., Victoria A., Ezra E. and Willie P. Two are 
deceased (unnamed). Mr. Breckenridge is active 
in school matters, having been school director for 
ten or twelve years, and is a Democrat in politics. 
He is the owner of a tine farm, well under cultiva- * 
tion. 

M. D. Bridges. In giving a brief sketch of 
the life of Mr. Bridges it can with truth be said 
that he is one of the foremost men of his county, 
and has become one of the wealthy planters of his 
region by honest toil and good management and 
by the aid and advice of his admirable wife. He 
was born in Dunklin County, Mo., in 1804, and 
was the sixth in a family of ten children born to 
Amherst D. and Charlotte (Russell) Bridges, who 
were also born in Kentucky and at an early day 
emigrated to Dunklin County, Mo., where they 



-^-^ 






126 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



are now residing. Here M. D. Bridges was born, 

reared and educated, and as his father was a mer- 
chant and farmer by occupation, he first worked 
on the farm and then clerked in his store. Later 
he engaged in the saloon business at St. Francis, 
Mo., and after following that calling for about 
eighteen months sold out, and on the 15th of 
March, 1887, came to Greene County, Ark. The 
same year he was married, in Clay County of 
this State, to Mrs. Theodocia Nolen, widow of 
David Nolen, and soon after moved to his present 
farm, which consists of 280 acres of arable land, 
with about 160 under cultivation. In addition to 
this he has forty acres under cultivation in Clay 
County, the most of which he devotes to the rais- 
ing of cotton. This year (1889) he had seventy- 
five acres in cotton, and also raises considerable 
stock. He has never been very active in politics 
but usually votes the Democratic ticket; he is ever 
deeply interested in the proper education of the 
youth of this country, and has always been a 
patron of education, being now a member of the 
school board. Socially he is a member of Four 
Mile Lodge No. 412, A. F. & A. M., and also be- 
longs to Pittsburg Lodge No. 273, I. O. O. F., at 
Campbell, Mo. Mr. and Mrs. Bridges are the par- 
ents of one son, Andy Lee. 

C. J. Brinkman, a member of the firm of John 
F. Brinkman A Son, manufacturers of tight bar- 
rel staves, Paragould, is a native of Batesville, 
Ripley Co. , Ind. , and the son of John F. Brink- 
man, who is also of Indiana nativity. The mother, 
Catharine (Kipper) Brinkman, was born in Ba- 
varia, Germany, and was married to Mr. Brink- 
man April 28, 1863. The fruits of this union 
were eleven children, seven of whom yet survive. 
John F. Brinkman engaged in the lumber busi- 
ness in his youth, and bought walnut lumlier for a 
large furniture factory. In the fall of 18()8, he 
embarked in the manufacture of staves at James- 
town, Ind., and there remained until 187"), when 
he removed to Indianapolis to educate his children, 
at the same time running his factory at Jamestown. 
He made his home in Indianapolis until 1879, and 
in April of that year, moved to Terre Haute, Ind., 
where he put up a stave factory and ran it until 



1889, when he sold out and is now living a retired 
life. His wife died in May. 1889. C. J. Brink- 
man was but four years of age when he moved with 
his parents to Jamestown. He received a good 
education in the schools of Indianapolis and Terre 
Haute, and graduated at the Notre Dame Univer- 
sity in 1881. He then started in the stave busi- 
ness with his father, and has since been a member 
of the firm of John F. Brinkman & Son. In Feb- 
ruary, 1888, they began the erection of their pres- 
ent factory, and commenced working in the same 
May 2, since which time they have continued the 
business successfully. The foreman is W. W. 
AMlson, who has been with this firm for eighteen 
years. Mr. Brinkman was married in September, 
1888, to Miss Marie C. Vesque, a native of Frank- 
lin County, Ind., and both he and wife are mem- 
bers of the Catholic Church. 

Charles Brock, another prominent and success- 
ful agriculturist of Cache Township, and one 
whose name is synonymous with the farming inter- 
ests of the county, was born in Georgia in 1825, 
and is the son of Thomas and Jemima (Kinzie) 
Brock, both natives of South Carolina. The father 
grew to manhood in his native state, and was there 
married to his first wife, who bore him four chil- 
dren. He then removed to Alabama and there 
married Miss Kinzie, with whom he returned to 
Georgia in 1834. He died in that State three 
years later. The mother then married again and 
died in Georgia, in 1855, at the age of fifty years. 
She was a member of the Methodist Episoojial 
Church, South. Charles Brock, the eldest of the 
three brothers and sisters, attained his majority in 
the State of Georgia, receiving very little education 
aside from home study, and at the age of fourteen 
began working for himself. After a few years he 
learned the blacksmith trade, and in 1851 immi- 
grated to Morgan County, 111., where he remained 
three years. From there he went to Polk County, 
Mo., resided there several years and was then in 
New Madrid County for two years. In 1 866 he came 
to Greene County, settled in Cache Township, im- 
proved a large tract, and moved to several places 
where he made many improvements. He was first 
married in Georgia to Miss Cynthia Walker, a 



_il- 



GREENE COUNTY. 



127 



iiiit.ivc of Kentucky, who died in Vernon County, 
Mo., in 185"), and the result of this union was 
three children, two now livin<^: John R., and 
Martlia, who is now the wife of Frank (irauil)linu', 
and who resides in Boone County, Ark. The one 
deceased was named James. Mr. Brock was mar- 
ried the sec^ond time to Miss Elizabeth AValker, a 
native of Alabama. She died in 1870. The fol- 
lowing; children were born to this union: William, 
at home; Margaret, now Mrs. Jones; Nancy, now 
Mrs. Johnson; Catherine, now Mrs. Beaty; Re- 
becca. Mrs. Belk; Triphena and Tri{)hocia (twins, 
and the latter deceased); Charles (deceased); 
Lizzie, at home; Lee (deceased), and Jesse (de- 
ceased). For his third wife Mr. Brock took Mrs. 
Luemma Israel, nee Cooper, in 1879. Three 
children wore born to this marriage, Mary, and 
two deceased. The family are memlsers of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and Mr. Brock is 
steward and trustee in the same at tiie present 
time. He has held the office of school director 
for many years, and is liberal and generous in 
his contributions to all meritorious enterprises. 
He is a Democrat in politics but is not an active 
partisan. He has a tine farm of thirty acres in 
cultivation, owning 160 acres of laud. 

L. H. Case, real estate and loan agent, also 
attorney, of Paragould, is a native of Licking 
County, Ohio, born August 7, 1833, being the son 
of Ra])hael and Rosetta (Hayes) Case, the father 
a native of Ohio and the mother of New York, and 
both families of old Puritan stock. The mother 
was a tirst cousin of Rutherford B. Hayes. The 
paternal grandfather, Frederick Case, was from 
Simsbury, Conn. , and the maternal grandfather 
was a native of the Green Mountain State. The 
latter was a captain in the War of 1812 and was in 
command of Vermont troops. Grandfather Case 
was also a captain in the War of 1812, and was at 
Hull's surrender, but escaped. They both died in 
Ohio, whither they had emigrated at ijuite an early 
date. Raphael Case was born in Licking County, 
Ohio, and was a farmer by occupation. He was 
county treasurer one term and tilled that position 
with credit and honor. He died in 18*50, in his 
fiftieth year. The mother died previously to this. 



In their family were si.\ children, four now living: 
Leonus H., Frederick, in Missouri; Sylvester, also 
in Alissonri; Jason, in Ohio; Wilbur, killed at 
the battle of Spottsylvania Court House, and 
Fannie (deceasert). wife of Rev. W. M. Mullin. 
L. H. Case attained his growth and received his 
education in Licking County, Ohio, attending the 
Ohio Wesleyan University. At the age of twenty- 
one he began the study of law and was admitted to 
the bar in 1858. He then commenced jiracticing at 
Bloomfield, Ind., remained there a short time, and 
on the breaking out of the late war he went home 
and enlisted in Company D, First Ohio Cavalry, 
and served three years. He was at the battles of 
Pittsburg Landing, Perryviile, Stone River, Chick- 
amauga. Missionary Ridge, and particijmted in 
many minor engagements. He was discharged at 
Washington, D. C, and afterward went to St. 
Joseph, Mo., raising a company of his own, after 
which ho went to Cape Girardeau where he had 
command as captain of six companies. He re- 
mained there about seven months, when they were 
mustered out and he went to Maysville, Mo., where 
Cajit. Case practiced his profession until 1885. 
Locating at Norfolk, Neb., where he had a good 
farm, he remained there for about two years, and 
then settled in Little Rock. Ark., forming a jiart- 
nership with an old planter, William Field, in the 
real estate and loan business. This they carried 
on imtil October, 1888, when Mr. Case came to 
Paragould, bought property and located here. He 
has since been engaged in the practice of his pro- 
fession, and has also lieen occupied in the real es- 
tate and loan business. He is agent for about 
200,000 acres of wihl land and some good pine 
land. He also owns considerable land and prop- 
erty in Greene County. He is ]>roj)ared to loan 
money in almost any amount from $250 u|>ward. 
Mr. Case was married, first, in 1857, to Miss Mary 
\\'arner, by whom he had one child, Willard. He 
was married the second time, in 180l'>. to Miss 
Amanda Terhune, of Missouri, and two children 
were the result: Cora and Harry. Mr. Case's third 
marriage was to Miss Mattie McDowell, of Mis- 
souri, in 187<i. He is a member of the I'.piscopal 
Church. 



:\>^ 




Dr. R. C. Cavitt. Oue of the most familiar 
and welcomed faces in the home of the sick ami 
afflicted of Greene County, is that of Dr. Cavitt, 
who administers to the physical wants of his fellow- 
man, in a highly satisfactory and successful man- 
ner, as his many patients, now living, can testify. 
The Doctor was born in Henry County. Tenn. , 
but was reared in Obion County, of the same 
State, where he lived with his father on a farm. 
At a very early age he commenced learning the 
blacksmith trade which he completed, and, al- 
though he has not worked at his trade for over 
nineteen years, still thinks that his hand has 
not lost its cunning, and that he can do as good a 
piece of work in that line as he ever could. At 
the age of twenty-seven he commenced the study 
of medicine with his brother, B. H. Cavitt, then 
of Obion County, Tenn., and graduated at the ex- 
piration of two and a half years' study at the 
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn. He then 
moved to Greene (bounty, Ark., locating near Til- 
man ville, two' miles west of Marmaduke (then not 
in existence), and here the Doctor, after twelve 
years of -iabor, has built up an enviable practice. 
After coming to this State he was married to Miss 
N. E. Jones, a native of Clay County, Ark., and 
the daughter of John Jones, who came from Ten- 
nessee about 1830. To this marital relation 
were born two children: Vera Ethel and Her 
Myrtle. Dr. Cavitt has about 120 acres of land 
in cultivation where he lives, and which he has 
had improved to such an extent that it is one of 
the finest farms in the county. The Doctor says 
he' intends it to be the best in the county within 
a year or two at the most. He has always, since 
living here, been dealing in cotton, and by care, 
and by closely watching the market, has man- 
aged to benefit himself very much in that line. 
He is a member of the I. O. O. F. lodge at Til- 
manville, is also a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity, and in each has tilled many of the chairs, 
holding one position at the present time. He and 
Mrs. Cavitt are members of the Methodist Epis 
copal Church, South, near Tilmanville. 

A. T. Chaffin is one of the energetic and pro- 
gressive farmers and stockmen of Cache Township, 



Greene County, Ark., and was born in Georgia in 
1832. being the eldest of a family of ten children 
belonging to Elias and Sarah (Yearwood) Chaffin, 
who were born in North Carolina and Georgia, re- 
spectively; the former, besides his association with 
farming, is a Missionary Baptist minister, and is 
actively engaged in preaching the gospel at the 
present time, although eighty-three years of age. 
His wife died in 1872 at the age of sixty- four 
years. Both grandfathers were soldiers in the War 
of 1812. A. T. Chaffin was reared on a farm in 
Georgia, and in his youth received very limited 
educational advantages, but managed to attend the 
common schools to some extent. When but nine- 
teen years of age he bought a farm and began till- 
ing the soil, the same year marrying Miss Nancy 
E. Gosa, who was born in Alabama. They lived 
on this farm for ten years, then sold out and came 
to Arkansas, and soon located in Greene County, 
where he bought forty acres of slightly improved 
land, and in time cleared thirty acres and erected 
buildings. He continued to purchase other tracts 
of land from time to time, on which he also made 
improvements, and at one time owned 800 acres 
of land. He sold off a portion of this, however, 
and on the remainder has erected six dwellings, 
with out-buildings, and on all these places has set 
out good orchards of well assorted fruits. His home 
farm is a fine tract at the foot of Crowley's Ridge, 
of which sixty acres are under cultivation. In 
1861 Mr. Chaffin enlisted in the Confederate army, 
and was mustered into the service at Little Rock, 
being assigned to Bragg' s division; and was in the 
battles of Oak Hill, Corinth, Murfreesboro, Chat- 
tanooga, Chickamauga, Cross Roads, Shiloh, where 
he was wounded, and was mustered out of service 
at Columbus, Miss. He then returned home and 
resumed farming, which occupation has since re- 
ceived his attention. He is a Democrat politically, 
and takes considerable interest in the political 
affairs of the county. In 187S Mrs. Chaffin died, 
leaving these children: Calvin, who is married 
and resides in Mississippi; Benjamin (deceased); 
Catherine and Roxana, residents of Mississippi; 
and John Walter, who lives at home. In 1881 
Mr. Chaffin wedded Mrs. Susan (Croft) Shoe- 



maker, who was bora in Kentucky, being the 
daughter of Logan Croft, an early immigrant to 
Arkansas. By her first husband Mrs. Chafiin was 
the mother of three sons; Peter, Thomas and 
John. Mr. ChafSn is active in j)romoting the 
welfare of schools and churches, as well as the 
county in which he resides. 

^^■illiam H. Cothren. No matter in what busi- 
ness a man may engage, if he is industrious and 
fair in his dealings with his fellow men, he is sure 
sooner or later to win their confidence, respect and 
liking, and to become in time well -to do in worldly 
goods. Mr. Cothren possesses these qualities, and 
as a conse(juence stands remarkalily high in the 
estimation of all who know him. He was born in 
South Carolina in the month of February, 1842, 
and at an early day began to tight his own way in 
the world. When the Rebellion broke out he left 
his labors to enlist in the Southern army, joining, 
June 10, 18()1, the Fifth Arkansas Regiment, and 
was sent east of the Mississippi, taking part in the 
battles of Farmington, Shiloh, Perryville, Mur- 
freesboro (where his shoulder was broken by a 
minie ball), Chickamauga, and other engagements 
of that campaign. He was also at Atlanta, Jones- 
boro, Franklin, Nashville, Tupelo, and Smithville, 
N. C , after which engagement the army surren- 
dered and Mr. Cothren soon I'eturned home. He 
was married a short time afterward to Miss Mary 
Gregory, a native of South Carolina, a daughter of 
William Gregory, who came from South Carolina 
in IHOH and engaged in farming. In 18()V* Mr. 
Cotliren bought a farm of eighty acres, slightly 
im])roved, and on this land he began an extensive 
scale of improvement, continuing to add to his 
original purchase until he became the owner of 
240 acres, with about ninety acres cleared. He 
has excellent buildings and orchards, and has taken 
great pride in b(>autifying his home besides putting 
his land in good tillable condition. He is engaged 
in general farming and gives his attention to rais- 
ing cotton, corn, wheat, oats, grasses, etc He is 
a Democrat in politics, a patron of education, and 
has served as school director for eight years. He 
and family attend the Methodist Church, of which 
himself and wife are members. They are the , 



parents of the following children: Nancy E. , wife 

of Harve Spain; Reuben M., Richard V., and 

James W. Mr. Cothren is the eldest of seven 

I children born to the man-iage of Jackson Cothren 

and Sarah Gnimling, who were born in South 

, Carolina, and were engaged in farming in that 

j State until the father's death in 18r>7. after which 

the mother came to Arkansas and resided with her 

father, Reuben Gramling, who, with his sons, was 

among the earliest settlers of the west side of 

Crowley's Ridge. 

Alfred T. Craig, farmer and stock raiser, was 
born in Tennessee, in 1847, being the second of 
five children liorn to Andrew and Jane (Lambeth) 
Craig, the former a native of Tennessee, and the 
latter of North Carolina. The maternal grand- 
father was born in the "Old North State," and 
came to Tennessee at a very early day, settling in 
the western part of the State, where he was en- 
gaged e.vtensively ni farming, and died in 1888, at 
the age of eighty-three years. His father was a 
soldier in the Revolution, and served throughout the 
entire war. The paternal grandparents were Vir- 
ginians. Andrew Craig was also an extensive 
farmer, and died in 1863. His widow still sui'vives 
him and lives on the old homestead in Tennes.see. 
Alfred T. Craig worked on the home farm in his 
youth and received but little schooling. At the age 
of seventeen he left home and went to North and 
Middle Tennessee, where he resided for over a 
year, then went to Texas and was engaged in the 
distilling Imsiness for one year, after which he re 
turned to Tennessee, and soon after married Miss 
Martha Brown, a native of Tennessee, and a 
daughter of Hiram Brown, of the same State, a 
well known farmer in his section. In 18(58 Mr. 
Craig purchased a farm on which he lived for three 
years, and on the ^M of December. ISTl, came to 
Arkansas and settled in Greene County, where he 
bought 120 acres of wild land. On this he imme- 
diately began making improveu)ents. and up to the 
present time lias opened up some seventy -five acres, 
aliont all of which is under fence and in a high 
state of cultivation. He has two acres in orchard. 
His stock is of a good grade, his hogs being Jersey 
Reds and Berkshires, and his cattle |iart Jersey. 



^^f. 



, 4^ — ^ 



,(^ 



130 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Mr. Craig is a Democrat, and has held the office 
of school director for eight years. To him and 
wife were born fourteen children, twelve of whom 
are living: Andrew, who died in infancy; Fannie 
Ella, wife of John Jones; William Charles, James 
Alfred, Mary Elizabeth, Lucy, John, who died at 
the age of nine months; Rosa Lee. Eli, Van, 
Winston, Francis Clyne and Frances (twins), and 
James Adaline. In 1886 Mr. Craig bought eighty 
acres of land on Eight Mile Creek, which is a choice 
piece of bottom laud, and is improved with two 
good houses. Forty acres are under cultivation. 
His son William resides on and tills this farm. 

J. W. Craven, a successful planter residing 
near Paragoukl, was born in Randolph County, of 
the "Old North State," February 22, 1834, being 
the fourth of eleven children born to Andrew R. 
and Elizabeth W. (Garner) Craven, who were also 
born in that State. In 1840 the father emigrated 
to Georgia, and two years later to Mississippi, 
where he ojDened up a large plantation on which he 
resided thirteen years, moving then to Tennessee. 
In January, 1855, he came to Greene County, 
Ark., and settled near where his son now resides, 
on 640 acres of land, 1 00 acres of which he cleared 
and improved, and here lived until his death, 
March 30, 1807, at the age of sixty-tive years. 
His wife died in Mississippi in the fall of 1845. 
J. W. Craven received a common education in the 
schools of Mississippi, and besides becoming famil- 
iar with the details of farm work, learned the 
blacksmith's trade, which occupation he followed 
for some years. He assisted in clearing the home 
farm, and was married in Hardeman County, Tenn. , 
in 1853, to Miss L. M. Daniel, a native of that 
State, and a daughter of Ephraim and Penelope 
(Mundou) Daniel, who were born in North Caro- 
lina, and emigrated to Tennessee in 1840, and in 
1855 to Greene County, Ark. Here the father 
died on his farm, in 1876, his wife's death having 
occurred four years earlier. After his marriage, 
Mr. Craven settled down to farming in Tennessee, 
but in 1855 bought an eighty-acre timber tract in 
Greene Couiitj', Ark. . on which he enacted a cabin, 
and commenced clearing and improving. He now 
has 120 acres, with eighty-five under cultivation, 



which he devotes principally to raising corn. In 
1863 ho enlisted in the Home (inards under Capt. 
Kirkeudall, and in September of the same year, 
joined the infantry under Capt. Anderson, holding 
the rank of second lieutenant. In December, 1863, 
he was honorably discharged, but in 1864 joined 
the cavalry, and was in the fight at Little Rock, 
and several other engagements. Since the war he 
has been engaged in farming. He votes with the 
Democratic party, biit is not active in politics. He 
has held the office of justice of tlie peace for about 
seven years, and being an active supporter of the 
cause of education, is now a member of the school 
board. He also assisted in re-organizing the coun- 
ty. Socially he is a member of the Agricultural 
Wheel, and also a memljer of Paragould Lodge 
No. 368. F. & A. M. He and wife are members of 
the Baptist Church, and are active workers for the 
cause of Christianity. Seven of their nine chil- 
\ dren are living: Andrew Nelson (died in 1863, 
at the age of ten years). Mary Jane (died in 
1858, aged two years and six months), Julia Ann 
(Mrs. Morgan), Martha T. (Mrs. Gwyn), John 
, W., Lillie C, Eliza C. Sarah Elizabeth and Will- 
{ iam L., all members of the Baptist Church. Mr. 
Craven can remember wlien there was only one 
public road in the county, and when Capo (jirar- 
deau was their nearest market. 

J. W. Crawford. Prominent among the many 
esteemed and respected citizens of Paragould 
stands the name of the above mentioned gentleman, 
who was l)orn in Orange County, N. C, June 4, 
1854, and who is the son of William and Elizabeth 
(Howard) Crawford, both natives of North Caro- 
lina. They are still residents of that State, and 
the father is a farmer by occupation. Their fam- 
ily consists of ten living children, five sons and 
five daughters. J. W. Crawford was reared on 
the farm, in Orange County, N. C. , receiving his 
education in the common schools, and in 1868 
went to Tennessee, locating in Fayette County. 
He was but a boy at this time, and engaged as 
clerk in a store, which business he followed most 
of his time while in Tennessee. In 1877 he came 
to Arkansas, locating at Gainesville, Greene Coun- 
ty, and sold liquors for two years. He then em- 



GREENE COUNTY. 



131 



hcarked iu mercantile pui-suits, which he carried on 
until his removal to Paragould, in 1885, and was 
one of the first business men of the town. Previ- 
ous to this, in 1880, he married Miss Sadie Ghiss- 
eock, daughter of Capt. H. W. Glasscock, and the 
result of this union is two children: Guy E. and 
Henry V. Mr. Crawford continued his mercantile 
l)usiness at Paragoiild until 18SS, when he sold 
out, and has since been practically retired, al- 
though he turns his attention somewhat to real 
estate speculations. He owns a half-interest in 
the Gager Hotel, which is a fine brick building, 
and a credit to Paragould; and he is also the 
owner of a good farm adjoining the cor]ioration of 
Paragould. No man has been more active in im 
[)roving this place than has Mr. Crawford. He is 
a m(>mber of the Masonic fraternity. 

Hon. Benjamin H. Crowley is a wealthy farmer 
and an eminent lawyer of Greene County, Ark., 
and is State Senator from the First Senatorial 
District of Arkansas. His birth occurred in 1836, 
and he is the only child born to the marriage of 
Samuel Crowley and Sallie Hutchins, who were 
born respectively in Kentucky and Tennessee. The 
})aternal grandfather was a Georgian, who re- 
moved to Kentucky at an early day, where he met 
and married Miss Annie Wylie, a supposed na- 
tive of that State, and there made his home, being 
engaged in farming and stock-raising and dealing 
on a very extensive scale until IS'21, when became 
with his family, which consisted of his wife and 
eight children, five boys and three girls, to what is 
now Greene County (then Lawrence). At that 
time the country was very sparsely settled, he be- 
ing the only settler within a radius of many miles. 
He located on a tract of land consisting of 240 
acres, and gave his name to a ridge of land run- 
ning for more than 200 miles through Arkansas 
and 100 miles in Missouri. Here he erected a 
dwelling house, opened about fifty acres of land 
for cultivation, set out orchards, and became one 
of th(^ thriftiest farmers and best-known men in 
Northeastern Arkansas. All his children settled 
near him, where their descendants are still resid- 
ing. He died about 1842 at the age of eighty- 
four years, and his wife's death occiuTed in 1850, 



she never having married again after his death. 
Samuel Crowley, the father of our subject, was 
married in 1832 to Miss Sallie Hutchins, whoso par- 
ents came from Tennessee to Arkansas and settled 
where Paragould is now situated, where the father 
died in 1!S37, having been an extensive farmer and 
stockman. She subsequently married a man by 
the name of Robert H. Halley. In his youth Ben- 
jamin H. Crowley attended the common schools 
and at the age of nineteen years he entered the 
Wallace Institute, which he attended one year. 
After spending several years in Greene County he 
removed to Scott County, where he had previously 
lived with his mother. On the 10th of May, 18oS, 
he was married to Miss Elizabeth J. Crowley, a 
cousin, and a daughter of W. Crowley, and when 
the war broke out he left home and friends and 
the peaceful pursuit of farming to enlist in the 
Confederate service. He was in nearly all the bat- 
tles of importance that were fought in the South- 
west, and was soon promoted to the rank of lieu 
tenant, and later was made captain of Company 
H, Nineteenth Infantry, and at the close of 
the war was commanding a company of cavali^y. 
He was captured in Scott County after the fall of 
Little Rock, and was in confinement at various 
places for fifteen months. During this time, while 
at Johnson's Island, Lake Erie, he and a number 
of other officers formed a class and began the study 
of Black.stone, and after his return home he contin- 
ued his legal studies until 1871, when ,he was ad- 
mitted to the bar and, in 1874, was admitted to 
practice in the Federal courts, and in 1888 in the 
Supreme Courts of Arkansas. Immediately after 
the war he traveled for some time in Texas, and 
then returned to Arkansas and settled down to 
farming in Cache Township. Greene County. In 
1HC)X, when Clayton's militia were over running the 
State, and when they had stationed themselves at 
Jonesboro and arrested a number of the l)est citi- 
zens of the town, Capt. Crowley raised 100 jiicked 
men in his county and went to their rescue. There 
was a fight at Willis' Mills and his company lost 
one man and had several wounded, while the mili 
tia lost several men and were driven back to Jone^ 
boro. Afterward Capt. Crowley succeeded in ef- 



L£: 



132 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



fecting a compromise whereby all prisoners taken 
by the militia were released, and peace and order 
were once more restored in that section of the 
State. To this day Capt. Crowley's efforts in pre- 
venting strife and restoring order are remembered 
with pleasure and gratitude by those whose lives 
and property were endangered. In 1869 he bought 
the old homestead settled by his grandfather, 
which had been oiit of possession of the family 
for several yeai's, and with this his lands amount 
to about 4,000 acres in Greene County. 500 of 
which are in a highly cultivated condition. He is 
the most extensive farmer in the county and is also 
largely interested in stock-raising and dealing. He 
has cleared over '200 acres of land, has erected 
many buildings, and in 1880 built his present com- 
modious and substantial residence, it being situated 
on a natural building site. In 1880 his wife died, 
leaving a family of six children: Victoria, wife of 
Dr. J. D. Sibert, of this county; Cynthia H. , 
Nannie P., wife of E. R. Page, residing in Crow- 
ley Township; Lueian G., Bell and Ben. H. On 
the 26th of June, 1881, he married his present 
wife, whose maiden name was Miss R. L. Fielder, 
a native of Tennessee. They have two children, 
Thomas Garland, who is deceased, and Sallie Al- 
ice. Mr. Crowley is an eminent lawyer and has 
won an enviable reputation among his legal breth- 
ren in Arkansas. He has always been an active 
])olitician, and in 1872 was elected representa- 
tive to the State legislature. The poll-books 
were at that time destroyed, but the Captain se- 
cured his seat and secured a new election for the 
county officers, who were all elected on the Demo- 
cratic ticket. He was in the stormy session of 
1884, and during this time declined a commission 
as colonel from Gov. Baxter. In 1876 he was 
elected to the State Senate from the First District 
of Arkansas and in 1888 was re-elected by a very 
large majority. He is one of the most useful 
members of that body, and is a fluent and forci- 
l)le speaker, sound in his views. In the space al- 
lotted in this volume it would be impossible to give 
a detailed account of his public and private career, 
or to speak at length of his many sterling social and 
business qualities; suffice it to say that in every 



walk in life his career has been above reproach. 
He was the author of the bill for the organization 
of Clay County, and was also the author of sev- 
eral other important measures. 

Henry Cupp, one of Greene County's leading 
farmers, is a native of Georgia, where he was 
born January 10, 1839. In the same year his 
father emigrated from that State to Craighead 
Coimty, Ark., where he remained but one year, 
when he again moved, this time selecting Greene 
County. There he was very successful at farming 
until his death, February 17, 1871. His wife 
hardly survived him a year, but died January 18, 
1872. Mr. and Mrs. Cupp, reared a family of 
nine children, five of whom are yet living. Henry 
Cupp was but a child when his parents came to 
this State, and he was reared to farm life. He had 
very limited school opportunities, but has all his 
life been an industrious farmer; and through his 
practical knowledge of farming, has been suc- 
cessful. He owns a large well-stocked farm, much 
of it under cultivation. He has been married 
four times, and is the father of seven children, 
two of whom, Sarah Ann (born October 18, 1S67) 
and Emeline (born February 2, 1871) are the 
only survivors. His first wife was Margaret 
Dennis, and after her death, he chose Lucy 
Stevens, who was born December 2, 1841. His 
third marriage was with Nancy Smith, who died 
in 1884. Mrs. Cupp, whose maiden name was 
Emeline Lane, was born November 21, 1862, and 
is a true wife and benevolent woman. Mr. Cupp 
is one of the prominent farmers and stock raisers 
of the county, has decided political views, and is 
interested in progress and development. 

F. M. Daulton, editor and proprietor of the 
Greene County Events, is a resident of Gaines- 
ville, Ark., but was boiu in Ralls County, Mo., in 
1832, and after acquiring a common school edu- 
catioQ and attaining a suitable age he commenced 
working on the Quincy Herald, at Quincy, 111. 
After serving a five-years' apprenticeship, he re- 
turned to Shelby ville. Mo., and established the 
Spectator in 1853, which he conducted until the 
breaking out of the war, when he gave up this 
work to enlist as major in the Twenty-first Mis- 




Koiiri. He served about two years, and was shot 
through the neck at the battle of luka, in Mis- 
sissippi. After receiving his discharge he went to 
Ohio, where he spent two or three years, and next 
located in Indiana, being engaged in pul)li8hini>- 
papers in both these States. After coming to 
Greene County, Ark., in 1878, he established the 
Press, and in 1882 his present pajjer, which has a 
circulation of over 500; this is a i)ap(>r pure in 
tone and fearless in its attacks upon the popular 
shortcomings of the day. He was first married to 
Miss M. M. Connor, who died, having Iwrne the 
following children: Emma (Hindman), living, and 
Jennie and Frank, deceased, the latter being 
killed in 1807, while braking on the Iron Moun- 
tain Kailroad. Mr. Daulton took for his second 
wife Miss Lizzie Lanker, by whom he has five 
children: William, Charles, Daniel, Delia and 
Benjamin. 

K. T. Daniel, a merchant and farmer of Clark 
Township, Greene County, was born in 1837 in 
Tennessee, and is the fifth of a family of nine 
children born to Ephraim and Pennie (Mundson) 
Daniel, who were Teunesseeans. The father was 
a sturdy son of the soil, and when our subject was 
a child removed to Mississippi, where he was 
engaged in farming until 1855. At that date he 
came to Greene County, Ark. , and settled on the 
farm on which R. T. Daniel is now residing, which 
consisted of 200 acres. He improved this farm 
very much and soon had quite an extensive tract 
under cultivation and furnished with good build- 
ings. R. T. Daniel remained with his parents 
until twenty-five years of age, then marrying Miss 
Elizabeth Pilmore, who was born in Mississippi 
and came with her parents to Arkansas at an early 
day. Soon after he erected a cottage on his father's 
farm, and began tilling the soil for himself on 
forty acres of land purchased from his father. 
Later he bought eighty acre.s more, and at his 
father's death, in 1870. inherited the remainder. 
When the war broke out he enlisted in Cai)t. 
Anderson's company, and was with Gen. Shelby 
on bis raid through Missouri, and was in the battle 
of Cape Girardeau, where he was wounded. He 
was also at Helena, Devall's Bluff. Little Rock. 



Camden and Saline River. While with Price on 
his raid through Missouri he was in the engage- 
ments at Iron Mountain, Independence, Blue Lick, 
Boonville and Kansas City. He then retreated to 
Texas and surrendered at Pine Bluff. After his 
return home he resumed farming successfully, con- 
tinuing until 1887, when he received a stroke of 
paralysis, and has not been alile to do hard labor 
since. He is now conducting a general mercantile 
store on his farm, which is netting him a fair in 
come. Sixty acres of his place are under cultivn 
tion, and he devotes it to raising corn, cotton, etc. 
He and wife are the parents of the following chil- 
dren: James, who is married to Miss Nancy 
Fielder; Eliza Jane, wife of Jeff Adams; Henry. 
Thomas, Pollie, and Sarah Elizabeth. The family 
worship in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
Mr. Daniel has served as school director and has 
always taken a deep interest in educational matters, 
as well as all other worthy enterprises. 

Dr. John M. Davis, druggist, of Paragould, and 
son of Dr. James S. and Nancy E. (Farmer) Davis. 
was born in Limestone County. Ala. , December 31 . 
1840. His parents were both natives of Alabama, 
and removed to Marshall County, Miss., in 1844, 
going in 1850 to Salem, that State, and thence to 
luka, where the father died. Dr. James S. Davis 
was a graduate of Jefferson Medical College of Phil- 
adelphia, and was also a graduate of the Louisville 
Medical College. He was a very prominent physi- 
cian and noted surgeon, and people came from a 
great distance for his treatment. He practiced from 
1844 to 1N7U, a period of about thirty-five years. 
He was one of the members of the secession con- 
vention of Mississippi, and signed the declaration 
of independence for that purpose. He was a sur-, 
geon in the late war and in command of a company 
a portion of the time. His wife is still living, and 
is a resident of luka. Miss. They were the par- 
ents of ten children, five now living, of whom Dr. 
John M. Davis is the eldest. He was principally 
reared and educated in Mississip]ii, and at the age 
of sixteen began the study of medicine with the in- 
tention of later following tiiat profession, but about 
this time the war broke out which jjrevented him 
from further pursuing his studies. He shoul- 



i;{4 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



dercd his musket, marched to the front and eu 
listed in the Tenth Ahibama Cavalry Regiment, 
serving over three years. He was ensign of his 
regiment, with the rank of first lieutenant, and was 
in all tlie principal engagements — Shiloh. Atlanta, 
Days Gap, etc. His whole service was in the cav- 
alry. At Pulaski, during Hood's advance on 
Franklin, Mr. Davis received a severe gun-shot 
wound, the ball passing through his body at the side 
of the abdomen. He had the honor of carrying 
home the captured Federal flag and also his own 
flag. At the close of the war he returned to Missis- 
sippi, and engaged in merchandising, which he con- 
ducted for four years. After this he went to the 
Lone Star State, resuming the mercantile business 
at Tyler and Fort Worth, where he remained until 
1880, then returning to Mississippi. One year 
later, he came to Paragould where he embarked in 
the drug business, which he still continues. He was 
one of the first business men of Paragould, and is 
the oldest druggist in point of residence in Greene 
County. He carries a general line of drugs, etc. 
He was married, April 8, 1861, to Miss Altie E. 
Robbins, a native of Alabama, and the fruits of this 
union were nine children, seven now living: Nan- 
nie A. , wife of P. W. Mass, editor of the Thayer 
(Mo.) Tribune; \\illiam S. , Maggie, Russell J., 
Hattie A. , Thomas B. and Sallie B. Dr. and Mrs. 
Davis are members of the jNIethodist Episcopal 
Church, and he is superintendent of the Sunday- 
school. He belongs to the Masonic fraternity, the 
I. O. O. F., and is also a member of the K. of H. , 
being treasurer of that organization. He is city 
treasurer, and treasurer of the Building and Loan 
Association 

L. T. Dennis, a successful farmer and justice 
of the peace of Cache Township, Greene County, 
Ark., is a native of the county, born in 1843, be- 
ing the second of ten children born to Robert and 
Ellen (Tompkins) Dennis, natives of Tennessee 
and Kentucky, respectively, who came to Arkansas 
with their parents during the early history of this 
State. On his arrival in Arkansas, in 1837, Robert 
Dennis entered and piu'chased land in what is 
known as St. Francis Township, and on this he 
lived and made improvements until about 1848, 



when lie sold out and entered a tract of forty acres 
on the west side of Crowley's Ridge, on which he 
lived ten years. This he sold and bought eighty 
acres in the same locality, clearing nearly the en- 
tire tract, and making many other improvements, 
and here resided until his death on the 20th of 
December, 1867, followed by his widow, February 
14, 1881. The maternal grandfather, Lawrence 
Tompkins, came from Kentucky to Arkansas about 
1833, and settled on the east side of Crowley's 
Ridge, and was one of some six families that were 
among the first settlers. Here he resided until his 
death, being an active participant in the develop- 
ment of the county. L. T. Dennis, whose name heads 
this sketch, was reared to farm labor, and in his 
youth received quite meager educational advanta- 
ges, but by applying him.self to his books at home, 
secured a fair education. He remained with his 
father until twenty-two years of age, then married 
Miss Nancy Ann Newsom, a daughter of Sterling 
Newsom, who was a Tennesseean, and came to 
Arkansas at an early day. After his marriage Mr. 
Dennis bought a slightly improved farm of seventy- 
five acres, and on this tract he located and began 
making improvements in the way of clearing and 
building. After about ten years his house caught 
fire and was consumed, but the same year he pur- 
chased 325 acres of land, erected a new dwelling and 
began a fresh start in life. He has opened about 
seventy-five acres, set out orchards, and otherwise 
greatly improved his property. In 1885 he erected 
a new residence on a natural building site, and 
his surroundings are now most pleasant. On 
the 16th of December, 1874, Mr. Denni.s lost his 
estimable wife and the following year he married 
Miss Martha Jane Gramlin, a daughter of Rawlins 
Gramlin, who came from North Carolina to Arkan- 
sas in 1857, and settled on the west side of Crow- 
ley's Ridge. To his first union were born the 
following childi-en: William Pleasant and Mary 
Jane living, and Henry Albert, Robert Sterling 
and an infant deceased. His second union has 
resulted in the birth of seven children: Lawrence 
M. , who died at the age of four years; James 
Edward, Walter Anderson, Leopold Leaton and 
Gopel Wiley, twins; Lucy Ellen, and Thomas 



Jefifersou. In 18(52 Mr. Deunis enlisted in Jeffer- 
son Thompson's artillery compiiny and was sent to 
the division of the Missonri, and was on the Arkan- 
sas Ram when she ran the blockade past Mem- 
[)his; he was also on the same vessel when she ran 
the blockade at the mouth of the Yazoo liiver. 
He was then transferred to the infantry, and in 
the fall was in the battle of Corinth, and was also 
at Grand Gulf, Port Gibson, Bakers Creek, and 
in Vicksburg during the siege of forty-nine days, 
after which he was paroled and returned home, 
but again enlisted in July, 1804, joining a cav- 
alry company, and during the remainder of that 
year was in and around Little Rock. While there 
he met with an accident and was compelled to re- 
turn home, and took no further part in the war. 
He is now engaged in general farm work and de- 
votes about seventy- five acres of his farm to the 
culture of corn, forty acres to cotton and ten acres 
each to wheat, oats and clover. He is quite an 
active politician, votes with the Democratic party, 
and has served as justice of the j)eace ten years, 
and as school director six years. He belongs to 
the Baptist Church and his wife to the Methodist. 
ly/' L. G. Dillman, manufacturer of plain lumber 
and building material at Paragould, was born in 
Stark County, Ohio, April 15, 1830, and is the son 
of Jacob Dillman, a native of Pennsylvania, and 
Maria (Crocker) Dillman, of Vermont nativity. 
The parents were married in Ohio, and here the 
father followed the cabinet-maker's trade, al- 
though his principal occupation was farming. He 
was one of the pioneers of Williams County, Ohio, 
and when first settling there his nearest neighbor 
was fifteen miles distant. He died in Ohio in 18'5'J. 
The mother died in 1842. They were the parents 
of six children, only two now living: Lemuel G. , 
and Susan, wife of Dwight Stoddard. A brother, 
Sylvester Dillman, was killed at the battle of Win- 
cliester, Va. , and his widow has been postmistress 
at Toledo. Iowa, for several years. L. G. Dili- 
man remained on the farm in Ohio until twenty- 
one years of age, and in 18r>l went to St. Jo 
seph County, Ind., where he was engaged in the 
lumber business for several years. In I8fi4 he en- 
listed in Company B, One Hundred and Fifty fifth 



Indiana Volunteers, and served until cessation of 
hostilities. He remained in St. Joseph County, 
Ind., being engaged principally in the lumber bus- 
iness, until coming to Arkansas. In 1876 he went 
to Nashville, Tenn., and put up a machinery plant 
for the Indiana Lumbering Company. In I. SSI he 
came to Arkansas, located at Bradford, on the Iron 
Mountain Railroad and |)ut up a saw-mill, but soM 
out in a short time and put up a foundry and ma- 
chine shop at Newport, which he ran for about one 
year. He then sold out and <;am(> to Greene Conn- ' 
ty, and has since made Paragould his headcpiarters. 
He has had several .saw-mills in this and Craighead 
Counties. He was married in 1858 to Miss Mar 
garet Vanderhoof, a native of Rochester, N. Y. , 
by whom he has two children, Frank, and Arl. 
who is at school at Cape Girardeau. Mr. and Mrs. 
Dillman are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. He is a member of the G. A. R. 

A. L. Dover, proprietor of a saw and gristmill 
and cotton-gin, situated near the Fair Ground in 
Clark Township, was born in Blount County, Ala., 
in 1848, and was the third in a faiuily of nine chil 
dren born to B. A. and Patsy (Fielding) Dover, 
the former a native of North Carolina and the lat 
ter of Georgia. They settled in Alabama in 1847, 
where the father opened uj) a farm and resided 
several years, and in 1868 moved to Poinsett Coun- 
ty, Ark., where he settled and improved another 
farm. Since 1874 he has lived in Greene County. 
His wife died in 1884. A. L. Dover received his 
early education in Alabama, and after coming to 
Poinsett Countv began farming for himself, and 
like his father has resided in Greene County ^ 
since 1874. The year following his location here 
he purchased a tract of land containing I'JS acres, 
which was heavily covered with timber, and com- 
menced immediately to clear it. He now has sixty 
acres under cultivation, which are well improved 
with good buildings and orchard. In 1876 he wa> 
married to Miss Tennessee V. Yates, a daughter of 
Henderson and Martha Yates, who were born in 
Tennessei> and Virginia, respectively: the father 
came to Greene County, Ark., in lS7r'">,his wife having 
died in Tennessee the year before. Mr. Yates is ' 
now residing in Paragould. Mr. Dover votes with I 



136 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



the Democratic party, and was elected on that ticket 
to the office of magistrate, which position he held 
four years. He has always taken an interest in 
school matters and is now a member of the school 
board. Socially he belongs to the Masonic fra- 
ternity and the I. O. O. F., Paragould Lodge. 
He and wife became the parents of live children, 
three of whom are living: William Wallace, Le- 
ander Byrd and Henderson Franklin. Arthur 
Bruce died at the age of one year, and Major Oscar 
died when two years of age. 

J. C. Field. Among the many wealthy farm- 
ers of Greene County, Ark. , well worthy an honor- 
able place in these columns may be mentioned Mr. 
Field, who was born in Cross County, Ark., in 
1849, and is the fourth in a family of six children 
bom to John and Catherine (Curtis) Field, who 
were born, reared and married in Maury County, 
Tenn. , where the father was engaged in tilling the 
soil. In 1848 he removed with his family to Ar- 
kansas, purchased a tract of 160 acres, which he 
improved, and then sold out and moved to Poin- 
sett County, in 1875, where he boiight a farm, on 
which he died, in 1880. His wife died while they 
were residing in Cross County. J. C. Field re- 
ceived the education and rearing that usually fall 
to the farmer's boy, and at the age of twenty- 
four years began farming for himself, making his 
iirst crop on Buffalo Island. The next year he 
came to Greene County, and from time to time 
purchased land until he became the owner of 560 
acres of some of the best land in the county. He 
cleared about 175 acres of timber land, and now 
has at least 200 acres under cultivation. He has 
erected good buildings on his property, set out 
orchards, and has done general farming, raising 
cotton and the cereals, and this year has devoted 
about sixty acres to corn and 140 to cotton. He 
has some good stock, and his first labors are meet- 
ing with deserved success. In 1874 he was united 
in marriage to Miss Mary Gulches, by whom he 
has two children: Jefferson and James. 

B. C. Gallup, proprietor of the City Bakery 
and Confectionery Store. Paragould. In this city 
are found quite a number of prosperous estab- 
lishments, and of none can mention be made with 



more pleasure than of the bakery of B. C. GaUup. 
Mr. Gallup was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on the 
12th of August, 1840, and is the son of Henry and 
Elizabeth Gallup, the father a native of Massa- 
chusetts, of French descent, and a Huent speaker 
of three different languages. He was a carpenter 
by trade, and after his removal to Quincy, 111. , in 
1841. he built the first Methodist Fipiscopal Church 
on Vermont Street. He died in that city, as did 
also his wife, leaving B. C. Gallup, who was then 
but an infant. A guardian was appointed for the 
little orphan, but. after growing up, his relations 
with his guardian were not of the most pleas- 
ant nature, and consequently he took French leave 
of him, and engaged as cook on a Mississipjii 
steamer, serving in that capacity for about five 
years. During this time he learned the turner's 
trade, but did not put it to immediate use, for in 
1857 he engaged in the bakery business in Quincy, 
111. , where he remained until the breaking out of 
the Civil War. He then left the bakery to shoul- 
der a musket, and in 1861 enlisted in the Tenth 
Illinois Infantry, and served three years. He was 
at the battles of Belmont, Tiptonville, Shiloh, 
Farmington, Corinth, luka, Nashville, Chatta- 
nooga, and at Atlanta, being under fire for three 
months. He was at Missionary Kidge, Resaca, 
Dalton, etc., but never received anything but a 
flesh wound. He was mustered out in 1865, and 
returned to Quincy, 111. , where he continued until 
1868. From there he went to Kansas City, re- 
mained there a few years, and then went to Mis- 
souri, but only tarried in that State a short time, 
and then went to Kansas, Colorado, and thence to 
Texas, where he was engaged on journey-work. 
After residing in that State for six or seven years, 
he came to Greene County, Ark., in 1884, and 
located in Paragould, when there were but few 
business men in town. He bought a little prop- 
erty, and immediately embarked in business for 
himself. He has built i\\> a good trade, and by 
his upright and honest dealings has won the con- 
fidence of his patrons. He has bought consider- 
able town property, and is doing well. While in 
Kansas City he married Miss Katie Lightman, 
who bore him four children, all deceased. Mr. 



GREENE COTTNTY. 



137 



Gallup' s second niiirriage was at Jacksonport.Ark., 
in December. 1881, to Miss Hannah E. Bickel, a 
native of Ohio. One child, now deceased, was 
born to this union. Mr. Gallup is a m(»mber of 
the G. A. R., and also belongs to the I. O. O. F. 

Richard H. Gardner, ex-county clerk and sur- 
veyor of Greene County, Ark., is a gentleman of 
wide experience, who has been actively interested 
in politics from his youth up. He was born in 
Weakley County, Tenn., in 1831, and is a son of 
Richard W. and Eliza (Thomas) Gardner, who 
were of English and German descent, having been 
born in Virginia and South Carolina in 1808 and 
1811, and died in Tennessee in 1852 and 1842, 
respectively. The former was taken to Kentucky 
when a boy, by his father, John A. Gardner, and 
there resided until 1825 or 1826, when he moved 
to Tennessee, and there spent the remainder of his 
days. He was a soldier in the Mexican AVar 
under Gen. Cheatham, of Tennessee, serving as 
surgeon, having graduated from the Louisville 
Medical College in 1845. He practiced in the 
State of Mississippi for a short time after the war, 
when he returned to Tennessee and resumed i)rac- 
tice. He was always a strong advocate of tem[)er- 
auce. Four of the eight children born to himself 
and wife lived to be grown, and two are living at 
the present time : Jerome A. and Richard H. The 
latter lived in Weakley County, Tenn., until eleven 
years of age, and was then sent to Franklin College, 
near Nashville, where he remained until he was 
twenty-one years of age.. He engaged in civil 
engineering in Tennessee, Kentucky and Missis- 
sippi, continuing from 1852 to 1855, and then 
clerked in a steam flouring- mill for two years, 
after which he came west, and in 1857 located at 
Oak Bluff, Greene County, Ark., where he was oc- 
cupied in merchandising for a short time, and was 
then elected assessor and deputy clerk, serving 
until 1801. When the war broke out he enlisted 
in the Confederate army and commanded a com- 
pany as captain in the battles of Pleasant Grove, 
Helena and Pleasant Hill. After the war he 
returned home and was appointed to the office of 
county clerk for six months, being re-elected in 
lSf)<') for two years. In 1870 he was elected county 



surveyor, holding the position ten years, and in 
1882 was again elected county clerk, which he 
held for four years. In Januai-y, 1 887, after 
retiring from office, he came to his present place of 
abode. He is a strong advocate of churches 
and schools, and has been a liberal contributor to 
both. He was married in 1850 to Miss .Sarah 
Towles, of Nashville, Tenn.. who died in 1880. 
leaving a family of nine children, sis of whom are 
now living: Arthur C, Flora G., Oliver \V., 
Albert D., Ada B. and Nerly R. Stapleton .li.'d 
at the age of twenty-one; Elmore at the age of 
twelve years, and Algernon, when three yearn of 
age. Mr. Gardner took for hia second wife. 
Lucretia C. Harris, who died in 1881, having 
borne one child, wliich died in infancy. In 1882 
he married his present wife, Mrs. Ann E. Thomp 
son, who was born in the State of Mississipjii. in 
1844, and when fourteen years of age came to 
Arkansas, where she grew to maturity. She and 
Mr. Gardner are the parents of two children: 
Bei-ah B. and Kathleen. One son was liorn to her 
first marriage named James Thompson. Mr. 
Gardner belongs to the Christian Church, and his 
wife to the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
She was the widow of Isaac Thompson, and the 
daughter of James and Jane Johnston, who came 
to Arkansas in 18r8. Here the father died in 
1872 at the age of sixty-nine years, and the mother 
in 1880, aged seventy-six years. The former was a 
merchant in Mississippi until his failure in busi- 
ness, then selling clocks until he was able to re 
sume mercantile ])ursuits, which he did in Gaines- 
ville. Ark. He and wife became the parents of 
eight children. Mrs. Gardner being one of four 
now living. 

G. L. Gentry, a successful planter residing 
near Paragould, Ark., was born in 1841 in Weak- 
ley County, Tenn., being the eighth of twelve 
children born to the marriage of J. K. Gentry and 
Sarah Nance, the former a native of Tennessee and 
the latter of Virginia. In 1858 they locatt^d near 
Gainesville, Ark., in which the father died in 
1884, having been a prominent resident of the 
county. The mother is still living, and resides at 
Paragould. G. L. Gentry was reared to manhood 



i:iS 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



ou a farm in Tennessee, and in 1858 came to 
Greene County, Ark. , enlisting fi'om this count}', 
in 18(51, in Company K, Fifth Arkansas Vol- 
unteers, under Col. Cross, and went into service at 
Columbus, Ky. He was a member of a scouting 
party along the Red River, and in 186"J was hon- 
orably discharged at Bowling Green. Ky. After 
his return home he joined Gen. Marmaduke. and 
was with him for some time. In 1869 he was 
married to Miss Angeline McWhirter, of Tennes- 
see, a daughter of John and Matilda (Yarber) Mc- 
Whirter. who were also born in that State, coming 
to Arkansas at a very early day, in which State 
they both died. After his marriage Mr. Gentry 
settled near Gainesville, and in 1873 bought a 
partly improved farm of 200 acres, but sold it 
some time later and went to Paragould, where he 
engaged in the saw-mill business (in 1881). Three 
years later he embarked in grist-milling, and also 
operated a cotton-gin, which he sold in 1887, and 
returned to the farm. Sixty acres of his 100-acre 
farm are under cultivation, and on it he raises cotton 
and cereals. By his wife, who died in 1883, he be- 
came the father of the following children: Joseph 
W., Laurettie, Oney, Gilbert M'., Albert and Wil 
lis. all of whom are at home. In 1884 Mr. Gentry 
married his present wife, whose maiden name was 
Frances Drollender, of Tennessee, a daughter of 
\Villiam and Elizabeth (Bond) Drollender, of Ten- 
nessee, l)oth of whom are deceased, the latter dying 
in Paragould in 1887. Mr. Gentry has seen a vast 
change in the country since his boyhood days, as 
it was then in a very wild and unsettled condition. 
He is a member of the A. F. & A. M., and was 
Worshipful Master of Gainesville Lodge for a 
number of years, and in 1887 filled the same posi- 
tion in Paragould Lodge No. 3RS. He is a mem- 
ber of the Agricultural Wheel, and although a 
Democrat, is not very active in polities. A station 
on the Iron Mountain Railroad, midway l)etween 
Paragould :ind Gainesville, is called Geatry in 
honor of our subject. 

H. W. Glasscock, mayor of Paragould and real 
estate dealer, was born in Randolph County. Ai'k.. 
February 19, 1834, and is the son of George W. 
and Catherine (Gray) Glasscock, natives of Ten- 



nessee. The parents were married in their native 
State, and in about 1830 they emigrated to Arkan- 
sas, locating in Randolph County, and were among 
its very first settlers. Here the father died in 
1834 and the mother three days later. They were 
the [)arents of seven children, three now living: 
William, Henry AV., and George F. When the 
parents tirst made their home in Arkansas, the 
country was a wilderness, and wild animals were 
plentiful, the red man's face frequently being seen 
at the door of the log c-al^in. H. W. Glasscock 
was reared in Randolph County, Ark., until twelve 
years of age, when he moved to (iaiuesville, 
Greene County. He was educated principally at 
Gainesville and in Mississippi. In 18o8 he was 
elected county clerk of Greene County, and 
served until after the war. In 1861 he enlisted in 
the first regiment that was organized in Greene 
County, and left a deputy to attend to his business. 
He served in the eastern army and was discharged 
in 1S62 on account of his health. He then came 
home and re-enlisted in Kitchens" regiment in the 
cavalry, and was in command of Company E, 
serving until the surrender: he was on the raid 
through Missouri. After returning to his home 
he took charge of the clerk's office, and in 1868 
engaged in mercantile business at Gainesville, 
which he continued until 1883, when he sold out 
and came to Paragould. Since that time he has 
been occupied in the real estate business. He 
owns about 12,000 acres of land, with some 600 
under cultivation. His lands are among the best in 
the country, as he has been investing and buying 
since 1857. Mr. Glasscock was elected mayor of 
Paragould in April, 1888, which position he is now 
tilling. He was married first in 1858 to Miss 
Amanda Conduff, by whom he had four children, 
two now living: H. F. and Sudie. His second 
marriage was to INIrs. Emily J. Williauison. liy 
whom he has six children, four ntjw living: John, 
Jennie, Etta and Albert (twins). Mr. and Mrs. 
Glasscock and family are memliers of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, and Mr. Glasscock is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity and Knights of 
Pythias. He is one of the prominent and leading 
citizens of his vicinity. 



^^ 



GREENE COUNTY. 



r 



139 



M. C. Gramling, who is one of the first and most 
successful farmers and stock raisers of Greene 
Connty, Ark., was born in Spartanburg (Jounty. 
S. C, November 2i), 1839, and is the eldest in a 
family of twelve children born to the marriage of 
Benjamin M. "and Mary (Wilson) Gramling, also 
natives of the 'Palmetto State,'' who were there 
engaged in farming until 1858, when they came to 
.-Vrkansas and settled in Greene Connty. Here 
they entered a tract of 160 acres, and began imme- 
diately to make improvements, opening aliout 
seventy-tive acres of land, erecting good buildings 
and setting out orchards. After living on this tract 
for about sixteen years the father sold out and pur- 
chased 100 acres in Cache Township, which he also 
greatly improved. He is here living at the pres- 
ent time, and is in his seventy-first year. M. C 
Gramling. our subject, has always been familiar 
with farm labor, and assisted his father until twen- 
ty-one years of age, when he became an employ^ 
of the Government in di'aining this section of the 
State. At the lireaking out of the Rebellion he 
enlisted in Company D, Fifth Arkansas Infantry, 
and was assigned to the Army of the Tennessee, 
and was with Gen. Joe Johnston, participating in 
the battles of Perryville, Murfreesboro, Corinth, 
whei'e he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, 
and Chickamauga. In this engagement, while his 
company was making a charge, and he was crying 
to his comrades " Come on, boys," he was wounded 
by a bullet striking him in the cheek. He was also 
at Ringgold, Resaca, where he was wounded in the 
thigli. and Jonesboro, Ga. , where he lost his left 
arm l)y the explosion of a shell on the 1st of Sep- 
tember, 1864. He remained in the field until the 
close of the war, then returned to Arkansas, and 
in 18(56 was married to Miss Mary Smith, a native 
of South Carolina, and a daughter of William and 
Elizabeth (Otts) Smith, who were also from South 
Carolina, and emigrated to Arkansas in I8r)l>, set- 
tling on 160 acres of land in Greene County. 
They were very successful, and in time became the 
owners of 1, 100 acres of laud. The father died in 
September, 1878, but the mother is still living. 
In 1866 Mr. Gramling located at Gainesville, where 
ht- started a general store, and in the f:dl of the 



name _\eai' lie was ehfcted assessor of (ireene Coiin 
ty, for one term of two years. In the spring of 
this year he was appointed treasurer of the county 
till the election of a successor, but continued also 
to manage his store for three years, then moving to 
St. Francis Township, where he rented land, and 
made one crop. In 1870 he bought 240 acres of 
land, and since that time has continued to add 
to his acreage until he now possesses 560 acres of 
fertile land. He has made many improvements on 
his property, and in 1877 erected a handsome res 
idence, and has also built good barns. Two hun- 
dred acres of his land are under cultivation, and two 
acres are in orchard. He gives considerable atten- 
tion to stock raising, and has a full-blooded Hol- 
stein bull imported from Northern Missouri. In 
1872 he was elected to the office of county sheriff, 
and subsequently was elected county judge, which 
he held two terms. He has always been active in 
political and school matters, and is always inter 
ested in every enterprise for the welfare of the 
county. He aud wife are the parents of the follow- 
ing children : William M. , who died on the 6th of 
August, 1870, aged eleven years, six months: 
James M., Alice, Jennie, Joseph F. , Earl V., 
Jesse M. . Elbert S., Van W., and Mary, who died 
in infancy. 

George A. (iramling is classed among the sue 
cessful tillers of the soil and stockmen of Cache 
Township. Greene Conntv. Ark., of which he is a 
native, having been born in the year 1850. He is 
the ninth of eleven children born to Richard and 
Cynthia (Brannon) Grainliug. whose birthplace 
was in South Carolina. They were married in that 
State, and in 1856 came to Greene County. Ark., 
settling on the east side of Crowley's Ridge, where 
they acquired a large tract of land, 20(1 acres of 
which were under cultivation. Here he erected a 
building, set out orchards, and made many other 
improvements, his attention being also largely 
given to the propagation of stock. He had a 
blacksmith's shop on his farm and made the most 
of the farming tools for this section. During his 
Ions residence iu the county be became well known 
and highly respected. He died at the age of sixty 
three years, in I.SS2. His widow is still living. 



e »^ 



140 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



The paternal grandfather also came to Greene 
County, Ark., and l)ecame the owner of 200 acres 
of wild land, which he improved and on which he 
resided until bis death. George Gramling was 
reared to farm labor, and at the age of twenty-two 
years began farming for himself, buying, at the 
time of his father's death, the interest in the home 
property of all the heirs except two, and is now 
the owner of the old homestead, which consists of 
640 acres. He has opened about thirty acres, and 
in partnership with his brother John, in 1888, 
erected a saw and grist-mill, and a cotton-gin, doing 
that year an excellent business, which promises to 
increase as time goes on. He carries on a general 
farming, and has about seventy acres in cotton, and 
too acres in corn. In 1882 he was married to Miss 
Lucy Pevehouse, a native of Arkansas, by whom 
he has three children: Thomas, Bertie and John. 
The family attend the Methodist Church. 

C. W. Green. To omit the name of Mr. Green 
from this volume would be to leave out one of the 
most prominent and successful farmers of the 
county, who has not only made himself thoroughly 
identitied with the farming interests of this section 
but by his pleasant, genial manner has won a host 
of friends. He was born in Forsyth County, Ga. , 
in 1857, and is the .son of William J. and M. E. 
(Garrett) (-ireen, natives of Georgia. The father 
was born in the year 1826, and died February 17, 
1889, but the mother is still living, and is in her 
sixtieth year. They were reared in their native 
State, were married there, and here the father 
carried on farming until 1848 or 1849, when he 
made a trip to California by water, remaining there 
eighteen months, and being snccessful, returned 
home by the Isthmus. In I860 be and family 
moved to Arkansas, and located near Gainesville, 
on the west side of Crowley's Ridge, where they 
resided eight years, and then settled on Jones' 
Ridge, Greene County, where the mother is .still 
living. He served as a soldier in the Confederate 
army ten months, and was taken prisoner on the 
Osage River, in Kansas, in October, 1864, during 
Price's raid, being carried thence to Alton, 111., 
and later to Rock Island, where he was contined 
seven months. He was released in March, 1865, 



and taken to Richmond. Va. . on exchange. Sub- 
sequently he returned to the home place, and there 
passed the remainder of his life. He held the 
office of justice of the peace in Union Township 
several years, and after he came to Jones Town- 
ship he again held that office. He was a Democrat 
in politics, a leading man of the coiinty. and a 
strong advocate of schools. To his marriage were 
born the following childi-en: Serena N.. aged 
thirty-five years, wife of William A. J. Compton, 
who is living in Jones Township; Isaiah N., who 
died October 17, 1885, aged twenty- nine years, 
leaving no children: C. AV., and Georgian, wife of 
Franklin J. Igert. She died June 19, 1888, aged 
twenty-nine years, leaving no children. C.W.Green 
attained his majority in Greene County, where he 
has resided ever since. In 1879, he, with his fa- 
ther and brothers and sisters, made a trip to Cali- 
fornia by railroad, and landing in Stockton, of that 
State, remained there three months, after which, 
the father made a trip to Oregon, to look at the 
country, but soon returned to Stockton, and with 
his family made his way back to old Arkansas, in 
August of the same year. C. W. Green had but 
poor educational advantages, but attended to some 
extent the s'i)).scription and free schools of the 
county, and in 1880 commenced for himself on the 
home place. Two years later he married Gertrude 
Gardner, who was born in 1865. and who is the 
daughter of R. H. Gardner [see sketch]. To this 
marriage were born two children: Barnie O. and 
Maude B. Mrs. Green is a member of the Chris- 
tian Church. 

John W. Halley was born in Scott County, Ark. , 
in the year 18()0, and is the youngest in a family 
of eight children born to the marriage of Robert 
Halley and Sarah Crowley, who died when he vv;is 
an infant. The mother when married to Mr. Halley 
was a widow with one child : Capt. Benjamin 
H. Crowley, whose sketch appears in this volume. 
John Halley spent his childhood in the western 
part of Arkansas, but since eight years of age he 
has made his liome. the greater portion of the 
time, with his halt brother, Capt. Crowley. Dur- 
ing his youth he received no educational advantages 
and up to the age of twenty • four years his education 



GllEENE COUNTY. 



141 



was acquired by self- application, since which time 
he has received only the advantages of the com- 
mon schools. At the age of eighteen years he 
rented land and began farming for himself, and 
has continued this in connection with teaching 
school during winter and summer since 1885. At 
this date he purchased 280 acres of land in the 
Cache bottoms, and in 1884 exchanged a portion 
of this farm for forty acres near Walcott, on which 
property there were but eight acres cleared. He 
opened up the remainder and now has the entire 
tract under cultivation and fence. This laud is 
very fertile and last year (1888) averaged one bale 
of cotton to the acre. Mr. Halley is a young man 
whose energy, enterf>rise and good business abilities 
will one day place him among the wealthy residents 
of the county. He possesses excellent principles, 
is ])ublic spirited, and takes a deep interest in 
worthy enterprises. 

JVIanoah B. Hampton. This name is synony- 
mous in (ireene County, Ark., with successful 
agriculture, for Mr. Hampton has been one of its 
enterprising tillers of the soil since 1878. He was 
born in Lincoln County, Tenn., in 1841, and is a 
son of James M. and Melissa (Owen) Hampton, 
who were also born in that State, the former's 
birth occurring in 1812 and the latter's in 1823. 
The father was reared to maturity in Lincoln 
County, Tenn., and there continued to make his 
home until 1871, then moving to West Tennessee, 
where he died in 187ti, having been an active 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
a stanch supporter of Christianity and education. 
His wife died in Shelby County, Tenn., in 1883; 
she was a daughter of William Owen, a prom- 
inent farmer of the middle portion of that State, 
where he died in 1861, being eighty years old. 
The paternal grandfather. James M. Hampton, 
was l)orn, reared and married in North Carolina, 
and after becoming the father of a number of 
children, moved to Tennessee and located OQ a 
plantation in Lincoln County, where he became a 
wealthy planter and slaveholder. He died in 
1858 or 1S59 at the age of eighty years, he, as well 
as the maternal grandfather, having been an 
earnest member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 



The immediate subject of this sketch is one of the 
following children: Martin F.. Pinkney P.. 
Pleasant K. (deceased), Manoah Ji., James \\., 
Martha J., Mary (deceased), John T., Franklin H. 
(deceased), Narcissa A., Maggie (deceased), and 
Nancy S. Manoah Hampton attained his majority 
in Lincoln County, Tenn., and received his early 
education in the old log school house. He remained 
with his parents until the lireaking out of the Civil 
\\ ar, when he enlisted in 1861 in the Confederate 
army, in Company K, First Tennessee Regiment, 
under Col. Turner, and was at first and second 
Manassas, Cedar Mountain, under Stonewall Jack- 
son, Sharpsburg, Fredericksl)urg, Chancellorsville, 
\\'ildern<'ss. S])ottsylvania Court House, (iettys- 
burg, Richmond and Petersburg, besides numerous 
other engagements. At Hanover Junction he was 
wounded by a spent cannon ball striking him in 
the left side. He was taken prisoner at Shepherds- 
town, Md., and taken to Baltimore jail, where he 
and 800 others were condemned to be hung. 
They were afterward taken to Point Lookout. Md. , 
where they were kept in prison for eight months, 
then being exchauged. He, however, remained 
there until the final surrender, when he returned 
home and continued his farm work until 1867. 
Later he moved to Shelby County, Tenn., and in 
1878 to Arkansas, as above stated. He has an 
excellent farm here, with 100 acres of it under 
cultivation, and is doing well financially. He was 
married in 18(56 to Miss Mollie Stevenson, who was 
horn iu Giles County, Tenn.. in 1848; she became 
the mother of three children: JohuB. . who died at 
the age of eleven months: MattieM., wife of James 
It. ililler, deputy clerk of Greene County: and 
Sally N., who lives at home. Mr. Hampton is 
now rearing a little girl by the name of Anna 
Davis. Ho is a member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, a stanch supporter of churches and 
schools, and iu his political views is a Democrat. 

W. C. Hasty is of the firm of J. F. Hasty iSi 
Sons, Paragould. Throughout the county and 
especially over this portion of it, the name of 
Mr. Hasty is well known, not only as one of its 
solid, substantial citizens, but as a thorough 
and reliable business man. His birth occurreil 



'A 



ll£ 



142 



HISTORY or ARKANSAS. 



in Portland, Me., on September 15, 1862, and 
there he spent his boyhood days and received 
a good, practical education. His parents, Joseph 
F. and Annie N. (Phillips) Hasty, were both natives 
of Portland, Me., and were of Scotch and French 
descent, respectively. Joseph F. Hasty has been 
a lumberman all his life, and is now residing in 
Detroit, Mich., engaged in the stave business. 
W. C. Hasty removed with his parents to Detroit, 
where he served as accountant in the lumber 
business, becoming well posted on this topic. In 
January, 1888, he removed to Paragould, Ark., 
and purchased the mill he is now running. He 
enjoys large sales and employs, on an average, 
about fifty men. He is a bright, intelligent young 
man and is thoroughly acquainted with bis busi- 
ness. The stave factory firm consists of the fol- 
lowing members: J. F., E. F. and W. C. Hasty, 
the last named having the entire management ol 
the factory at Paragould. Mr. Hasty is a Royal 
Arch Mason, and is a director in the Greene 
County Bank. 

Mrs. Isabella Highlill. widow of Hezekiah 
Highfill, and daughter of Samuel and Rebecca J. 
(Ellis) Medlock, was born in Henry County, Tenn. , 
October 25, 1831, and as the country was very 
sparsely settled in her youth, and schools were 
few and far between, she received only a common 
school education. While growing to womanhood, 
all the clothing the family wore was home made, 
and she became very skillful in the use of the loom 
and all kinds of women's work. At the early age 
of seventeen years she was married to John A. 
Hargrove, a native of Southern Alabama, and a i 
farmer by occupation, V)y whom she bore a family 
of three sons and five daughters, all of whom are 
deceased except Ann M. and Francis V. , who live 
with their mother. On the 15th of December. 
1870, Mr. Hargrove died, leaving his wife with a 
farm to be improved, and four small children to 
care for. She entered bravely upon her work, 
succeeded in paying for her home, and bought 
another farm, which she also improved. In 1854 
she moved with her husband to Poinsett County. 
Ark. , made three crops, and was raising the third, 
when the memorable overflow of 1858 inundated 



that section to such an extent that all had to seek 
for higher land. They removed to Buffalo Island, 
Craighead County, where they homesteaded and 
improved 160 acres of land, but after Mr. Har- 
grove's death his widow traded her farm for land 
in Greene County, which she also disposed of 
shortly after her marriage with Mr. Highfill, in 
1876, and purchased the farm upon which she is now 
living, which consists of eighty acres, forty of the 
same being in a high state of cultivation, furnished 
with good bitildings and an excellent orchard. The 
land is a fine, sandy loam, and is devoted equally 
to cotton and corn. Mr. Hargrove was a leading 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, of 
which Mrs. Highfill is now a member, and was a 
man of exemplary habits and character, and for 
many years held the office of the justice of the 

j peace. He was allowed to remain at home unmo- 
lested during the Rebellion. He was a Democrat, 
and was in sympathy with the Union. Hezekiah 
Highfill was an elder in the Methodist Ej)iscopal 
Church, and was not a participant in the late war, 
but sent out two sons, who enlisted in the Con- 
federate army, Isaac being killed by a cannon ball 
in the battle of Shiloh, and Hezekiah, the other 
son, was wounded in the same engagement by a 
minie ball, in the left shoulder, from the effects of 
which he died in March. 1880, having suffered 
from the same for seventeen years. Another son, 
J. M. Highfill, has a sketch in another part of 
this work. His three daughters are as follows: 
Sarah A. (Woods), widow of William Woods; 
Fanny (Lloyd), and Mary, wife of Rev. Isaac Ver- 

i ner, a Methodist minister of Lake County, Fla. 
Mrs. Highfill is a very interesting and intelligent 
lady, and having lived in this section for thirty- 
five years, can recount many interesting incidents in 
the early settlement of this section. She says that 
during the first years of her residence here the men 
would devote the summer to raising crops, and 
would hunt and trap during the winter months, 
their game consisting of deer, bear, wild cats, 
wolves and turkeys for food, and otter, beaver, 
mink and raccoon for their furs. These were 
taken by ox team to \\'ittsburgh or Memphis, and 
often realized .f 100 on one load. Prices ranged as 



^ & 
"^* 



IS 

©Jv" 



GREENE COUNTY. 



143 



follows; hfar meat, 25 cents per |iouii(l; deer. 10 
eents; turkeys. SI eacli: wild cat, 10 cents and 
wolf 10 cents. Otter hides brought $5 each: bea- 
ver, $7.50; mink, $3, and raccoon 50 cents, thus 
making the hunting season much more profitable 
than the farming season, hence there was very 
little done toward developing the country prior to 
the war. Everything was plentiful in the way of 
wild game and fruits, and the range was so good 
that stock could live the year round without being 
fed. In those days the women made all their own 
clothing, and raised their own cotton and sheep. 
Mrs. Highfill is now residing about one-half mile 
from two large mounds, containing the skeletons 
and relics of the pre-historic Mound Builders. l)ut 
the Indians who were here when she first settled 
could tell her nothing about them. Mrs. Highfill' 8 
falher and mother were born in South Carolina: the 
former was a farmer and mechanic by trade, and 
owned a tine farm of 320 acres in his native State, 
on which he resided until his death in April, 1879. 
The mother died in ISfiS. They were members of 
the Baptist and Methodist Churches, resjjectively, 
and in his political views he was a Democrat. 

John M. Highfill. a prosperous farmer and 
stock raiser of the county, is the tenth of eleven 
children, and was born in Hardeman County, Tenn. . 
in 1850, being a son of Hezekiah and Temperance 
B. (Rook) Highfill, who were also Tennesseeans, 
and were married in their native State. The father 
was a farmer and miller by occupation, and was 
also a local minister in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. In 1858 he removed with his family to 
Greene County, Ark., and settled on 160 acres of 
land, about eight acres of which were cleared, and 
on which was erected a little log cabin. He began 
immediately to clear his land from timber, erect 
l)etter buildings and otherwise improve his prop- 
erty, and became in time one of the well-to do 
citizens of the county. During this time he con- 
tinued his ministerial labors, and was instrumental 
in saving many souls. His death occurred in 
issn. and his wife's in 1872. John M. Highfill 
was reared to farm labor, but never attended the 
public schools, the most of his education being 
ac(iuired at home. When about twentv-one years 



of age he liegan farming for himself, purchased 
his father's old home, and was married to Miss 
Sarah L. Norton, a native of Alabama. He was 
engaged in general farming for :'!ome time after 
his marriage and did considerable speculating and 
trading, and in 1880 erected a good frame resi- 
dence and made other valuable improvements. He 
has cleared aljout forty acres, and has some ninety 
under cultivation and fence, nearly all of which 
is excellent bottom land. In 1887 he bought 
eighty acres of tine bottom land, and now, taking 
his property all together, it is one of the tinest 
bodies of land in the county. He has a good 
young orchard of about 200 trees. In 1880, in 
partnership with J. H. Thomas, he bought an 
interest in a general mercantile store at Bethel, 
and continued this business until the spring of 
1888. At the present time he is dealing <|uite ex- 
tensively in horses, but also gives his attention to 
the propagation of other stock. In April, 1888, 
he went to Florida, where he purchased land suit- 
able for orange orchards, and has twelve acres im- 
ju-oved. and has also |)urchased a house and lot 
in the town of Umatilla. Lake County, Fla. In 
1881 ho had a contract to clear the right of way 
and fixrnish the ties for five miles of the Knobel 
Branch of the Iron Mountain Railroad. He has 
always taken an active interest in polities, being a 
Democrat in his party affiliations, and in 1874 
was elected justice of the peace, and after serving 
four years was elected sheriff of Greene County, 
in September. 1885. serving a term of two years, 
but was defeated for re-election by a small major 
ity. On the 30th of October. 188(1, in his official 
capacity as sheriff, he was com])elled to execute 
William H. Hopper, the only man ever hanged by 
law in Greene County. He is Past Master in 
Paragould Lodge No. 308, of the A. F. & A. M., 
and he and wife are the parents of the following 
children : Henry N. . Lovy A. (who died at the age 
of five years). Hezekiah, .Joseph B. (whcxlied when 
five years old), Eliza L. . Benjamin Franklin and 
Delia Frances. Mr. Highfill had two lirothers in 
the Confederate army: Isaac E., who was killed at 
the battle of Shiloh, on the 7th of A])ril, 1SI)2, 
while serving under Joe Johnston: and Hezekiah. 



\u 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



wlio was with Hood ia all his campaigns, aud was 
wounded at the battle of Murfreesboro ; he died 
March 22, 1880. 

D. D. Hodges, of the mercantile tirm of D. D. 
Hodges & Co., Paragould. A review of the Imsi- 
iiess of Paragould discloses the existence of a num 
ber of houses which compare favorably with those 
of any city, and enjoying a foremost position as 
one of such is the establishment of D. D. Hodges 
& Co. Mr. Hodges was born in East Tennessee, 
his parents, B. Marshall and Mary (Adams) Hodges, 
also being natives of that section. D. D. Hodges 
was but six years of age when he moved with his 
parents to Metropolis, 111., aud there the father 
died in 1869 and the mother in 1879. They had 
a family of six children, four now living, viz. : 
William T. , Charles F., Lizzie, wife of Jo-seph 
Wyess, and David D., who is the youngest of the 
family living. The latter was principally reared 
iu Illinois and received his education in the com- 
mon schools. At the age of twelve years he en- 
tered a store at Metropolis, 111. , as clerk, and there 
remained until sixteen years of age, when he took 
charge of a branch house at Woodville, Ky. , and 
remained with this firm all together ten years, thus 
forcibly demonstrating the fact that he was reared 
iu the mercantile business. In 1877 he was em- 
ployed as traveling salesman for Fisher & Farley, 
of Paducah, Ky., with whom he remained two 
years. He then engaged in business for himself 
at Woodville, Ky., and in 1 881 he came to Arkan- 
sas, where he sold on commission for Col. Beal on 
the "Cotton Belt"' Railroad until the spring of 
1882. Later he served as clerk for C D. Pruet 
and in 1886 bought an interest in the store, after 
which a partnership was formed as C. D. Pruet & 
Co., which continued until January, 1888. Mr. 
Pi-uet'a death occurred in August, 1887, and in 
January, 1888, the tirm was changed to D. D. 
Hodges & Co. The firm members are: D. D. 
Hodges, W. F. Pruet and E. C. Deakin. A large 
stock of goods of general merchandise is carried, 
occupying two large store rooms in a brick build- 
ing. Mr. Hodges was married in 1875, to Miss 
Ella V. Settle, a native of Kentucky. Two chil- 
dren were born to this union, Walter D. and Mary 



O. Mrs. Hodges is a member of the Christian 
Church. Mr. Hodges is a member of the K. of P. 
and also belongs to the K. of H. He is well re- 
spected and is one of the enterprising citizens of 
Paragould. 

E. P. Holt, one of the leading and successful 
merchants of Marmaduke. Ark., was born in Mid- 
dle Tennessee, where his father. Garrison Holt, 
now lives, and in 1865 was united in marriage to 
Miss Elizabeth Parker, daughter of C. C. Parker, 
of Wayne County, Tenn. In 1874 he emigrated 
to Pemiscot County, Mo. , where he followed 
farming along the Mississippi River until 1884, 
when he moved to Arkansas and settled in Greene 
County. His wife died in Paragould January 10, 
1885, and in the fall of the following year Mr. 
Holt commenced farming, and also engaged iu the 
tie business, which he continued for several years. 
In February. 1888, he bought out Mr. J. L. Spen- 
cer, who carried on business at Holliday, and Mr. 
Holt moved the stock to Marmaduke, first renting 
a building, and then erecting a store room during 
the summer of 1888. His second marriage was 
to Miss Mary J. (Freeman) Barton, of West Ten- 
nessee. Mr. Holt has been identified with the 
improvement and growth of the town since coming 
here. At that time there was neither church nor 
school, and it is mainly by his efforts that school 
is now in session live months in the year, held in 
a very good building, 24x40 feet, which edifice 
is also used as a Baptist Church, and to which 
Mr. Holt and family belong. He is the father of 
one son by his first wife, and this young man is 
now attending school. During vacation he assists 
his fathei' in the store. Mr. Holt has a well se- 
lected stock of goods, valued at about $2,000, and 
endeavors to furnish his patrons with the best to be 
obtained. 

John W. Hooker. A gratifying example of 
success and ably conducted home industries is af- 
forded by the large lumbering-mill owned by Mr. 
Hooker, which is situated on the Iron Mountain 
Railroad, about eight miles below Knobel. The 
works are quite extensive, and have a capacity of 
10,000 feet per day, and Mr. Hooker utilizes in a 
great measure the timber of his own land, his acre- 



GREENE COUNTY. 



1 ir. 



age comprising 540, with about 100 acres under cul- 
tivation, all of which is the result of his own labor. 
He was born in Scott County, lud. , in 1834, and 
is a son of Emsley and Eliza (Hubanks) Hooker, 
who were born in North Carolina and Virginia, 
respectively. The father was taken by his parents 
to Clark County, Ind. , when one year old, the 
country at that time being a wilderness, and here he 
attained his majority, being reared on his father's 
farm. The grandfather died in that county in 
ISyS, at the age of seventy-six years. Emsley 
Hooker was fifty- four years old at the time of his 
death, in 1862, in Scott County, Ind. Through- 
out life he had followed the occupation of farming. 
He was a Democrat politically, and was a liberal 
contributor to and a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. His wife died in 1839, having 
borne a family of four children, two of whom are 
now living: Lorenzo D. , a resident of Indiana, and 
John W. The latter is the elder of the two, and 
was reared to mature years on a farm in Scott 
County, and in 1854 commenced working for him- 
self on a farm, at $13 per mouth. Three years 
later he was married, but continued his farm labors 
until the latter part of the Civil War. when he 
enlisted in the Thirty-first Indiana Volunteers, 
Company I, under Charles Adamson, of Rockport, 
Ind., and served twelve months (the last year), 
participating in the battles of Franklin, Nashville, 
and a number of minor engagements. He was 
dischai'ged at New Orleans, and mustered out at 
Victoria. Tex. He then returned to Indiana, 
where he was engased in farming until 1880, com- 
ing thence to Greene County, Ark., where he 
embarked in lumber-milling and farming, which 
occupations have received hi.s attention up to the 
present time. Mr. Hooker's first marriage was to 
Miss Hannah J. Reynolds, a native of Indiana, 
born in 1840, who died in 18(i2 by drowning. She 
and another lady were in a canoe on White River, 
when they struck a snag, upsetting their boat. 
Her companion chuig to the snag and was saved. 
Three children were born to this union: Alvin A., 
at home; Oldridge, married and residing at his 
father's mill, and John W., who died at the age 
of six weeks. Mr. Hooker took for his second wife 



Mrs. Jeanette (Weddell) Heart, who was born in 
Jackson County, Ind., and died in 1886, at the age 
of forty-four years. To thorn were born six cliil 
dren: Ross, Nathan. Charles, Austin. Eliza J. and 
Georgia (who died in 1879, at the age of two 
years). To the mother's first union three children 
were born: America. Mary A. and liriller Heart. 
The last two are deceased. Both wives were mem 
bers of the church. He belongs to the G. A. R. 

George R. Hopkins, a well known and success- 
ful educator of the county, and a farmer by occu- 
pation, was born in Gwinnett County, (ia. , in 
1860, being a son of Melmoth D. and Elizabeth 
(Martin) Hopkins, who were also born in Georgia. 
The grandfather, George H. Hopkins, was a verj' 
prominent educator in his day, and taught one 
school for over thirty years. He also represented 
his county in the State legislature several terms, 
always taking an active part in politics. He wa.s 
of English descent and died in Gwinnett County, 
in 18S9, at the age of eighty years, esteemed by 
all. Melmoth D. was one of his twelve children, 
and was reared in that county, where he received 
a good education in his youth, afterwards being 
engaged in farming and teachiug school. He was 
a member of the A. F. & A. M., and belonged 
to the Baptist Church. During the late Rebellion 
he served four years in the Confederate army, and 
during his term of service was in prison seven or 
eight months. Since 1866 he has resided in Ar- 
kansas, and is now living in Sebastian County, be- 
low Fort Smith, on a farm, his wife also surviv- 
ing. The following are the children l)orii to their 
union: Aldorah, George, Julian, Mary. Warner 
(deceased), Thomas and Pearlie. (ieorge R. Hoj) 
kins attained his growth principally in Jonesboro, 
Ark., also receiving tlie moat of his education 
there, but attended one year in (Jeorgia. Shortly 
after he began teaching school, continuing one 
year, when he was elected surveyor of Craighead 
County, which positioti he held two years. Since 
1884 he has resided in Cireene County, and the 
tirst year taught school in Paragould: he has con- 
tinued to be one of the successful educators of 
Gainesville, being now engaged on his fourth term 
of ten months in that town. He was married in 



146 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



1S85 to Anna Newberry, who was born in Carroll 
County, Tenn. , and by her has two children: Buna 
and Irene. Mr. Hopkins is a member of the K. 
of H., is a Democrat in his political views, and is 
a thorough, competent, and extensive educator of 
the young. During the foiu- years he has taught 
in Gainesville, he has fitted about twenty of his 
pupils for the profession of teaching. His wife 
is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
South. 

Pressley Huckabay, one of the pioneers of 
Greene County, Ark., and one who has witnessed 
the rapid development of that county in the last 
thirty years, was born in Campbell County, Tenn., 
where he grew to manhood and was married. In 
1857 he and family moved to Greene County, Ark., 
settling about a mile and a half from his present 
residence, where he cleared a farm of seventy-two 
acres and erected houses, etc. This laud belonged 
to the railroad company, and having a chance to sell 
the improvements made on the same, Mr. Hucka- 
bay did so, and then moved to his present farm, 
which consists of 120 acres, with 100 under culti- 
vation. He married Miss Mary Bullock of Ten- 
nessee, and twelve children were born to this union, 
eight now living. The following grew to matur- 
ity: Elizabeth married Jackson Purcell, a farmer 
of Greene Count}', and became the mother of one 
child; Nancy married Obadiah Purcell, a farmer 
of Greene Covinty, and became the mother of 
two childi'en; Sarah married John Van Guilder, 
a farmer of Greene County, and became the mother 
of six children; John A. died, leaving two chil- 
dren, and his wife also died; William T. married 
and lives on a farm a short distance from his father, 
and has a family of six children; Commodore 
Perry married and resides at Marmaduke, where 
he runs a saw-mill — he has five children: Rhietta 
was married to M. B. Harvey, a farmer of Greene 
County, and is the mother of eight children; Almar- 
ine married, lives near his father, and has three 
children; Alfi-ed remains on the farm with his 
father, is married and has four children: Francis 
Marion died and left a wife and one child. Mr. 
Huckabay has a niece. Miss Nancy E. Huckabay, 
who makes her home with lu-r uncle. Tlie latter 



takes a deep interest in the political issues of the 
day, and affiliates with the Democratic party. He 
is a member of the Missionary Ba])tist Church. 
During the late unpleasantness between the North 
and South he was in Col. McNeill's regiment and 
participated in the battles of Little Rock, Forrest 
City, was in the Red River Expedition, and in a 
number of sharp skirmishes. When Mr. Hucka- 
bay first moved. to Greene County, Ark., settlers 
were few, provisions scarce, and all depended, to 
a great extent, upon the gun for a means of living. 
When he wanted fresh meat he frequently sent his 
children around a thicket within HOO yards of the 
house, and would pick out a good one from the 
drove of deer thus started up. His method for 
catching turkeys was very ingenious. Building 
a square pen of logs near where he fed his stock, 
he covered it with poles, and then digged a slant- 
ing passageway leading under the logs. This 
passage-way would end abruptly after entering 
the pen. Corn was then scattered along the pass- 
age or outside slant; the turkey would have to stoop 
a little to go under the pen, but as soon as inside 
would fly up to the level ground above, and instead 
of looking down to get out would always look up. 
Mr. Huckabay often caught as high as eight or ten 
at a time in this manner. Coons were so thick 
that a man could take his rifle and kill as many as 
fifteen or twenty a day. John Wooten, a neigh- 
bor, killed twenty-five on one occasion, and Mr. 
Huckabay has killed as many as fifteen himself. 
Bears were so plentiful that their meat was used 
instead of bacon, and was put down for the season 
in much the same way as pork. A good bear skin 
was worth about $5 at Cape Girardeau, Mo. 
Mr. Huckabay has killed a number of panthers, 
and can relate numerous thrilling exploits with 
these animals. He was attacked by one at one 
time, and after having fired three bullets against 
its head, which failed to penetrate the sknll, he 
realized that he was getting in very close quarters. 
Just at this critical moment his faithful dogs re- 
newed their attacks on the panther, thus giving 
their owner a chance to send a bullet just back of 
the fore legs of the animal, which stretched him 
lifeless on the ground. 




-Ji^ftWfe 






DaCEDLA 

Mississippi CounTT,ARKAnsAS . 



C. p. Huckabay, the leading mill man of this 
section, was born in Campbell County, Tenn., and 
came to Greene County, Ark.. al)out thirty two 
years ago. He is a self made man, was reared ou 
the farm, and picked up his education as best he 
coukl after reaching his majority. The schools 
were all elo.sed during the war in that [)ortion of 
the country, and as Mi-. Huckalmy was a school 
boy at that time, his educational advantages were 
not of the best. He was industrious, full of (>nergy 
and perseverance, and is now the owner of 1,000 
acres of land, with seventy-five acres under cultiva 
tion. This he rents, and his time is fully occupied 
in the lumber and stave business, being the owner 
of two large saw mills, one located in Marmaduke 
and the other in the vicinity. The one at Marma- 
duke has a capacity of 1,500 feet per day, and 
the one in the country will run about S.OOO feet. 
Mr. Huckabay is now building a tram road three 
and a half miles into the woods, which will be con- 
nected with the road of Mr. Rosengrant, ex- 
tending two and a half miles further into a fine 
timbered country, and will supply them timber for 
about five years. Mr. Huckabay has been in the 
railroad supply business, getting out ties and other 
timbers, and at one time ran about 300 men, fur 
nishing them with provisions from his su])ply store 
then located at Marmaduke. He is now securing 
all kinds of building and bridge timber. Mr. 
Huckabay chose for his companion in life Miss 
Nancy A. llamsey, a native of Tennessee, and the 
daughter of M. Ramsey (deceased), of Greene 
County. To this union were born five children: 
Virginia E., Nathan P., William B. , Carrie A. 
and Mary. Mr. Huckabay is conservative, both in 
politics and religion, not but that he believes in 
both, but he considers every one possesses the right 
to his own views on the subject. He is a member 
of the I. O. O. F., belonging to Evergreen Lodge, 
located at Tilmanville. 

H, C. Hunter is a representative man of Greene 
County, Ark., who has attained his pro])erty by 
industry and good business ability, and has won an 
enviable position in .society circles. He was born 
in Middle Tennessee, in 1S4'2, and up to the age of 
eighteen years was reared on his father's jilanta 



tion, thus becoming familiar with the details of 
farm life. When eighteen he eniigrat«Hl to Greene 
County, Ark., I)ut when the Relx-llion broke out, 
in 1S61, he enlisted from Tennessee for twelve 
months, in Company G, Ninth Tennessee Infantry, 
Confederate States Army, and participated in tiie 
battles of Belmont. Shiloh, Murfreesboro, Perry 
ville, and at Chickamauga was wounded by a gun 
shot, and was confined in the hospital at Mont- 
gomery, Ala. After recovering he was detailed to 
the engineers' department, and was engaged in con- 
structing bridges until the final surrender, when 
he returned to Greene Coixnty, Ark., and resumed 
farming. He has now an excellent farm of over 
2(10 acres, with about 1 HO acres under cultivation, 
on which he raises cotton and corn. He also gives 
considerable attention to the propagation of stock, 
and has an excellent range on which his animals 
pasture. Having been a resident of this State for 
many years, he has seen the gradual but sure 
development of the country from a wilderness to 
finely cultivated farms, for where churches, schools 
and substantial homes now are, then Indians and 
wild animals in profusion roamed the woods. He 
has done a full share in securing this desirable 
change, and by industry and shrewd management 
has made his farm one of the best in the county. 
Where he was previously obliged to go 125 miles 
to market he now only goes eight miles, to Para- 
gould. He was married in Greene County, in 
1873, to Miss Georgiauua King, a native of 
Tennessee, and a daughter of John M. and Sarah 
Jane (Freelandi King, who were also Tennesseeans. 
emigrating to Gr(>ene County. Ark., in \H~i2. and 
opening up a farm: later they moved to Pemiscot 
County, Mo., where they are living at the present 
time. The father was a volunteer in the Mexican 
War. Mr. and Mrs. Hunter are members of the 
Methodist Episco]>al Church, and are the parents 
of the fi)lk>wing children: Betty, Alva, Minnie, 
Charles, James and Eufus M. Mr. Hunter is a 
Democrat. He was the youngest of eight children 
born to Lay ton and Elizabeth (Hobison) Hunter, 
the former a native of Tennessee and the latter of 
Kentucky. They were married in the former 
State, and here the father became ijuite a wealthy 



^^ r- 



148 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



planter, but in 1859 removed to Greene County, 
Ark., and settled on the farm now owned by our 
subject, H. C. Hunter. He figured quite promi- 
nently in politics while in Tennessee, but after 
coming to Arkansas he remained more at home. 
His health was always good and he died in 1875, 
at the age of seventy -live year.s, his wife's death 
occurring within a few days of his own. The 
paternal grandfather was a Virginian, and a sol- 
dier in the War of 1812, as was also the maternal 
grandfather, the latter being a native of Kentucky 
soil. 

Richard Jackson is well known by reason of his 
association with the general mercantile firm of 
Jackson Dry Goods Company. His career in 
Greene County has been markedly rapid and suc- 
cessful, and his name stands to-day among the 
leading business men of the county. The business 
was established in 1867, he and his l)rother. J. R., 
purchasing the stock of gooils formerly owned by 
Taylor & Miller, which consists of a full line of 
general merchandise, and he and his present part- 
ners are now doing the leading business in Gaines - 
\ille. He was born in Stoddard County, Mo., in 
1843, and was the son of John J. and Emily 
(Montgomery) Jactson, who were Tennesseeans, 
and came to Missouri at an early period, being 
among the first settlers of Stoddard County. He 
was engaged in farming until the late war, then 
coming to Greene County, Ark. , and locating near 
Gainesville, where he died in 1877, after having led 
a very active life. He was quite an active politi- 
cian, and held the office of deputy sheriff of Stod- 
dard County for four years, and sheriff four j'ears 
after coming to Greene County. He was active in 
advocating schools, chui'ches, etc. His wife died 
in 1885, at the age of seventy-three years. Their 
children all lived to be grown; one son, two daugh- 
ters and the father died within two months of each 
other. Those living are Isaiah, Richard and 
I'ranklin, the latter being in partnership with his 
brother, Richard. Richard Jackson attained his 
eighteenth year in Stoddard County, and remained 
at home until the breaking out of the Civil War in 
1861, when he enlisted in the Confederate army, 
under Jeff Thompson, and served until the final 



siurender, taking part in a numlier of important 
engagements, and was wounded at Pilot Knob, 
having his leg broken. He was captured while 
there, and sent to the hospital at Ironton, and was 
soon after exchanged. He returned home and there 
remained until able to get about, when he rejoined 
his regiment, and continued in service until the 
close. Again coming home he resumed farming, 
then clerked in a general store, and in 1867 estab- 
lished his present business, and in addition to this 
gives much of his attention to real estate, having 
charge of all the Iron Mountain Railroad lands in 
the county. He also manages several large stock 
farms, and deals and trades extensively in stock. 
He is a Democrat in his political views, and when 
the county seat was at Gainesville he held the 
office of treasurer of the county. He has always 
been a liberal contributor to churches, schools, 
and all worthy enterprises, and now occupies a 
high position both in mercantile and social circles. 
His wife, whose maiden name was Jennie Stead 
man. was born in North Carolina, and their union 
was blessed in the birth of six children: Clara. 
Frannie, Arthur, Emma, Maggie, and an infant 
daughter unnamed. 

A. D. Jackson, of the firm of Jackson & 
Byers, proprietors of a livery stable, has one of 
the best equipped enterprises of the kind in the 
county. This stable, from the large business it 
does, not only exemplifies the importance of the 
town, but reflects credit upon its management. 
Mr. Jackson was born in Greene County, Ark. . 
January 20, 1865, and is one of three children 
born to James R. and Nancy (Davis) Jackson, na- 
tives of Tennessee. The parents were early settlers 
of this part of Arkansas, but duiing the war the 
family moved to Missouri, and there the father 

, served as captain of a company. During the ser- 
vice he was wounded in the hip by a gunshot. He 
died in 1881, but the mother is still living and re- 
sides in Paragould. Their children are named as 
follows: Jennie, wife of John Perry; Albert D. . 
and Lela, wife of Oscar Huff. A. D. Jackson 
grew to manhood in Gainesville, receiving his edu- 
cation there, and afterward clerked in a store for 

, about four years. He then engaged in merchan- 



GREENE COUNTY. 



MU 



I- 

r 



dising with an uncle, Kichard Jackson, at (iaiues- 
ville, remained with him three years and then ran 
the business alone for a short time. After this he 
went to Hot Springs, thence back to Gainesville, 
where he was occiipied in farming and teaming for 
about three years. In November, 1888, he came 
to Paragould and embarked in the livery business 
with his present partner. He keeps about fifteen 
good horses and can furnish, day or night, as neat 
a turnout as one could desire and at the lowest 
figure. Mr. Jackson chose for his life's companion 
Miss Joe Collins, who became his wife on Decem- 
ber 25, 1884. Two children are the result of this 
union: James A. and Pearl. Mr. Jackson is a 
member of the I. O. O. F. lodge. 

I. C. Jeffers. Greene County, Ark. , ranks 
among the first in the State in regard to its man- 
ufacturing intere.sts. and Mr. Jeffers is one of its 
foremost lumber maniifacturers. He engaged in 
liusiness for himself in 1888, his mill being at 
South Miser; it was previously known as Miser's 
Mill, and has a capacity of 10,000 feet per day. 
Mr. Jeffers was born in Clark County, 111., in 
1851, and was the third in a family of seven chil- 
dren born to Thomas and Julia Ann (Lafferty) 
Jeffers, natives, respectively, of Kentucky and Illi- 
nois. The father was a tiller of the soil and 
opened up several large farms, and is now residing 
in Edinburgh, 111. In 18f?l he enlisted from 
Moultrie County, of that State, in Company C, 
One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Illinois Infantry, 
and was wounded at Devall's Bluff, Ark., receiving 
a gunshot wound by the bushwhackers, and was 
confined in the hospital for some time, obtaining 
his discharge in May. 1865. His wife died in 
Shelbj' County, 111. . at the age of fifty-six years, 
February lU, 1878. I. C. Jeffers spent his early 
life on his father's farms and attended the common 
schools, supplementing this by one year's attend- 
ance at St. Mary"s, Indiana. When about seven- 
teen years of age he began learning the miller's 
trade in Moultrie County, 111. , and has followed 
that occupation with success ever since. He was 
married there, in 1877, to Miss Frances Anna 
Jones, a native of Illinois, and a daughter of Amos 
and Mary Ann (Steele) Jones, the former having 



been born in South Carolina and the latter in Illi- 
nois, both of whom are still living. After his mar- 
riage Mr. Jeffers remained in Illinois until 1881, 
when he came to Corning and embarked in the tim- 
ber business, moving thence to Rector, where he 
was foreman four years for W. G. Hutchings' saw- 
mill; since 1888 he has been engaged in operating 
his mill at Rector, and now ships from four to five 
carloads per week. He has always supported the 
Democratic, party, and although having resided 
in Greene County only a few years has b(!come 
well and favorably known. His children are 
Marietta, Charles Albert, Clara Ethel and Julia 
Cora. 

William C. Johnson has been identified with 
the farming and stock dealing interests of Friend- 
ship Township, Greene County, Ark., since 1850, 
and in that time he has proven himself to be a man 
of intelligence and enterprise. He was born in 
Knox County, Tenn., in October, 1821, and is the 
eldest of five children born to Pleasant M. and Ellen 
(Thompson) Johnson, who were born in Virginia, 
and at an early day emigrated to Tennessee, where 
they were married. Thej' were engaged in farm- 
ing in West Tennessee imtil 1858, when they moved 
to Dunklin County, Mo., where the father died in 
1861, aged sixty-four years, his wife's death hav- 
ing occurred in Tennessee, in 1854. He was a 
soldier in the War of 1812. His mother was Mary 
Hancock, a niece of John Hancock, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence. William C. Johnson 
was educated in the district schools near his home 
in Tennessee, and was married in Madison County, 
.of that State, in 1842. to Amanda C. Sanders, a 
native of Lincoln County, Tenn., a daughter cf 
Samuel and Linnie (Looney) Sanders, who were 
Tennesseeans. and prosperous farmers of that 
State. They moved to Ozark County, Mo., in 
1854, where they were engaged in farming until 
their respective deaths in 1857 and 18S7. Mr. 
Johnson and family emigrated to Lawrence Conn 
ty, Ark., in 1854, where they entered a tract of 
120 acres and remained two years, moving thence 
to his present farm in (ireeue County. He first 
entered 156 acres, which he proved up in ISCil, 
and has added to this land imtil he now owns 107 



^ 



HISTOKY OF ARKANSAS. 



acres, with nearly 100 acres under cultivation. 
Besides this he owns forty acres of land in Clark 
Township (twenty-two acres in cultivation), the 
most of his tillable property being devoted to cot- 
ton and corn. He has aided in the organization 
of Friendship Township, and assisted in building 
the county road. He has always atRliated with the 
Democratic party, and has helped largely in in- 
creasing the number of Democratic voters in his 
section. He has been one of the foremost men in 
developing the resources of the county, and has al- 
ways been an active supporter of schools and 
churches, being ordained in 1874, by Thomas D. 
Lloyd and David Thorn, a minister of the Mis- 
sionary Baptist Church. He has ex])ounded the 
gospel since that time and has been instrumental 
in converting some people to Christianity. He 
and wife are the parents of threi> daughters and 
ten sons: Permelia Lane and Emerentha Virginia 
(deceased); Linna Blender, wife of A.M. Shearer, 
living near Halliday; W. S. C, married and resid- 
ing in Greene County; John H. . married and resi- 
dent of Halliday; David Pleasant and James Mon- 
roe (deceased); Ben. Franklin, also deceased; Al- 
fred Jefferson, single; Christopher A, also married; 
J. N., P. G. and L. L. 

B. A. Johnson, a wealthy farmer and stock- 
man, of Greene County, Ark., was born in Hick- 
man County, Tenn., in 1834, and is the iifth in a 
family of ten children born to Granville M. and 
Nereusa (Gardner) Johnson, who were Tennessee- 
ans, the father being a farmer by occupation, and 
a wealthy citizen. He was justice of the peace in 
Tennessee for many years, and died in that State 
in 1S84, followed by his wife some two years later. 
The paternal and maternal graudfatliers were Vir- 
ginians, who removed to Tennessee at an early 
day. the former reaching this State in 1812. Here 
they both died. B. A. Johnson was reared to farm 
labor, and had very poor educational advantages 
in his youth. He remained at home until attain- 
ing his majority, and then for .several years was 
engaged in brick-laying. At the age of twenty-one 
he was wedded to Miss Sarah E. Fielder, a native 
of Tennessee. In 1855 he located in Wayne Coun- 
ty. Mo., where, in 180(1, he bought a farm, and 



embarked in agricultiu'e, continuing until the war 
broke out, when he raised a company of Missouri 
State Guards, of which he was elected first lieuten- 
ant. He soon resigned this position, and enlisted 
as a private in the Confederate army, being 
elected first lieutenant of Reeves' cavalry company 
of inde])endent scouts. He was soon sent east of 
the Mississippi, and was in the battles of Mem- 
phis, Corinth, luka, Jacinto, Richmond, Ky., 
Perryville, after which he was transferred to the 
western department of Arkansas, where he was 
detailed to raise a regiment, of which he was made 
lieutenant-colonel. In this capacity he partici- 
jmted in the battles of Little Rock, Pine Bluff and 
Saline River, and was then with Price on his Mis- 
souri raid, taking part in every battle fought on 
this trip. During the war his family removed from 
Missouri south to Clay County, Ark., and here Mr. 
Johnson went after the cessation of hostilities, 
where he remained three years, and then came 
to Cache Township, Greene County, Ark, where 
they are still residing. He purchased a partially 
improved farm of 160 acres, opened about sixty 
acres, and in 1871 purchased 160 acres three miles 
south of his first place, to which he has added 170 
acres, and has cleared 100 acres, having about 200 
under cultivation. In addition to these tracts he 
has about 500 acres in another locality. He does 
genera] farming, but gives the most of his atten- 
tion to the raising of corn and cotton. He is an ac- 
tive politician, a substantial supporter of churches 
and schools, and he and family attend the Baptist 
Church, of which he and his wife are members. 
His family consists of the following children: 
John W., born February 17, 1856, who is married 
and resides on his father's land; William G., born 
February 9, 1858, also married and living in the 
township: Barbara Etta Bell, born October 5. 18()0, 
wife of E. R. C. Biggs, a resident of Woodruff 
County; Robert E. Lee, born October 21, 1863, 
died in 1864; Adelaide, born September 24, 1865, 
wife of P. Eubanks, of Greene County; Samantha 
C, born August 4, 1867; Victoria R., wife of 
James Light, born July 19. 1869; Sarah N., born 
October 10, 1871; Benjamin O, born June 10, 
1S74: and Lizzie B. . born August 11, 1877. 



GREENE COUNTY. 



IM 



R. B. Joues. No matter how disagreeable tlie 
outlook in life, or how little encouragement is re- 
ceived, there are some who will succeed in what 
ever they undertake, while others, placed in the 
same circumstances, will give uj) in despair. 
Among those who have won universal respect by 
push and energy, and who are classed among the 
first in whatever they undertake, is the above 
mentioned gentleman. Mr. Jones was born in 
that part of Greene County, Ark., which is at this 
time known as Clay County, September (j, 1848, 
and remained in that county, engaged in farming, 
until about twelve years ago, when he moved to 
what is known as Tilmanville and opened a black- 
smith shop. This he has curried on in a successful 
manner ever since. In addition to this Mr. Jones 
manages his farm of 180 acres, which his sons are 
now working, and he has opened aboiit five or six 
acres on the home place, consisting of eighty acres. 
He was married to Miss Martha J. Bradsher, 
daughter of Jefferson Bradsher, of Greene Coun- 
ty, Ark., and three interesting childi'en were the 
result of this union: J. M. , J. C. and W. A., all 
at home. Mr. Jones is also rearing two of his 
sister-in-law's children, they being the orphan 
children of J. H. and Mary C. Huckabay, and are 
named Almon E. and Hiram C. John Jones, the 
father of the subject of this sketch, came to 
Greene County, Ark., in 1830, and died here in 
1871. His wife died in 18(51. They were the 
parents of eight children, two surviving. By his 
second wife John Jones became the father of five 
children. R. B. Jones is a member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity, Danley Lodge No. 300, and he 
also belongs to Evergreen Lodge No. 66, of the 
I. O. O. F. He and wife are members of the 
Missionary Baptist Church. 

S. L. Joseph, one of the leading merchants of 
I'aragonld, was l)orn in Germany, on the Rhine, in 
October, 1854, receiving his education in his native 
country, and at an early age engaged in mercantile 
])ursaits, which he has followed ever since, thus 
securing a thorough knowledge of the busini^ss. 
In 1871 he sailed for America, taking passage iit 
Bremen, and landing at New York City, where he 
remained about three years. He then went to 



Pennsylvania, and for a period of some three ynars 
was engaged in the ottice of the Buffalo & Philadel- 
])hia Railroad Company, going thence to St. Louis, 
where he remained one year. In 1878 he went to 
Walnut Ridge, Ark., followed clerking until 1880, 
and then came to Gainesville, of the same State, 
and there opened a store in partnership with Isaac 
Less. He continued the business at Gainesville 
and Jonesboro for three years, after which he sold 
his interest and took a trip to Europe, traveling 
over the continent, and was absent about ten 
months. After his return he went to Wichita, 
Kan., resided at that place one year, and in the 
fall of 1885 came to Paragould, where he em- 
barked in merchandising under the firm name of 
Harris & Joseph. In the spring of 1889 Mr. 
Joseph bought out his partner and is now con- 
tinuing the business alone. He carries a large 
stock of merchandise, averaging about $25,000, 
and is one of the enterprising business men i/f 
Paragould. He is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, the I. O. O. F. , and also belongs to the 
K. of H. He was married May 1, 1889, to Miss 
Setta Goldman, a native of Europe, and sister of 
J. D. Goldman, of the large firm of Goldman <& 
Co., of St. Louis. Mr. Joseph's parents, Maurice 
F. and Babbet (Steinheimer) Joseph, were natives 
of Europe. The father is deceased, but the mother 
is still living in Germany. 

Jesse Kenemure, a successful farmer and stock 
raiser of Jones Township, was born in Georgia, 
in 1819, and is the sixth in a family of eiglif 
children born to David and Lucy (Price) Kene- 
mure, luitives of South Carolina. The parents 
remained in their native State until after theii- 
marriage, and then moved to Georgia, where the 
mother died a few years later. The father again 
married and lived in that State until his death. 
Jesse Kenemure assisted his father in the arduous 
duties on the farm until nineteen years of age, 
after which he began farming for himself, and 
this occuj)ation has continued all his life. He was 
married when twenty -one years of age to Miss 
Rebecca Rock, a native of Georgia: and eight 
children were the result of this union, four now 
living. They are nar 1 as follows: Luciuda 



1 r.2 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



I 



Margaret (deceaHed), Jiimes Franklin, married and 
lives on his father's place: N. W., married and 
lives on Crowley's Ridge; Charles D. , married 
and lives in this township; Missouri Jane, died in 
Georgia; William Ross, died in Georgia; L. 
W., married and resides in Greene County, and 
Margaret. Jesse Kenemure followed farming in 
Georgia, until 1856, when he moved directly to 
Greene County, Ark. , and settled on the west side 
of CJrowley's Ridge, where he bought forty acres 
of wild land. He immediately began improving, 
by erecting buildings and clearing land, etc., and 
after having cleared about thirty acres and remain- 
ing there for some twelve years, he sold out and 
moved to Jones' Ridge, being one of four families 
in that section. He bought 180 acres of land, 
cleared 100 acres, erected buildings, set out an 
extensive orchard of all kinds of fruits, and has 
surrounded himself with everything to make a 
pleasant, comfortable home. During the late war 
he was with Price on his Missouri raid, and was 
in the battles of Iron Mountain, Blue Lick, In- 
dependence and Boonville. He is a member of the 
Wheel, and is an active worker in the cause of 
education. 

T. B. Kitchens, circuit court clerk, exrofficio 
clerk of the county and probate courts, and recorder 
of Greene County, Ark., is one of the prominent 
and leading citizens of that county. He was born 
in Craighead County, Ark., August 21, 1854, and 
is the son of James H. and Arminda J. (Davis) 
Kitchens, natives of Forsyth County, Ga. The 
parents were married in their native State, but af- 
terward removed to Cherokee County, Ala., where 
they remained i;ntil the winter of 1851, and then 
located in what is now Craighead County, Ark. 
In the early part of the following year the father 
removed to the farm he now occupies, and there 
he has since resided. He was one of the first 
settlers of Craighead County, having located there 
when the country was wild and unbroken. T. B. 
Kitchens was reared and received his primary 
education in his native county. Later he attended 
school at Gainesville, and completed his educa- 
tion at the Arkansas Industrial University, at 
Fayetteville, from which institution he graduated 



with honor, being valedictorian of his class in 
1880. He was also awarded the gold medal of 
$25, oflFered by B. B. Stone, of Fayetteville, for the 
best set of literary essays of the season of 1880, as 
well as the gold medal otfered by the publishing 
house of D. Appleton & Co., to the member of 
the senior class of 1880, who had the highest 
standing in mathematics in the four years' course. 
Following his graduation, Mr. Kitchens taught 
school until the spring of 1882, and in the fall of 
the same year he entered the county clerk's office 
as deputy, and served for four years, discharging 
his duties faithfully and honorably, and in such 
an efficient and capable manner that he won many 
friends, and at their solicitation he became a candi- 
date for his present office. He was elected in Sep- 
tember, 1886, without opposition, and reelected to 
the office in 1888, which position he is now holding. 
He was county examiner from 1882 to 1886, and 
discharged these duties, as he does all others, with 
honor and credit. He owns town property and a 
half interest in the Gager House, which is a large 
three-story brick building, and a first-class hotel. 
Mr. Kitchens was maiTied January 1, 1884, to Miss 
Alice B. Burton, a native of Tennessee, whose 
parents came to this county when she was a child 
four years of age. Mr. and Mrs Kitchens are the 
parents of one child, William M. Mr. Kitchens is 
a member of the K. of P., and a charter member 
of the lodge at Paragould. 

John J. Lambert (deceased) was born in Harde- 
man County, Tenn., in 1822, and his father being 
a farmer he was reared to that occupation, remain 
ing on the old homestead until he attained his 
majority. He was married July 14, 1858, to Miss 
Jennie Cox, a native of Tennessee, whose fathei 
was a farmer. When the war broke out Mr. Lam 
bert espoused the cause of the Confederacy and 
served one year in the Confederate army, then re 
turning home and resuming farming. In 1867 he 
emigrated, with his family, to Arkansas, locating 
in Greene County, where he bought 100 acres 
of land, a portion of which was improved. On 
this tract ht erected barns and stables, and opened 
about fifty acres, but later bought other large 
tracts, part of it joining this, from which he cleared 



Jf- 



^k 



GREENE COUNTY. 



153 



the timber. To his union with Miss Cox onu child, 
James Abner. was born, and his second resulted iu 
the birth of three children: Mary W., wife of 
Allen Howell; John J. and Thomas L. Th(> last 
two are young men, who are managing the home 
farm, being engaged in general farm work. They 
have about seventy-tive acres under cultivation. 
At the time of Mr. Lambert's death, November 
28, 1SS7. the farm was divided and sold, with the 
exception of several tracts of land in Tennessee, 
Thomas L. buying eighty acres of the old home- 
stead and 240 acres of another tract, forty acres 
of another and some town property. Mr. Lambert 
was one of Greene County's most substantial and 
j)rominent citizens, and was a generous and public- 
spirited man. ever ready to aid enterpriser for the 
public good, and is remembered with gratitude 
and affection by all his neighbors. He was a 
member of the Masonic fraternity. 

E. D. Landi'um. Owing to the fertility of the 
soil in Greene County, Ark., and by energy, indus- 
try and economy, Mr. Landrum has become one of 
the wealthy farmers and stock raisers of this sec- 
tion. He was born in Weakley County, Tenn. , in 
1848, was reared on his father's farm, and there 
received his education in the common schools. In 
1868 he enlisted from Weakley County in Com- 
pany B, Faulkner's Regiment cavalry service, and 
was in the fights at Paducah, Union City and Co- 
lumbus, receiving his discharge in the fall of 1864 
aud returning home. In the fall of 1865 he came 
to Greene County, Ark., and began farming for 
himself on eighty acres of land which he purchased, 
aud in 1867 purchased eighty acres more, eight of 
which were cleared and under cultivation. In 1869 
he located on this property and erected a log 
house, and iu ISSu built an excellent frame resi- 
dence. He now owns 320 acres of splendid land 
with 150 under cultivation, 125 of which he has 
cleared himself since ISO'J. His principal crops 
are corn and hay. He raises some stock, his cattle 
being of the Durham breed, his horses Morgan, 
and his hogs Berkshire. He is not very active in 
politics, but votes with the Democratic party. He 
was married in Greene County, in 1867, to Mary 
A. Burnett, a native of North Carolina, aud a 



daughter of John and Sarah (Howell) Burnett, 
who were also born in that State, and emigi-ated 
to Greene County, Ark., at a very early day, set- 
tling on a farm in Clark Township, on which the 
father died. The mother is still living. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Landrum have been born the following 
children: James Edward and John Clinton. Mr. 
Landrum is the fourth of ten children born to 
James and Emeline (Anderson) Landrum, the 
former a native of Virginia and the latter of Middle 
Tennessee. The father was a wealthy planter of 
Tennessee, and died there in 1862, followed by his 
wife several years later. 

John V. Landrum, of the mercantile firm of 
Stallcup & Landrum, Paragould. There are a 
number of men prominently identified with the 
mercantile interests of Greene County, but none 
among them are more deserving of mention than 
John V. Landrum, who, although not old iu 
years, is a substantial business man. He was born 
in Weakhn' County, Tenn., August 18, 1853, 
and is the sou of James and Emeline (Anderson) 
Landrum, the father a native of Halifax County, 
Va. , and the mother of Dickson County, Tenn. 
The parents were married in the last mentioned 
State, and reared ten children, .six of whom are liv- 
ing at the present time: Lucy A., widow of Mr. 
Turner; James M., Edward D. , Samuel H., 
Fannie E. , wife of J. N. Wright; and John V. 
Nancy E. died May 11. 188'J. The parents 
moved from Middle Tennessee to West Tennessee 
and died in Weakley County, the father in 1862 and 
the mother in 1874. The former followed agri- 
cultural pursuits all his life. John Y. Landrum, 
the youngest member of the family now living, 
was reared and received the principal [lart of his 
education in \\'eakley County, Tenu. He re- 
mained on the farm until twenty-one years of age, 
after which he completed his education as best he 
could and then taught .school for three years in 
Gibson County. After this he engaged in the mill 
business for one year. In 1 888 he came to Greene 
County, Ark., from Carroll County, Tenn., 
located in Paragould, and immediately embarked 
in the mercantile business in partnershi]) with his 
brother, James M., who was the first man to sell 



IfZ 



ir.4 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



<j;oods in Paragoulcl. lu November, 1884, he 
married Miss Ella M. Stale-up, and the fruits of 
this union are two children : Horace M. and Char- 
les V. Mr. Landrum continued in lousiness with 
his brother for aliout two years, after which he 
sold out to him and formed a partnership with 
his father- in law, C. T. Stalcup, with whom 
he is carrying on business at the present time. 
They keep a large stock of goods and have built 
up a good trade. Asid(> from this Mr. Land- 
rum is the owner of a good farm of 1*10 acres, also 
some valuable town property, and has one of the 
finest residences in Paragoidd, in fact, one of the 
best in the county. Mr. and Mrs. Landrum are 
both faithful members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. South. He served four years' as treas- 
urer of Paragould, and is an enterprising and pub 
lie-spirited citizen. They are members of the 
Triple Alliance Life Association. His maternal 
grandfather. Benjamin C. Aadersou, was reared 
and married in the blue grass region of Kentucky. 
He moved to Dickson County, Tenn. , while a young 
man, where he lived to the ripe old age of eighty- 
five, and died at his daughter's, Mrs. Emeline 
Landrum, in Weakley County, Tenn., at the age 
of eighty-seven. 

John M. Lloyd. In every condition of life 
and in every locality where the struggle for a live- 
lihood is going on, where can independence be 
found more faithfully portrayed, or more clearly 
demonstrated, than in the life of the honest, in 
(histrious farmer? Among those who have made a 
success of farming is the gentleman whose name 
heads this sketch, who, although a young man, is 
now the owner of one of th(> best improved farms 
in the county. He was born in Madison County 
(now Crockett Coimty), Tenn., August 26, 1856, 
and is the son of John \V. and Elizabeth (Raines) 
Lloyd, natives of North Carolina and Alabama, re- 
spectively. The father was born in 182(), and 
died February 11, 1869, and the mother was born 
in 1833, and died November 6, 1882. John W, 
Lloyd, when a lad of sixteen, went with his 
l)arents to Madison County, Tenn., where his 
father died at about the age of seventy-two years. 
He had been a soldier in the War of 1812. John 



W. was an agriculturist, a house carpenter and 
also followed the occupation of digging wells for 
many years. In 1861 he enlisted in the Confed- 
erate army. Gen. Forrest's regiment, of which he 
was wagon master for two years; he was in ser- 
vice in South Carolina, Alabama and Louisiana, 
and was in a number of prominent battles, re- 
ceiving a slight flesh wound on the knee. He sur- 

; rendered with his regiment at Paris, Tenn. , after 
which he returned to his home and followed his 
trade. He was a member of the A. F. & A. M. , 
and was an advocate of churches and schools. Of 
the nine children born to his marriage, seven lived 
to be grown, and live still survive. These are 

I named as follows: Thomas H. , Jefferson, M. , J. M. 
and Mrs. S. E. Jones. Those deceased are: Jas- 
per W., Mollie, Mattie and an infant. Mrs. Lloyd, 
with the above mentioned family, came to Arkan- 
sas in 1871, and part of the family located in 
Jackson Coimty, while the mother, M. J., J. M. 
and Mattie, came to Greene County in 1872. 
Here the mother and Mattie died. John M. Lloyd 
attained his majority in the county, spending the 
early part of his life on a farm, and afterward 
engaged in clerking in a general store. He 
worked at stave manufacturing for about seven 
years, being foreman for J. F, Hasty & Sons, for 
about six months, at Paragould. He located on 
his present property in 1888, and now has 110 acres 
under a good state of cultivation, and almost 
wholly free from stumps. Mr Lloyd chose for his 
wife, Mrs. S. J. Gramling nee Halley, who was 
born and reared in Scott County, Ark. Her par- 
ents, Robert H. and Sarah (Hutchins) Halley, were 
natives of Virginia and Tennessee, respectively. 
Robert H. , on leaving his native State, went to 
Tennessee, and thence to Arkansas, in 1838, where 
he was married to Mrs. Sarah Crowley, March 10, 
of the following year. In 1848 they moved to 
Scott County, Ark., where Mrs. Halley died, Octo- 
ber 29, 1861. She was born in September, 1819, 
and was first married to Harrison Crowle}', who 
died at the age of thirty-tive years, leaving one 
son, Benjamin (See sketch of B. H. Crowley). 
Robert H. Halley was born October 25, 1819, and 
died in the Confederate army, in December, 1868. 



^' 



GREENE COUNTY. 



1 ")<") 



Mr. and Mrs. Halloy are the parentH of uiiif chil- 
dren, two of whom are still living : S. J. and J. 
M. , the latter living in this county. Mrs. Lloyd 
was first married to Henry C. Gramliug, who diod 
in 1882. To Mr. and Mrs. Gramling were born 
two children: Victoria and Richard C. Mr. and 
Mrs. Lloyd are members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church of Paragould. 

William F. Lovejoy is foreman of the Leonard 
plantation in Greene County, Ark., which is one 
of the finest in the State, containing 2,000 acres 
under wire fence, with 600 acres in cultivation. 
On this farm is a good general store, belonging to 
Mr. Lovejoy, and a saw and grist-mill and a cot- 
ton-gin belonging to Mr. Leonard. They are large- 
ly interested in raising blooded stock, the planta- 
tion being admirably adapted to this industry, and 
a specialty is made of raising Poland China and 
Berkshire hogs. Nineteen dwelling houses are on 
the place, and the barn, which is 100x85 feet, is 
one of the best in the State. From 250 to 300 
acres of land are annually devoted to the culture of 
cotton, which receives the most of Mr. Lovejoy' s 
attention. He was born in DeKalb County, Ga. , 
in 1848, and was the second in a family of five chil- 
dren born to Samuel and Paulina (Scaife) Lovejoy, 
who were also Georgians, the father a planter and 
merchant by occupation. In 184S they moved to 
Alal)ama and resided on a plantation in that State, 
and here the mother died, in 1850. The father re- 
mained there until 1870, when he moved to Phillips 
County. Ark., in which State he resided until his 
(loath, in 1883. William F. Lovejoy was reared 
on a plantation and received his education in the 
schools of Alabama. While living in that State 
he was married, in 1864, to Frances Carrington, 
and at the time of his father's removal to Arkan- 
sas he and wife came also and engaged in farming 
and merchandising. He owns a good farm in St. 
Francis County, but since 1883 he has resided in 
Greene County, and since 1886 has had charge 
of Mr. Leonard's farm, which he is conducting in 
a highly satisfactory manner. Besides his pro|)- 
erty in St. Francis County he has 160 acres, with 
forty under cultivation, near Mr. Leonard's farm. 
He has never been very active in politics, but voti'.s 



the Democratic ticket. In 181)2, while in Alabama, 
he joined M, M, Slaughter's Company, Bell's Bat 
talion. Tenth Regiment, Confederate States Army, 
but became afflictiul with chronic diarrhoea and 
was honorably discharged. He is a member of 
the A, F, & A, M,, Brinkley Lodge No. 295. He 
has seen a great change for the better in Greene 
County since locating here, and has witnessed 
the full growth of Rector, and has been the means 
of opening up more land than any man in Blue 
Cane Township. He has also done much to in- 
crease the wealth of the same, and has expended 
over $10,000 in clearing the large plantation of 
which he is manager, and which is now one of the 
most valuable pieces of property in the State. He 
and wife became the parents of two children, one 
of whom died in infancy, and the other, Mary 
Paulina, is the wife of Mr. Bradford, mer- 
chant and express agent at Brinkley, Ark, ; she 
is the mother of one child, William Monroe, 

Dr. Robert Lovelady, of Greene County, Ai-k, , 
and an eminent physician of the community, was 
born in Hamilton County, Teun, , in 1846, being 
the second of six children born to Joseph and De- 
borah (Harris) Lovelady, both of whom are Ten- 
nesseeans, who emigrated to Northeast Arkansas 
in 1852, where they entered 200 acres of wild 
land, which was given Mr, Lovelady as a comjjen- 
sation for services rendered in the Florida War, 
Here they made many valuable improvements, and 
resided until their respe(!tive deaths, the father 
dying on the 12th of April, 1861, Dr. Robert 
Lovelady remained with his parents until twenty- 
one years of age, attending the common .schools: 
later he began farming for himself, and taught 
school for a few terms. In 1872 he took up the 
study of medicine, under the instruction of Dr, C, 
Wall, continuing with him three years, and then 
entered the LouisvUle University of ^Medicine, at 
Louisville, Ky, , which he attended for some little 
time. After practicing his profession in Greene 
County for about three years he returned to the col- 
lege, and was graduated at the end of five months, 
being the second resident of Crowley's Ridge to 
graduate in any profession. In 1879 he returned 
from college and settled in Cache Township, 



Tv" 



-IL. 



156 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



where he entered upou the practice of his profes- 
sion. During this time his patronage has been 
constantly growing, and he is counted among the 
most successful professional men of the county. He 
is well fixed financially, and deserves much credit 
for the way in which he has succeeded, for on 
leaving college he had no capital whatever, save a 
good knowledge of his calling. He is an active 
worker for the cause of education, aiul has done 
all he could to raise the standard of the public 
schools. In 187!) he was married to Miss Maggie 
A. Morgan, a native of Alabama, who came to 
Arkansas in 1871, with her mother and stepfather. 
By her he has three little children: Ethel, Aden B. 
and Clifford. The Doctor is the owner of a small 
tract of land near Walcott, on which he has erected 
a neat cottage and out-buildings, and has set out a 
considerable number of fruit trees. He and wife 
are members ot the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Calvin E. McAuley, M. D. The most import- 
ant science bearing upon man' s happiness, comfort 
and welfare, is that of medicine, and Dr. McAuley 
is a credit to the profession. His birth occurred 
in Carroll County, Tenn. , in April, 1857, and he 
is the only surviving member of a family of three 
children, bom to Dr. Enos and Martha (Duke) 
McAuley, who were born in North Carolina and 
Tennessee, in 1821 and 1883, respectively. The 
father was taken by his parents to ('arroll County, 
Tenn. , when ten years of age, and was reared to 
manhood in that State on a farm. He gradu- 
ated from a medical college of Kentucky and in 
February, 1878, came to Greene Coxinty, Ark., 
where he died in 1881, having been an active 
medical practitioner for about thirty-seven years, 
or since twenty-one years of age. He also taught 
school in his youth, and socially was a Royal 
Arch Mason: he was an active member of the 
Baptist ChiU'ch, to which his wife also belonged. 
Dr. Calvin E. McAuley attended the common 
schools of Carroll County, and in 1872 or 1873 
commenced the study of medicine under his father, 
and at the age of nineteen began practicing. He 
entered the Louisville Medical College in 1885, 
and since July, 1878, has been a very successful 
practitioner of Greene County, Ark. In 1877 he 



was married to Miss Mary U. Butler, a native of 
Tennessee, who was born in 1868, and died Decem- 
ber 17, 1878, having been an earnest member of 
the Baptist Church. She left one child, Lelah U. 
The Doctor took for his second wife Miss Mary F. 
Ledbetter, who was born in Arkansas in 1859, and 
by her he has three children: Maud L. , Irvin E. 
and Florence P. Mrs. McAuley is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The 
Doctor belongs to the I. O. O. F. , is an advocate 
of schools, and a Republican in his political views, 
and in 1886 was tendered the nomination as repre 
sentative to the State legislature, but would not 
accept. After coming to Arkansas he was in part- 
nership with his father until the latter' s death. 

William J. McBride, one of the independent 
sons of toil and a successful horticulturist of Hur- 
ricane Township, Greene County, Ark., was born in 
Tennessee and came with his parents, Daniel and 
S. M. (Jones) McBride, to Greene County, Ark., 
about 1870. He was one of ten children, two 
of whom were born after their arrival in Greene 
County. William J. McBride remained on his 
father's farm until he was nineteen years of age, 
when he was united in marriage to Miss Mary Jane 
Edmondson, daughter of Archibald Edmondson, 
of Greene County. After marriage he and his 
wife settled on forty acres, to which he has since 
added forty more, all improved, this forming one 
of the be.st farms in the neighborhood. He has by 
far the finest peach and apple orchard to be found 
in his section of the neighborhood, last year hav- 
ing from it 300 to -100 l>ushels, all of which was 
fed to the hogs with the exception of that used 
by the family, there being no market for the 
fruit. To Mr. and Mrs. McBride have been born 
five children: Matilda E., Daniel S., Malinda .).. 
Julia C. and William H. Mr. McBride is a mem 
ber of Evergreen Lodge No. 66. I. O. O. F. , and 
also of the Agricultural Wheel. He and wife bi> 
long to the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 

John McHaney, {)lauter and stockman, of 
Friendship Township, Greene County, Ark. , is a 
native of Wilson County, Tenn., born on the 22d of 
June, 1811), being the third in a family of twelve 
children in the family of William and Sarah (Word) 



GREENE COUNTY. 



loT 



JIcHaney, who were Virginians, and among the 
early pioneers of Tennessee. In the latter State 
the father was engaged in farming and school- 
teaching for some time, and in 1840 emigrated 
to Marion County, 111., where his death occurred 
ten years later, his excellent wife surviving him 
nntil 1875, when she too died, at the age of eighty- 
four years. John McHaney was reared to a farm 
life, and educated in the common schools of Ten- 
nessee, and began his independent career as a 
farmer in Illinois, remaining thus engaged in that 
State for seven years, when he emigrated to Gib- 
son County, Tenn., in 1845. After living there 
until January 1, 1861, he moved to Greene County, 
Ark. , and settled on the farm where he is now re- 
siding, purchasing 100 acres of almost totally un- 
improved land. He has since added to this pur- 
chase, until he now owns 200 acres of land, with 
ninety under cultivation, the greater part of which 
he devotes to raising corn. He has a line orchard, 
and takes great interest in fruit culture. In 1863 
he returned to Tennessee, and was there married 
to Miss Sarah Sims, who was born in Middle 
Tennessee, being a daughter of Chesley and Mar}' 
Sims, also Tennesseeans by birth, the original 
stock coming from North Carolina. He lost his 
wife in 1870, and the same year was married in 
Greene County, Ark., to Mrs. Amanda (Allisson) 
Shearer, who had two children by her former hus- 
band, both of whom are married. Of seven chil- 
divn born to Mr. McHaney' s first union only one 
is now living, Sarah, wife of Mr. Mc(Tlumphy, of 
Marion County, 111. By his last wife he is the 
father of four children: John Lafayette, James 
Thomas, Almeda Alice and Minnie Estelle. The 
first named died at the age of five years. Mr. 
McHaney has seen many changes take place in 
Greene County, and has done his share in devel- 
oping the same. He was a member of and assisted 
in organizing the first church in the township, 
which is now in a nourishing condition. He has 
been a patron of education, and donated the land 
for his home school building, and was one of a 
committee to re-district Greene County, and name 
the townships, giving the name of Friendship 
to the township in which he is now living. He 



has been a justice of the peace here for over 
twenty years. Socially he has been a member of 
Gainesville Lodge No. 168, in the town of Gaines- 
ville, and is also a member of the Agricultural 
Wheel. Mr. McHaney enlisted in the .army in the 
latter part of 1864, and was captain of Company 
C, DeVee's Battalion, Kitchens' Division, and 
oj)erated in Missouri and Arkansas, and was with 
Price on his raid through Missouri, Indian Terri- 
tory, Kansas and Arkansas. He left the company 
at Fort Smith, Ark., and with a number of others 
returned home and resumed farming. 

LaFayette McHaney is one of the sturdy sons 
of the soil of Greene County, Ark., who has won 
his property by the sweat of his brow and by good 
management. He and his parents, William and 
Sarah (Word) McHaney, were born in Tennessee, 
his birth occurring in Wilson County in 1837. 
When the latter was three years old he was taken 
by his parents to Marion County, 111., where the 
father died in 1851 at the age of sixty-six years, 
and the mother in 1880. aged seventy- nine years. 
The father was a Democrat and he and wife were 
members of the Baptist Church. They had a 
family of thirteen children, ten of whom lived to 
be grown and seven are yet living. LaFayette was 
the eleventh child, and attained his majority in 
Marion County, 111. His youthful days were spent 
on a farm and in attending the common schools, 
and after attaining his twenty-second year he 
taught one term of school of nine months, later 
o-oinor to Tennessee, whore he was maiTied. In 
January, 1861, he came to Arkansas and joined 
the Confederate army, serving as first lieutenant, 
and was captured on the 4th of July, 1S63. at 
Helena, Ark., and was taken to Johnson's 
Island, Ohio, where he was kept a prisoner from 
August of that year to January, ISC),"), when he 
was exchanged and returned home. In February, 
1865, he began teaching school, continuing twenty 
months, and the rest of his timi> has been devoted 
to his farm. He first located southeast of (xaines- 
ville, but in 1881 came to his present farm, of 
which he has about 200 acres under cultivation. 
He raises considerable stock. His wife, whose 
name was Nancv C. Thorne, was l)orn in Tennes- 



:?; 



^ 
'T 



see. and when a child moved to Gibson County, of 
the same State, where she was married. The fol- 
lowing are their children: William W., John T.. 
Avey Ann (wife of William Russell). John H., 
Robert L.. Samuel P.. Onia A., Susan A. A., Mel- 
vin M. . Maude and Claude (twins), and Edward 
E. Henry L. died from the effects of a fall, at 
the age of seven years. Mr. McHaney is a Demo- 
crat, has been a Master Mason for two years, and 
he and wife are members of the Baptist Church, 
in which he has been a deacon for twelve years. 

James K. P. McKelvey. whose success in life 
is mainly diie to his industry and perseverance, 
coupled with a pleasant, genial disposition, is a na- 
tive of Franklin County, Tenn., born in 1844, being 
the son of John and Mary Ann (McKelvey) Mc- 
Kelvey, natives of South Carolina. The parents 
came to Franklin County, Tenn.. in their youth- 
ful days, were reared in that county, and were 
married there about 1842. In 1850 they moved 
to Benton County, Tenn., and there remained un- 
til 1863, when they located in Union County, 111. 
In the fall of 1865, they came to Lawrence 
County, Ark., settling on a farm where they re- 
mained about one year, and afterward moved to 
Carroll County, thence to Sebastian County, where 
the father died in 1874, at the age of fifty-five 
years. He practiced medicine the later part of 
his life; was a self-made man, and a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, of which 
he was a minister for twenty-two years before his 
death. He was very successful in administering 
to the physical as well as the spiritual wants of 
his fellow-men. and his face was welcomed in the 
homes of all, and especially in the homes of the 
sick and aiflicted. He was a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, a Democrat in politics, and a 
strong advocate of free schools. He was a very 
popular man, but never aspired to office. The 
mother is still living in Sebastian County, Ark., 
on the home place. She was born in 1825, and 
has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, for many years. To their union 
were born thirteen children, twelve of whom grew 
to maturity; Loxiisa E., James K. P., Mary J., 
Martha F., who died at the age of thirty eight 



years; George N., died at the age of thirtj' years: 
Elizabeth Ann, William H., Millie H.. John G., 
died at the age of thirteen years; fsaac N., Joseph 
T. , Aaron A. and Luther W. Aaron A. is now 
attending the St. Louis Medical College. James 
K. P. McKelvey was reared in his native county, 
and received limited educational advantages. In 
1864 he commenced farming for himself in Illinois, 
but one year later returned to Tennessee, to the 
old home place, where he I'emained until 1873, 
and then moved to Greene County, Ark. He 
located west of Gainesville, and soon after went 
to Sebastian County, to settle the estate of his 
father, where he remained until the fall of 1876, 
then returning and settling on his present prop- 
erty. He has 100 acres under cultivation, and is 
a thriving, industrious farmer. He was married, 
in the fall of 1863, to Miss Ferlissa A. Swindle, a 
native of Tennessee, bom in 1848, and the fruits 
of this union were ten children, all living: Will- 
iam T. , a student at the State University of Fay 
etteville, Ark. ; Italy, John, Alonzo, Horace and 
Hervey (twins), Adolphus L. , Anna L. , Clara M. 
and James R. Italy is the wife of L. C. Rudesial. 
Mr. and Mrs. McKelvey are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, of which he 
is local deacon; he was ordained in 1879, and com- 
menced preaching in 1874. He is a Royal Arch 
and Master Mason, belonging to the Blue Lodge 
at Gainesville, and has served as Worshipful Mas- 
ter for several years. He has a dimit from Duval 
Chapter, No. 65. He is a Democrat in politics. 
His father was a Union man during the war, and 
was opposed to secession. Mr. McKelvey is a 
strong advocate of the free school system, but has 
never sought political prominence. 

Dr. J. G. McKenzie. Among the many suc- 
cessful farmers and practitioners of the ' ' healing 
art" in Greene County, Ark., de.serving of spec- 
ial mention, is Dr. McKenzie, who was born in 
Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1851, and is the third in a 
family of seven children born to Alexander and 
Jeanette (Patterson) McKenzie, the former of 
whom was engaged in commercial pursuits, and 
conducted a boot and shoe factory. The Doctor 
attended school in his native land until nineteen 



^' 



GREENE COUNTY. 



159 



years of age, then entered tlie Alton Medical 
Collefje for a course of two years, after wbicli 
he took a finishing course of six months at the 
Itush Medical College, in 1878. Subseijuently he 
emigrated to the United States, and after remain- 
ing in New York City for some time, made a tour 
of the great lakes, and settled in Canada for 
about one year. He then went to the State of 
Illinois, and engaged in practicing the medical 
]irofessiou at Dresdon, in partnership with Dr. 
Rhodes, making his next move to Cotton Plant, 
in Southeast Missouri, and about one year later 
went to Kennett, and was associated with Dr. Har- 
vey for another year. After following his profes- 
sion in Northeastern Arkansas for some time he 
came to his present location about lS7f), purchased 
one acre of land, erected a residence, and here has 
since made his home. He has added eight and 
one half acres to his home lot, and has bought 
eighty acres of good farming land in one tract, be- 
sides eighty acres in the Cache River bottoms, 
making the last purchase in 1887. Fifty acres of 
land are cleared and under cultivation, and the rest 
is devoted to stock raising, in which he is quite ex- 
tensively engaged, making a specialty of horses 
and mules. The Doctor's practice is very large, 
and although he has lived in Greene County a 
comparatively short time, he is well and fav- 
orably known. He is also doing a commercial 
l)usiness among his friends and neighbors, and is a 
stockholder in the First National Bank of Greene 
County. He votes with the Democratic party, and 
in 1885 was postmaster of Crowley. In 188G the 
Doctor mfide a trip to Europe and visited his old 
home and the Edinburgh Exposition, which was 
being held at that time. He returned to the 
United States after al)Out a month fully convinced 
that this country was the easiest and best in which 
to acfjuire a competence. He was manied in 
November. 1878, to Miss Cynthia Ann Pevehouse, 
a native of Arkansas, and by her is the father of 
five cliildreu: Willie Alexander, Jessie Odel, who 
died at the age of six years: James, Maggie and 
Hoger Q. Dr. McKenzie's father is deceased, but 
his mother, two sisters and two brothers are living 
in retirement at Aberdeen. A brother, John G. . 



is chief engineer on a line of steamships sailing 
between Shanghai and Hong Kong. He also has 
an uncle who is captain on the ocean, and sails be- 
tween Liverpool and New Orleans. 

Judge L. L. Mack, attorney at law. The firm 
of Mack & Son is one of the leading and most 
influential at the bar in the city of Paragould. and 
gives strength to the fi'aternity. The gentlemen 
composing it are admirably adapted to the honor 
able prosecution of this most exalted of profes- 
sions, and possess that easy and interested grace of 
manner not easily acquired by the majority. Judge 
L. L. Mack was born in Maury County, Tenn., on 
the 18th of December, 1817, and is the son of Lem- 
uel D. and Mary (Taylor) Mack, natives of Rock- 
ingham County, N. C, and of Wake County, N. C, 
respectively. The parents emigrated to Teimessee 
when single, were there married and located in 
Maury County, of that State, where they remained 
for several years, and then removed to Wayne 
County, also in that State. In 1851 they removed 
to (Jreene County, Ark., locating near Gainesville, 
where they passed the remainder of their days. 
They lie buried in the cemetery at Gainesville. 
They were the parents of eleven children, of whom 
our subject Ls the eldest. He was Iwrii a cripple, 
and on that account it was thought that he would 
never amount to anything. He was reared and 
educated in Maury C!ounty, Tenn.. receiving an 
ordinary education, ami after his school day's work 
was over he l)egan the study of law, a part of the 
time with a preceptor and a portion without any. 
When in his twenty-first year he was admitted 
to the bar in Maury County, although living in 
Wayne County, and practiced in the last named 
county for about twelve years. In the year 1844 
he was elected county clerk, and filled this position 
with credit for four years. He became very 
prominently identified with the whole section of 
country for many miles. He was a candidate for 
the legislature from Wayne County, but was de- 
feated by forty -four votes. In December. 1850, 
he landed in Greene County, Ark., with his family, 
and in October of the following year settled at 
Gainesville, then the county seat. Here he began 
the struggle for life and reputation. Previous t« 



'f' 



•t 



1C)(I 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



this, in 1844, \w niarried Miss Felicia Cypert, a 
a sister of Judge Cypert, and became the father of 
eleven children, nine now living. They are named 
as follows: Rol)ert P., an attorney; Allen P.. also 
an attorney; William N. , aj>hysician; Messilla B., 
wife of P. H. Cren.shaw: EmmaW., wife of Judge 
James E. Riddiek; McCall, Thomas C. Idella A. ; 
and Sarah J. After locating in Greene County, 
Ark., he found his money scarce though a good 
sized family depended upon him for support. He 
had a little library and set to work in earnest in the 
practice of his profession, notwithstanding there 
was very little to be done in those days. How- 
ever he held on to what little there was, and in 
1855 he was elected prosecuting attorney from the 
First district, and on next election was defeated. 
In November, 1860, he was elected to the legisla- 
ture and served during that session, but later i 
resigned and was a candidate for prosecuting 
attorney fi-om the Third district. He was elected 
and served one term. In the year 1865 he was 
elected circuit judge of the same circuit and 
went off under reconstruction in 1868. In 1874 
he was elected circuit judge of the Second circuit 
without opposition, and held one term of four 
years. He was re-elected in 1878 and served until 
1882. Since that time he has turned his attention 
to his practice. The most of his life has been 
spent in serving tiie public, and in that capacity 
he has given entire satisfaction, meriting the 
respect and admiration of all by his firmness and 
advancement. As a lawyer he is a ready and 
fluent speaker, and has l>ut few superiors. A sin- 
gular, circumstance of the family is that there were 
eleven children in his father's family, of whom 
the subject of this sketch is the eldest, and eleven 
children in the wife's family, she being the young- 
est. The Judge is also the father of eleven chil- 
dren. Theie were twenty-three grandchildren 
born, and twenty-two are living at the present 
time. Judge Mack is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity and also the I. O. O. F. He and wife 
belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Kuf us A. Markham, M. D. , an energetic prac- 
titioner, is recognized throughout this State as a 
friend of and laborer in the cause and advance- 



ment of the medical profession, and has acquired 
a flattering reputation as a physician. He was 
born in Orange County, N. C. (now Durham 
County), in 1848, and is a son of Benjamin and 
Rhoda (Pritchard) Markham, who were born in 
North Carolina. The father was the eldest of nine 
children and grew to matiirity in his native State, 
after which he emigrated we.stward to Tennessee, 
where he was engaged in teaching school for some 
time. He returned to the old home place, and at 
the age of forty years located within three miles 
of the old home, where he lived until his death, in 
1866, at the age of sixty-three years, rearing there 
a family of five children, all of whom are living. 
His wife was born in 1807 and died in 1861, and 
she, as well as her husband, was a member of the 
Baptist Church, the latter being a deacon in the 
same for twenty years. The grandfather was bom 
and reared in the Carolinas, and the great grand- 
father was a soldier in the Revolutionary War: he 
reared a large family of children. He lived to be 
over ninety years of age, and had several sons who 
also lived to extreme old age, one lacking seven 
days of b(>ing ninety-nine years old at the time of 
his death. Dr. Rufus A. Markham' s brothers and 
sisters are as follows: Eliza Ann, Felix G., James 
D. and Martha J. Dr. Markham remained at 
home until the death of his parents and acquired a 
fair education in the district schools and at Dur- 
ham, N. C. In 1870 he came to West Tennessee 
and the following year removed to Greene County, 
Ark. In 1874 he went to Texas, where he en- 
gaged in teaching school. After returning to Ar- 
kansas he was appointed, in 1876, to the office of 
deputy clerk of Greene County. In 1878 he began 
the study of medicine under Dr. M. V. Cam)), 
now of Walnut Ridge, Ark., and soon after entered 
the Missouri Medical College, of St. Louis, from 
which institution he graduated in 1885, though 
previous to graduating he bf.d practiced in Greens- 
boro from 1880 until 1884. After graduating he 
came to Gainesville, where he has since been en- 
gaged in the active practice of his profession, and 
is ranked among the leading ph3'sicians of the 
county. He was married in the fall of 1880 to 
Miss Maggie Steadman, who was born in Chatham 



.JL S> 



l^ 



GREENE COUNTY. 



Kil 



("onnty, N. C. in 1845, and died in October, 1888, 
having become tl>e mother of three children : Ed- 
ward L. , James C. and Rufus P. The last child 
died in infancy, soon after the mother's death. 
She was an active worker and member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. The Doctor is a 
member of the Baptist Church. He belongs to 
the A. F. & A. M. , and is in every respect a self- 
made man. 

W. H. Martin, a fanner of Blue Cane Town- 
ship, was born in Caldwell County, N. C, in 1832, 
and is the son of William R. and Anna (Hood) 
Martin, who were of English and Scotch ancestry 
respectively, and were natives and farmers of the 
••Old North State." W. H. Martin resided in his 
native State until sixteen years of age, when he left 
home and went to Union County, 111., where he 
engaged in the sawmill business as a hand sawyer. 
He was married there in 1856 to Mary Jane Hart- 
line, a daughter of John and Margaret (Kendel- 
mau) Hartline. who were among the pioneer set- 
tlers of that county and State, from North Caro- 
lina. The father was a farmer by occupation and 
died some years ago. The mother is still living. 
Mr. Martin remained in Illinois until INGti, when 
he went to Texas, where he purchased an im- 
proved farm and remained until the fall of IS'iU. 
Selling his property, he came to Greene County, 
purchasing an improved farm on Crowley's Ridge. 
Here his wife died in 1880, having borne a family 
of six children, three of whom survive: Willis 
A., Walter L., and Eliza Jane. The latter is the 
wife of C. L. Sides, and resides on Crowley's 
Ridge. In the fall of 1880 Mr. Martin married 
Mrs. J. F. Lewis, a widow of Jacob Lewis, of 
Stodihud County. Mo.: he was reared in Illinois, 
where he resided on a farm until 1809, when he 
came to Greene County, Ark., and l)ought eighty 
acres of land, which he improved and added to. 
He was conservative in politics. He died in 1871) 
and left his widow with two children to care for: 
William Franklin and Myrtle May. Mr. Martin 
owns lands to the amoiuit of 480 acres, 200 being 
under cultivation, and has taken an interest in 
fruit culture, having on his home farm a tine or- 
chard. He raises and buys considerable stock. 



and is one of the successful farmers of the county. 
He votes with the Democratic party, and has been 
a member of the school board ever since his resi 
dence in Arkansas. Socially, he is a member of 
the A. F. & .\. M., Danley Lodge No. 8, and is 
a member of the Kniglits of Honor, at Rector. He 
and wife are members of the Missionary Baptist 
Church, and are the jjarents of one chihl: Edgar 
C. Mr. Martin has seen many changes in the 
growth and ])rosperity of the county since coming 
here; he often wont to Cape Girardeau, a distance 
of 125 miles, to do his marketing, when now it is 
only necessary to go a very few miles to obtain all 
the articles one desires. 

J. R. Miller, deputy circuit and county clerk, 
and a prominent educator of the county for a num- 
ber of years, was born in Gordon County, Ga., 
April 8, 1856, and came to Greene County, Ark., 
in 1879. His father. W. W. Miller, was a native 
of South Carolina, where he followed agricultural 
pursuits for some time, and, when a young man. 
moved to Georgia. Here he was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Amelia Erwiii, a native of the last 
mentioned State and the daughter of James Erwin. 
The grandparents, Archibald and Hannah Miller, 
were of English stock. After coming to Greene 
County, Ark., J. R. Miller engaged in agricultural 
pursuits, which had been his principal occupation 
while in Georgia, and h(? has also been occupied in 
the teacher's profession for several years. He set- 
tled oh a farm near Gainesville, cultivating sixty 
acres or more, and has a fine residence. He was 
married December 26, 1883, to Miss Mattie Hamp- 
ton, daughter of M. B. and M. C. (Stevenson) 
Hampton, of Greene County, formerly of Shell)y 
County, Tenn. One child is the result of this un- 
ion, a daughter, named Minnie May. The mother 
of Mr. Miller makes her home with him. In his 
political views he atHIiates with the Democratic 
party, and in January. 1889, he was appointed to 
the position of deputy circuit clerk l>y Mr. T. B. 
Kitchens. Mr. and Mrs. Miller are members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. South. 

James F. Newberry, apromiiuMit and highly re- 
spected farmer of Greene County, was born in Ala 
bama in 1844, and is the son of John Newberry, 



who came to this State in 1854. Here he engaged 
in farming and was for two years justice of the 
peace. At the breaking out of the Civil War he 
entered the Confederate service under Gen. Joseph 
E. Johnston, and was killed in 1862. He reared a 
family of six children, five sons and one daughter. 
James F. Newberry was in the Confederate service 
during the entire war, and was wounded in the left 
leg. In 1864 he returned to his farm in Greene 
County, and devoted himself to its improvement. 
He then owned 100 acres, which he has since in- 
creased to 425. A part of his farm is under 
cultivation, and he is also interested in raising 
cattle and tine mules. He married Marj' Mor- 
gan, who bore him six children and died in 1880, 
aged thirty years. He chose as his second wife 
Mrs. Charity (Dennis) Ross, and to their union 
have been given four childi-en. The nine chil- 
dren are: Robert E., born in 1865; Martha C, 
born in 1867, died in 1880; Sarah F., born in 
1870; John E., born in 1872; Isabella, born in 
1874: Laura E. , born in 1881; James J., born 
in 1883, died in 1884: Jennie B., born in 1885, 
and Myrtle G., born in 1887, died in 1889. Mr. 
Newberry is a stanch Democrat in politics, and 
he and his wife are popular in the community 
in which they live. 

W. C. Newberry is in every way worthy of 
being classed among the prosperous planters of 
Greene County, Ark. He was born in Weakley 
County, West Tenn., in 1852, and was the sixth 
of eleven children born to Samuel and Nancy 
(Trantham) Newberry, the former a native of 
North Carolina, and the latter of Tennessee. In 
1854 they moved to Greene County, Ark., and 
settled near the farm on which W. C. Newberry 
is now residing, where they entered land and re 
sided until their respective deaths, the father's 
demise occurring in February, 1874, and the 
mother's in 1883. They took quite an important 
part in the early history of the country, and the 
father assisted in organizing the county. W. C. 
Newberry received his early education in the dis- 
trict schools of Greene County, and aided at home 
in opening up his father's farm. He was married 
in Greene County, in 1872, to Miss Martha Jane 



McHaney, who was born in Arkansas, and is a 
daughter of John and Sally (Sims) McHaney. 
Tennesseeans. Mr. Newberry soon located on his 
present farm of 120 acres, about tifty five acres of 
which he has cleared and put under cultivation. 
He has added to his original purchase until he now 
has 200 acres of as good land as there is in the 
county, with 110 under the plow, the principal 
products of which are corn and cotton. Mr. New- 
berry is inde])endent in jiolitics, and is not an office- 
seeker. In 1874 he lost his wife, and four years 
later he was married to Mary H. Hartso, of Arkan- 
sas. His first union was blessed by one sou, 
Samuel; and his last by four children: Luther, 
Clifton, Charley and Tuler. His wife is a daugh- 
ter of William and Sarah (McFarland) Hartso, 
who came to Arkansas at an early day. The 
father is still living, but the mother is deceased. 
Mr. Newberry has been active in aiding <ill laud- 
able enterprises, and is one of the self made men 
of the county. 

John Nntt, fanner and stock raiser, of Greene 
County, Ark., is one of its foremost men in the 
support of all measures for its progress and devel- 
opment. He was born in Shelby County, Tenn. , 
and grew to manhood on his father's farm, there 
receiving his education in the county schools. 
His father. William Nutt, was a native of Alabama, 
and moved from that State to Tennessee in 1827. 
There he engaged very successfully in farming, 
and, being a minister of the gospel, devoted much 
time to his Master's cause. He reared a family 
of eleven children, four of whom are yet living. 
All his life he was faithful to his ideas of right 
and duty, and died in 1844. John Nutt has dur- 
ing his life engaged in farming, and now owns 520 
acres of splendid land in this county, and 600 acres 
in Lawrence County. He has given some attention 
to stock-raising, and now has many good horses and 
mules. To him and wife have been born six chil 
dren, and five of them have grown to manhood 
and womanhood. They are three sons and two 
daughters: William C. , George W., Sampson M. , 
Lavina E. and Nancy Ann. Mr. Nutt is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic order, and he and wife are 
worthy members of the Baptist Church. 



^^ 



GREENE COUNTY. 



H)8 



John M. Nutt. The fine quality of the soil in 
(Ireene County, Ark. , added to energy and good 
management, ha.s placed Mr. Nutt among the pros- 
perous farmers of the community. He was boru 
on the old homestead near his own farm on the 
14th of January, 1863, being the eleventh of four- 
teen children born to W. G. and Sarah (Ellis) 
Nutt, the former a native of Alabama, and the 
latter of Maryland. The father came with his 
parents to what is now Greene County in 1839, 
and settled with them on a farm near Gainesville, 
where the parents died. He was married in 
Greene County and became a very wealthy farmer, 
being the owner of 2, 500 acres of land, with 600 
acres under cultivation. He always votes with 
the Democratic party, and socially is a member of 
Gainesville Lodge No. 168. He is a member of 
the Baptist Church, and his wife is a Methodist. 
The maternal grandfather was a very early resi- 
dent of Arkansas, and was a soldier in the Mexican 
war. John M. Nutt has always resided in Greene 
County, and in liis youth attended the common 
schools; this with a few years spent at Howell, Mo., 
has enabled him to successfully cope with tickle 
fortune. When first starting out in life for him- 
self he began tilling the soil on the farm where he 
now lives, his acreage amounting to 167 J, eighty 
acres being under the plow. The most of this he 
cleared himself, and nOw has one of the best farms 
in the county. He was married in Greene County 
in 1887 to Miss Lulu, a daughter of W. G. But- 
ternut aud wife, nee Skiles, all being natives of 
Tennessee, who came to Greene County in 1871. 
The parents are living in the county. Mr. Nutt 
always votes the Republican ticket, but is not a 
seeker after office, and has ever been deeply inter- 
ested in educational matters. His wife is a mem- 
ber of the Baptist Church. Their union has been 
blessed in the birth of one child : Ivery. 

John Odam is of the mercantile firm of McCon- 
nell & Odam, Parat;ould. In scannine the sketches 
of Greene County, Ark., one fact must strike the 
reader with peculiar force: the high standing at- 
tained by its business men. It is known to have 
a thoroughly (pialified business population, and 
Mr. Odam is a leading light among the number. 



He was born in Hardin County, 111.. August Ti, 
1832, and received such educational advantages as 
the schools of those days afforded. Until thirty- 
three years of age he assisted his father on the 

; farm, and then went to Crittenden County, Ky., 

i where he was engaged in the hotel and lumber 
business for about ten years. After this he went 
to Dyer County, Tenn., there following saw- 
milling, having a mill built on a steamboat, and 

I taking the timber from the river. He was also 
occupied in merchandising for about four years. 
In January, 1888, he came to Paragould, Ai-k. , 
where he bought his present property and immedi- 
ately embarked in the mercantile business under 
the present firm name. He carries a good stock 
of general merchandise and has a thriving trade. 
He was married in 1S62, but lost his wife the fol- 

I lowing year. He is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, having joined that order in 1862. Mr. 
Odam's parents, Cleyburn and Mary (McConnell) 
Odam, were natives of Middle Tennessee and 
Maysville, Ky. , respectively. The mother emi- 
grated from Kentucky to Illinois in 1816, when 
the last named State was a Territory, and the 
father came to the same State about 1 820. They 
were mai-ried there and located in Hardin County, 
where the father successfully cultivated the soil. 
He died August 5, 1834, of Asiatic cholera. In 
their family were two children: John and Sarah, 
wife of Thomas McConnell. After the death of her 
husband Mrs. Odam married Mr. Commodore P. 
Tadlock, by whom she had five children, three 
now living: Edward J., Jonathan L., and Nancy J. 
The mother died in 1858. 

John O'Steen, ex-county and probate judge, 
and merchant, Paragould. In these days of 
money-making, when life is a constant struggle 
between right and wrong, it is a pleasure to lay 
before an intelligent reader the unsullied record 
of an honorable man. To the youthful it will be 
a useful lesson— an incentive to honest industry. 
John O' Steen was born in Panola County. Miss., 
on Ajn-il 27, 1845, and is the son of Harvey and 
Elizabeth (True) O'Steen, both of Scotch origin. 
The parents were married in Alaliania, and in 
1834 removed to Panola County, Miss., wher- tli.' 



® fc^ 



KU 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



mothor died in 1S52. Tlip father passed his last 
days in Craighead County, Ark., dying there in 
1865. Of the seven children born to this mar- 
riage, three are now living: Mary, wife of W. G. 
Starling; John, and Samuel. The father was a 
blacksmith, and also a gunsmith, which occupation 
he followed up to the time of his death. John 
O'Steen was partly reared and educated in Panola 
County, Miss., but moved with his father to Craig- 
head County, Ark., in 18511. He went to work in 
the shop, learning the gunsmith trade of his father, 
and now has the reputation of being the finest 
gunsmith in Northeast Arkansas. In 1862, during 
the late war, he was very anxious to become a sol- 
dier, but could not obtain the consent of his par- 
ents. His mind was so wrapi)ed up in it that, 
notwithstanding all obstacles, he ran away from 
home, and enlisted in Capt. Adair's company, 
serving about three years. He was in several hard 
skirmishes, but, on account of being a cripple, he 
could not keep up with his command, and in con- 
sequence was captured by scouts, who kept him in 
custody about two weeks. In 1870 he chose for 
his partner in life Miss Bethany A. Jones, a native 
of Alabama, and the fruits of this union were two 
children: Mary A. and Nora Inez. The same year 
of his marriage Judge O'Steen came to Greene 
County. Ark., and carried on his trade until 1888. 
when he sold out. and engaged in the mercantile 
business, which he still continues. He was elected 
probate and county judge in 1882, and re-elected 
in 1884 and 1886. thus serving six successive 
years. Prior to his election he served four years 
as justice of the peace, and served one term as 
constable. Judge O'Steen is one of the prominent 
men of Greene County, and may be counted among 
the pioneers, having been a resident here for thirty 
years. He is the owner of 16(1 acres of land, with 
about forty acres under cultivation. He is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic fraternity, and also of the I. 
O. O. F. 

Eugene Parrish. of the law firm of Crowley & 
Parrish. was born in Dover, Stewart (Jonnty, Tenn., 
and is the son of Abraham P. and Mary M. (In- 
gram) Parrish, natives respectively of Virginia and 
Tennessee. Abraham P. Parrish emigrated to 



Tennessee when quite small, grew to manhood in 
that State, and there received a liberal education. 
For many years before the war he ran a fvu'nace at 
Dover, Tenn., but during that eventful period he 
was financially crippled and retired to a farm in 
Humphreys County, on the banks of the Tennessee 
River, where he is residing at the present time. 
He is now in his seventy second year. The mother 
died when Eugene Parrish was quite young. Of 
the children born to this marriage, two are now 
living: Charles and Eugene. After the death of 
his first wife Mr. Parrish, was married again and 
became the father of three children: Lamar, 
Walter L. and Daisy. Grandfather Parrish was 
a soldier in the Revolutionary War. and died in 
Virginia. Eugene Parrish was princijiall)' i^eared 
in Tennessee, and received his education at West 
Kentucky College and at the University of Ohio, ob- 
taining the means to prosecute his studies by teach- 
ing school between terms until he completed his 
education. He was admitted to the bar at Jonesboro 
in 18S4, located at Wittsburg, Cross County, and 
there remained until June, 1885, when ho settled 
at Paragoiild, Ark. He was associated with J. D. 
Block, present prosecuting attorney at Wittsburg, 
and, on coming to Paragould, he formed a partner- 
ship with B. H. Crowley, the present senator of 
the First district, and a very noted and prominent 
man. This law firm has one of the finest libraries 
in Northeast Arkansas, and both members are men 
of ability. Mr. Parrish is a self made, self-edu- 
cated man. and is well fitted for the profession he 
has chosen. 

Seth W. Peebles, one of the many successful 
agriculturists and stock raisers of Greene County, 
Ark., and one who has attained wealth by the 
sweat of his brow, is classed among the prosper- 
ous men of the county. He was born in North 
Carolina in 1825, and is the eldest one of the 
family of six children born to the marriage of 
Wyatt and Nancy (Biggs) Peebles, who were born 
in North Carolina and emigrated to Virginia, where 
they were engaged in husbandry. The mother 
died in that State, and subsequently the father 
emigrated to Greene County, Ark., and in 1842 
settled near Greensboro, where he became well and 




favorably known, and served as sheriff of the 
county six years. He died in December, 1876. 
Seth W. Peebles has been familiar with farm life 
from earliest youth, and received his education in 
the schools of Virginia. He began his independent 
career as a farmer in 1846, in Tennessee, and was 
married there in December of the following year 
to Miss Catherine Mingle, a native of Virginia, and 
a daughter of William and Rebecca (Kagley) Min- 
gle, who were also Virginians and early emigrants 
to Tennessee, in which State the father died. His 
wife's death occurred in Arkansas in 1864. Mr. 
Peebles became a resident of Greene County, Ark., 
in 1855, and in 1859 bought a partially improved 
farm in Union Township, consisting of 160 acres, of 
which he improved and cleared forty acres. Besides 
this property he owns the old homestead of 117 
acres, sixty of which are under cultivation. He has 
always been interested in [wlitics and has aflMiated 
with the Democratic party, but is not an office- 
seeker. He has been a member of the school 
board several times and assisted in the re- organiza- 
tion of the townships. In 1872 his wife died, 
having borne a family of six children: Nancy Jane, 
Rebecca E., who died in February, 1S77, the wife 
of Joel Dollins; George W., who died in 1886; ! 
John M., who died in October, 1878; Sarah Ann. 
wife of J. P. Walls, who died in 1880; and James 
L.. who also died in 1880. In 1863 Mr. Peebles 
enlisted in Company K. Seventh Missouri Con- 
federate cavalry, and was with Price on his raid 
through Missouri, Kansas, etc. He was wounded I 
in the Mine Creek light in Kansas, receiving a gun- 
shot through the right lung. Since the war he 
has been engaged in farming. He is a consistent 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
Wiley Pevehouse. In giving a sketch of this 
gentleman it is but fair to say that he is one of the 
prominent farmers of Greene County, Ark., and 
that h(> is a man of sound judgment and unim- 
j)eachable honesty. He was born on Crowley's 
Ridge, in Greene County, on the '2d of July, 1828, 
being the second child born there, his brother 
William, whose birth occurred April 7, 1826, hav- 
ing been tirst. He was the fourth child of Abraham 
and Polly (Crowley) Pevehouse, who came to 



Arkansas at an early day. [For a history of the 
Crowley family see sketch of Hon. B. H. Crowley. ] 
After spending a year on Black River they came 
to Crowley's Ridge, and made the first settlement 
in Northeast Arkansas. The paternal grandjiar 
ents were of Virginia stock, and moved from that 
State to South Carolina, and thence to Kentucky, 
of which section they were pioneers, about 1822 
coming to Arkansas. The parents of our subject 
died about 1835, and from that time up to man- 
hood he made his homo with his grandfather, Ben- 
jamin Crowley. The latter was a very extensive 
farmer and stock raiser, and Mr. Pevehouse drove 
stock all the way to St. Louis, and later to Mem- 
phis and Helena. During his childhood he de- 
pended on his own resources for a livelihood and 
hunted and sold his furs and hides, and later 
farmed in a small way. When about twenty years 
of age he entered land, subsequently buying small 
tracts from time to time, and in the spring of 18()1 
sold out aiid went to Scott County, where he re- 
mained about eighteen months, then returning to 
the Cache bottoms. When some twenty-five years 
of age he w;w married to Miss Margaret Ca])ps. a 
native of Arkansas, whose family were early set 
tiers in this section. She died in 1858, leaving 
two children: Sarah, who married a Mr. Harris, 
and died soon after, and Cynthia Ann, wife of Dr. 
McKinzie, now living at Crowley. Mr. Pevehouse 
took for his second wife Miss Frances Bowman, 
whom he married in 1860. Her death occurred on 
the 13th of October, 1870. She and Mr. Peve- 
house were the parents of the following children; 
William, who is married and resides in Lawrence 
County; Lucy Jane, the wife of George Gramling; 
John P., who died on the 81.st of March. 1SS8. at 
the age of twenty-two years: and Mary Elizabeth. 
February 16, 1873, Mr. Pevehouse married Mrs. 
Sarah Ann (Cooper) Allen, a native of Mississi])pi, 
who was reared in Tennessee, and came to Arkansas 
with her fiist husband, settling in Lawrence 
{'ouiity. In 1876 he purchased his ])resent pro]i 
erty of 160 acres, of which al>out five acres wen' 
cleared, and now has ninety-five acres in a tiIlHl>ii' 
condition and well imju'oved with good buildings, 
orchard, etc. His principal crops are corn and 



16() 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



cotton, and he gives much attention to stock 
raising of a good grade, and also to the culture of 
bees. He is public spirited, and has held the 
offices of de[)uty sheriff and county clerk. In 
1864 he enlisted in the Confederate army, and 
was with Price on his raid through Missouri, but 
being in poor health was left at Boonville. where 
he received good attention, and was soon after 
paroled and retm-ned home. The close of the war 
left him destitute, and since that time he has made 
his present property. 

I. H. Pillow, deputy sheriff, farmer and stock 
raiser of Greene County, Ark. , is a native of Giles 
County, Tenn., where he was born in 1851, being 
a son of Levi and Elizabeth (Willcockson) Pillow, 
also natives of that State. They came to Greene 
County, Ark., in 1851, settling on the farm 
on which the subject of this sketch is now living. 
The father made some valuable improvements on 
his place of 320 acres, and at the time of his death, 
in 1862, had cleared thirty acres from timber. In 
1862 he enlisted in Capt. Clemens" company. Gen. 
Pillow's brigade, and at the tight at Fort Pillow 
became overheated, from the effects of which he 
died seven days latei-. He was a Democrat polit- 
ically, a Methodist in religious belief, and was a 
man always noted for his public spirit and benevo- 
lence. He left a widow and three children to 
mourn his loss, the names of the latter being: I. 
H., Sina M., wife of F. F. Martin, a farmer of 
Greene County, and Sarah A. , wife of N. A. 
Danley, also u farmer of Greene County. Mrs. 
Pillow was left to care for her cliildren with but 
little means, but with the aid of her son, she suc- 
ceeded in doing well for them. I. H. Pillow re- 
ceived only a limited education in his youth, but, 
assisted by his mother, witli subsequent api)lica- 
tiou he has become a practical and intelligent 
business man. December 28, 1872, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Martha, a daughter of Absalom and 
Mary (Cobal) Arn(^I, Teunesseeans, and by hor be- 
came the father of two chUdi-en; Mary E. and 
Annie Elnora. Mrs. Pillow died on the 29th of 
September, 1875, and November 26, 1876, he 
wedded Mrs. Martha (Newsom) Wood, a daughter 
of Henry and Grace A. Newsom, natives of Mis- 



sissippi. To this last marriage four children have 
been born: Ida Lee, Joseph Henry, Thomas A. 
and Charley. Ninety acres of his 160-acre farm are 
under cultivation, and well improved and culti- 
vated. His orchard is large and well selected and 
his crop is usually extensive. He is interested in 
stock-breeding, and has a fine Norman and Morgan 
stallion. His cattle are of the Durham breed, and 
his hogs are Berkshire and Jersey. During the 
fall, for the past fifteen years, he has oi)erated a 
threshing machine. Mr. Pillow, his wife, and two 
daughters are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, in which he is a class leader, and in his 
political views he is a stanch Democrat, having 
been elected on that ticket, in 1887, to the office of 
deputy sheriff, which position he has very accept 
ably filled up to the present time. 

Robert \V. Pruet, a well known and successful 
farmer of the county, was born in East Tennessee 
in 1825, and is the third in a family of fifteen 
children born to Willis and Mary (Williams) Pruet, 
who were also Tennesseeans, the paternal and 
maternal grandparents being from North Carolina 
and Virginia, respectively. Grandfather Pruet 
was a participant in the Creek war, and was at the 
battle of Horseshoe Bend. The maternal grand- 
parents lived to be very old, reaching the age of 
ninety and one hundred years. Willis Pruet was an 
extensive land holder in Tennessee, and dealt in 
stock, being a prominent and influential citizen of 
his time. He died in August, 1850. Robert A\'. 
Pruet was reared to farm labor, attended the com- 
mon schools, and after attaining his majority en- 
gaged in stock dealing, and also kept a country store 
for some time. In 1851 be was married to a Miss 
Stuart, a native of Illinois, and in 1853, in com 
pany with three brothers, came to Northeast Ar- 
kansas and settled in Greene County, where he 
entered 120 acres, on which he at once located 
and began improving. In 1858 he sold his pro[)- 
erty with the intention of going to Texas, but in- 
stead purchased 160 acres of wild land in St. 
Francis Township, 100 acres of which he now has 
under excellent cultivation, furnished with good 
buildings and orchards. He devotes the most of 
his land to general farming, and raises cotton, corn, 



-IL. 



GREENE COUNTY. 



IftT 



and the smaller grains, the land yielding a good 
average. He is trying to improve his stock and is 
going to cross his cattle with Jersey. In 1872, in 
jsartnership with his brother, C D. Pruet, he 
opened a general store on his brother's fcarm, ami 
they carried on an extensive business for many 
years. In 1862 he and two brothers, with several 
brothers in-law, enlisted in the Twenty-fifth Ar- 
kansas Infantry, but he served only seven months, 
when he was discharged on account of illness, at 
Georgetown, Ky. In 1870 Mrs. Pruet died, and 
for several years Mr. Pruet resided with his 
brother. In 1877 he married Frances Owens, who 
was born in West Tennessee, though reared in Ar- 
kansas, to which State she was brought by her 
father. Dr. Owens, who practiced in this vicinity 
for a number of years, and died from an accidental 
fall from his horse. Mr. Pruet is an active 
worker in church and school matters, and is a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
the building in which he worships being on ground 
donated by himself; this was erected by means 
contributed mostly by the Pruet brothers. Mr. 
Pruet is one of the original members of the first 
church organized in this section in 1858. 

W. S. Pruet. Prominent among the much es- 
teemed and respected citizens of Paragould stands 
the name of Mr. Pniet, who was born in Koane 
County, Tenn. , September 27, 1829, and who is 
the son of Willis and Polly E. (Williams) Pruet, 
natives also of Roane County, Tenn. Willis Pruet 
was a very successful man, both as a farmer and 
speculator. He died in Memphis in 1851, while 
there on business. The mother died in ISdO. in 
Greene County, Ark. Their family consisted of 
fifteen children, nine of whom lived to be grown, 
but only two now living: Robert and Willis S. 
The paternal and maternal grandparents were na 
tives of Virginia and North Carolina, respectively, 
and were early settlers of Tennessee. The pater- 
nal great-grandfather was in the Indian wars. 
M'illis S. Pruet. the subject of this sketch, was 
reared on a farm in Roane Count}'. Tenn., and in 
that county received his education. In 1857 he 
came to Greene County, Ark. . when there were 
very few settlers, and when the city of Gainesville 



was represented by one business house and a clap- 
board hotel. He located about four miles south 
of what is now Paragould, on a farm in the forest, 
put up a little house, built of poles with clapboard 
roof, and lived in this style for about eighteen 
months, when his cabin burned down. He then 
put up a good log house, and lived there until 
1869, when he moved to his present location, join- 
ing the town of Paragould. He bought 27 1 acres 
of laud along the railroad, and the principal part 
of the town lies on his land. When he first came 
to the county he had but $ 1 . 50, and neither a cow 
nor horse; but ho was determined to make a start, 
and by his industry and perseverance has accom 
plished his pur|)ose, and is now one of the sub- 
stantial men of the locality. He has about 600 
acres of good land, and is also the owner of con 
siderable town proi)erty in Paragould. He con- 
tributes liberally to all worthy enterprises, and has 
been active in his endeavors to build up the town. 
In 1851 he married Miss Elizabeth Tucker, a na- 
tive of Alabama, by whom he has three children 
living: Julia, Sarah and Theresa. In 1862 Mr. 
Pruet enlisted in Capt. Pruet' s company, and 
served for three years. He was at the battles of 
Farmington, Murfreesboro, Richmond, Shiloh arid 
Jackson, Miss., and carried his brother, who was 
severely wounded, twice from the battle-field. He 
is a member of the lirm of D. D. Hodges & Co.. 
merchants of Paragould; is also dealing consider- 
ably in stock, and it may be noted that Mr. Pruet 
has been, and is. a leading spirit of the place. 
He and wife are members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. 

(Japt. Charles D. Pruet (deceased) was one of 
four brothers who came from Tennessee to Arkan- 
sas in 1857. and engaged in farming and stock 
raising, and various other enterprises. He was 
born in Roane County, Tenn., in 1827, and was 
married on the 28d of January, 1847, to Miss 
Caroline M. Nelson. After coming to Greene 
County, Ark., he entered a tract of laud on which 
he located and began improving. In 1S62 he 
joined the Confederate forces, being lieutenant <>f 
his company, and was soon after advanced to the 
rank of captain, and was in the army twenty two 




mouths, participating in the most of the battles in 
which the Army of the Cuuil)erland was enj^ageil. 
He was wounded in the engagement at Chicka- 
manga, and also at Mnrfreesboro, so severely in 
the latter battle that he was compelled to re- 
turn home. In 1870 he embarked in mercantile 
])ursuits on his farm, in partnership with his 
brother Robert, and did a thriving business there 
for ten years. In the fall of 1882 he started a 
general store in the then new town of Paragould. 
being one of the first merchants of the place, and 
was alone in business until 1886, when he formed 
a partnership with D. D. Hodges, and the firm 
name was changed to C. D. Pruet & Co.. remain- 
ing as such until Mr. Pruet' s death on the 20th 
of August. 1887. He was a prominent Mason, 
and was buried \>y that order. He operated a 
cotton gin on his farm for many years, and was 
engaged in stock raising and dealing. He left a 
fine farm of over 500 acres, the most of which was 
in a high state of cultivation, and also left behind 
him a name that will long be remembered, for he 
was honest, industrious and enterprising, and 
known to be a stanch supporter of church and 
educational institutions. He was well-known 
throughout the country as a man of unimpeachable 
honesty, and was possessed of exceptionally fine 
business qualifications, and natural characteristics 
which won the respect of all. He contributed 
the most of the means for the erection of a church 
near his home, and ilid much to build up the town 
of Paragould. being one of the best business men 
of the place. He was followed to his long home 
by numerous friends and neighbors who had 
known and loved him in life, and is now sleeping 
in the cemetery near the scene of his greatest 
usefulness. He was married in 1875 to Miss Irene 
McElwee. a native of Tennessee, who came to 
Arkansas with her mother in 1878. Her father, 
Samuel McElwee. was an extensive farmer and 
died in 18B5. Mrs. Pruet" s mother resides with 
her on the homestead in Arkansas. 

George M. Rosengrant, manufacturer of lum- 
ber and cooperage, Paragould. Ark. The business 
interests of this portion of the country are well 
represented by the subject of this sketch, George 



M. Rosengrant, who bas been located long enough 
at this i)lace to become firmly established. He 
was born in Wyandot County. Ohio, in October, 
1855, and is the son of James and Lenora (Con- 
nor) Rosengrant, both natives of the Buckeye 
State. The father was a large stock dealer, and 
is now deceased. George M. Rosengrant grew to 
manhood in Guernsey County, of his native State, 
received his education in the common schools, and 
subsequently attended the college at Antrim, Ohio. 
At the age of sixteen he began to learn telegraphy, 
which he continued for five years for the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company. He then engaged in 
the lumber business in Wyandot County, Ohio, 
where he caiTied on a good trade until 1884, when 
he came to Greene County, Ark., and located at 
Paragould. Here he established his present busi- 
ness and has been occupied in the manufacture of 
lumber ever since. He added the cooperage de- 
partment in the winter of 1888. He runs a large 
mill and employs on an average fifty men. In the 
year 1883 he chose Miss Kitty Jurenall, a native 
of Wyandot County, Ohio, for his companion in 
life. Mr. Rosengrant averages about $75,000 
annually from his mill business, and aside from 
this he is the owner of 5,000 acres of land, all of 
which has valuable timber thereon. He is a sub- 
stantial, representative business man, is a member 
of the Knights of Pythias, and a progressive, en- 
terprising citizen of the county. 

T. T. Ross. Few men have attained greater 
prominence in Greene County, in a social as well as 
business point of view, than has Mr. Ross, who by 
his pleasant and courteous manner has made many 
friends and built up a successful trade. He was 
born in Kentucky, in 1826, and is the son of Caleb 
and Alifal (Hutchison) Ross, and the grandson of 
William Ross, who was born in Maryland, and 
came to Kentucky at an early day. Caleb Ross was 
also a native of Maryland, and was there married 
to Miss Hutchison. T. T. Ross left his native 
State in 1873, emigrating to Greene Coimty. Ark., 
and locating on a farm two miles north of where 
Marmaduke is now standing. This land he opened 
up and improved eighty acres, erected buildings and 
remained on the same for about five years, when he 




sold out and moved to the village of Marmadvike. 
Here he has since been engaged in merchandising, 
and has built up a good trade. Ho has a conven- 
ient, substantial building for that purpose, two 
stories high, the upper portion of which is used for 
a dwelling. He was married, in Kentucky, to Miss 
Martha Coles Otey, who died, leaving two chil- 
dren: C. H. , who resides in Greene County, mar- 
ried, and the father of two children; and Susan, 
who married L. C. Harvey, a farmer of Greene 
County, and has two children. Mr. Ross was 
married to the sister of his lirst wife. Miss Eliza- 
beth Otey, and they are the parents of three chil- 
dren: Frances Orlena, wife of James Stone, re- 
sides one and a half miles from Marmaduke and 
has four childj-en; Margaret A., wife of A. B. Har- 
vey, is living in Marmaduke and keeps the hotel, 
also being engaged in farming, and has live chil- 
dren; and W. A., a merchant of Marmaduke. Mr. 
Ross is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and 
Evergreen Lodge of the I. O. O. ¥. He has been a 
member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church 
since eighteen years of age. 

Dr. Jefferson Davis Sibert, an eminent physician 
of Walcott, Greene County, Ark., was born in Ala- 
bama in 1858 and is the youngest of a family of six 
childien, born to the marriage of Henry Sibert and 
Dorcas Edwards, who were also born in Alabama, 
the former being an extensive farmer and mer- 
chant. The paternal grandfather, David Sibert, 
was engaged in farming in South Carolina and was 
a soldier in the Indian wars. He removed to Ala- 
bama in 1834 and bought extensive tracts of land 
in the northeast part of that State, on which he 
died in 1874 at the extreme old age of 100 
years. The maternal grandfather, Jesse Edwards, 
came to Alabama and also settled in the northeast 
part of the State. He purchased his lauds from 
the Indians, and was one of the most extensive real 
estate holders of the State. His death occurred 
in 1868. Henry Sibert, the father of our subject, 
was reared on a farm and did much to improve 
the large tracts of land bought by his father. At 
the breaking out of the late Civil War ho enlisted 
in the Third Alabama and .served throughout the 
struggle, thirteen months of this time being spent 
I I 



in prison. His uncle, Jeptha Edwards, was a col- 
onel in the Mexican War, also in the late war, and 
has represented his county in the State legisla- 
ture, being a well known citizen of Alabama. After 
the war Mr. Sibert engaged in farming and mer- 
cantile pursuits, and he and wife are now residing 
on the old homestead in Northeast Alabama. At 
the age of fourteen years. Dr. Jefferson Davis Si- 
bert entered Andrews' Institute and finished a 
course of five years, after which h<^ immediately 
began the study of medicine, entering the medical 
department of the Vanderbilt I'niversity, at Nash 
ville, Tenn., in 1880, and graduating as an M. D. 
in 1882. In the spring of that year he commenced 
practicing his profession near his old home, but 
came to Greene County, Ark. , at the end of one 
year. After residing here a year, he returned 
to his native State and practiced three years. Since 
that time he has j)ermanently located at Walcott, 
Ark., where he enjoys a large practice, and is be- 
coming well known in this, as well as other counties. 
He has a pleasant home in the town and is highly 
esteemed by his neighbors. In 1 887 he was united 
in marriage to Miss Victorine Crowley, a daughter 
of Capt. Crowley, whose sketch appears in this 
work. By her he has one child, a bright little 
daughter named Eleanor. The Doctor has two 
brothers who are practicing physicians of Alabama, 
and another brother who is an extensive farmer 
and stock raiser of that State. 

Joseph P. Smelser is classed among the worthy 
and leading tillers of the soil of Greene County, 
of which he is a native, having been born in 1858. 
He was a son of John W. and Nancy (Clark) Smelser, 
who were born on Kentucky soil and in Tennessee, 
respectivelj-. They came to Greene County, Ark. . 
on the 6th of May, 1836, and located in Cache 
Township, where the paternal grandfather, Abra- 
ham Smelser, settled on a tract of wild land and 
opened up 100 acres. He and wife reared a large 
family of children, and both died of smallpox in 
1863. John W. Smelser was their oldest child, 
and attained his majority in this section of the 
country. In 1864 he joined Price in his raid 
through Missouri, but since the war has given his 
attention to farming and merchandising at Crow- 



170 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



ley, he aud wife being memljers of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church at that place. To them were 
born seven children, three of whom are deceased. 
Joseph P. Smelser is their fifth chihl and grew to 
manhood in Cache Township, receiving a very 
limited education in his youth. At the age of 
twent}- years he began earning his own living, and 
was married to Miss Margaret Adams, residing on 
the old home place for eight years. He then came 
to his present location, which was then a tract of 
wild land, aud now has fifty acres under cultiva 
tion, improved with good buildings, etc. Although 
not active in politics, he votes the Democratic 
ticket, and he and wife are members of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, South. They are the 
parents of two children: John William and Nancy 
Ann Delvada, who died at the age of seven years, 
after a brief illness of five days. 

David A. Smith. In the space allotted in this 
volume it would be impossible to give a detailed 
account of the career of this gentleman, but it is 
only just to say that in his walk through life his 
course has been marked by honesty, industry, and 
a manly, independent spirit. His birth occurred 
in Middle Tennessee on the Sth of July. 182<), and 
he was the eldest in a family of twelve children 
born to Stantford and jMargaret (Tassey) Smith, 
who were natives of North Carolina and Alabama, 
respectively, and with their parents removed to 
Tennessee at an early day. where they met and 
married. In the fall of l-^'i.") they came to 
Greene County, Ark., and bought a tract of K3O 
acres of land which was in a wild stat(^ and on this 
they located, improved it. and resided here until 
187fi, when the father died. His wife's death 
occurred on April Sth, 1 874. David A. Smith was 
reared to manhood on this farm and, besides be- 
coming familiar with the details of farm work, 
learned the car])enter's trade of his father, fol- 
lowing this occupation in Tennessee and also after 
coming to Arkansas. He came to the latter vState 
at the same time of his parents' removal and bought 
UiO acres of wild land on Sugar Creek, on which 
he erected buildings, set out orchards, and cleared 
forty acres. After making this his home for about 
fifteen vears. he sold out and purchased liis present 



property on Crowley's Ridge, which consists of 
225 acres of land, !<•() of which are under cultiva- 
tion. He has cleared forty acres himself and has 
made other improvements, which goes to make his 
home one of the most valuable in the country. 
He does general farming, raising corn, the smaller 
cereals, and cotton. He also has a good apple 
and peach orchard. During the intervals between 
the farming seasons he has worked at the carpen- 
ter's trade, and has built most of the better class 
of houses in the township, among which are the 
residences of Capt. Crowley and Mrs. Boyd. Mr. 
Smith was married on the 6th of January. 1858. 
to Miss Margaret Pevehouse, a native of Arkansas, 
l)y whom he became the father of six children, 
four of whom are living: William W. C, Sarah 
Ann, who died at the age of twenty years: Mary 
Elizabeth, who died when one year old; Logan 
L. R., Susan Causada, wife of G. B. Harris, a 
resident of the count}-; and James A. Smith. In 
1879 Mr. Smith lost his worthy wife, and in 1879 
he wedded Mrs. Cothren. He is quite an active 
politician and has served as bailiff of Greene 
County. He is a patron of ediTcation and is at 
present a director of his school district. 

Simpson Smith. In former years the life of 
the farmer was considered a laborious one. Vmt in 
this progi'essive age. with such improvements in 
machinery, he can do his work with half the dis- 
patch or labor as in the time of his father, and in 
fact works but little if any harder than the aver- 
age man who strives to make a living. Besides 
all this he is independent, which is one of the 
much .sought-for conditions of life. Mr. Smith 
is one of the successful farmers who have kept 
thoroughly apace with the times, and has reached 
the condition of life mentioned above. He was 
born in Benton County, Tenn. , in 1833, and is the 
son of William and Elizabeth (Lewis) Smith, na- 
tives respectively of South Carolina and North 
Carolina. William Smith came with his parents 
to Tennessee when a small boy. settling in Maury 
County for some time, and then moved to Benton 
County, where he passed the remainder of his 
days. He was a farmer and trader by occupation. 
He volunteered in the war under Gen. Jackson. 



\ 






Jacksdn County, Arkansas 



GREENE COUNTY. 



171 



Mrs. Smith was horn in 1798, and died May 13, 
188U, on the old home place in Tennessee. She 
was a worthy member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. Their family consisted of eight 
children, six now living: Angoline, Ellen, Eliza- 
beth, Simpson, Mary and Thomas J. Those de- 
ceased died in infancy. Simpson Smith grew to 
manhood on the home place in Tennessee, and at 
the age of fourteen years began working for him- 
self as a day laborer. After this he worked on 
the railroad for two or three years, then farmed 
for some time, and when the war broke out he en- 
listed in the Confederate army, Company I. 
Forty-ninth Volunteer Infantry, and served three 
j years. He was in the battles of Fort Donelson, 
j Port Hudson and Jackson, Miss. He was taken 
; prisoner twice, first at Fort Donelson, and was 
carried to Chicago, where he was retained seven 
months and three days, and was then exchanged. 
He then returned to the South, entering the 
Southern army in the same company, re-organized 
and consolidated with the Forty-eighth Tennessee 
Volunteer Infantry, and was captured at Port 
Hudson, but was soon afterward paroled, when he 
returned home and resumed his farm work. He 
I remained in Tennessee until 1881, when he came 
to Arkansas and settled on his present farm in 
I Greene County. He had first moved to Arkansas 
in 1854, but later returned to the home-place, 
where he was married, in 185(), to Miss Ellen Erp, 
a native of Benton County, Tenn. The result of 
J this union was the birth of nine children, seven 
now living: William, Mary, Belle, Caldonia, John, 
Augustus, Scott, Doy, Daniel Lee and Vency. 
Those deceased were Porter and an infant un- 
named. Mr. and Mrs. Smith are members of the 
Methodi.st E])iscopal Cliurch, South, in which he 
is a deacon. He is a member of the A. F. & A. 
M. , is a Democrat in politics, and tak(>s an active 
y)art in all public enterprises. He has a tine farm. 
with 170 acres under cultivation, and is one of the 
leading farmers of the county. 

Irvin G. Smith, whose career as a farmer has 
been one of success and prosperity, was born in 
Benton County, Tenn., in 184(>, and is the sou of 
John and Fannie (Krj)) Smith, both natives of 



North Carolina, who came to Benton County, 
Tenn., with their pwents when children. They 
were married in that State after growing u)i, and 
there the father followed farming until his death, 
which occurred in 1877 at the age of fifty-six years. 
The mother died in 1802 at the age of forty years. 
In their family were seven children, six of whom are 
still living: Irvin G. . Disa (now Mrs. Smith), 
Harvey, Jonathan. Berry H., Thomas \\'. and 
Simpson. Harvey died at the age of eighteen 
years. Irvin G. Smith attained his majority on a 
farm in Tennessee, and when of age commenced 
for himself on the home place, where he remained 
until 18()1. when he enlisted in the Confederate 
army, Fortj'-ninth Tennessee; the regiment was 
captured at Fort Donelson and taken to Chi- 
cago. Mr. Smith was sick at this time and was 
at home. As soon as able he went back to the 
army, joined the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, and 
served until the close of the war. He was captured 
at or near Johnsonville, Tenn., and was put on a 
parole of honor. He participated in the Okolona, 
Miss. , battle, was also in the battle of Yazoo City, 
Bolivar, Tenn., Johnsonville, Tenn., and in a 
numljer of other engagements. After the cessation 
of hostilities Mr. Smith returned to Tennessee, re- 
sumed his farming interests, and thus continued un- 
til 187;^ when he came west to Arkansas and located 
in Greene County, three miles southwest of where 
he now lives. In 1870 he moved to his present 
property, where he has remained ever since. He 
was married in 1808 to Miss Louisa Swindle, a 
native of Benton County. Toun. , born in 1 84-t, and # 
the daughter of Thomas and Mariam Swindle, na- 
tives respectively of South Carolina and Kentucky. 
Thomas Swindle went from South Carolina to Illi- 
nois, thence to Tennessee, where he was married in 
1832, and is still living in Benton County, Tenn. 
He was born in the year 1814, as was also his wife. 
She died March 10. 1872. Both were members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. After the death 
of his wife Mr. Swindle married Mrs. Nancy Har 
ris, who still survives. Mrs. Smith is one of 
twelve children, eight of whom are living, born to 
her parents. She was reared in Tennessee, and by 
her marriatre to Mr. Smith became the mother of 



A. 



172 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



three childi-eu, all living: Martha A., wife of 
William Swindle, now residing in Greene Coun- 
ty, Ark. ; Walter D. and Cordal C, at home. Mr. 
Smith resides three and a half miles southwest of 
Gainesville, where he has improved a good farm 
and has 155 acres under cultivation. He is an 
active worker in school affairs, and is director in his 
district. He served as deputy sheriff in 1881-82- 
83 and 1884 under Mr. Willcocksou, and served as 
constable of his district to till a vacancy. In 1883 
he was elected to that position, which he held one 
term. Mrs. Smith is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. 

E. T. Smith is the junior member of the firm 
of Smith & Son, proprietors of a lumber mill on 
Bark Camp Island, Greene County, Ark. The busi- 
ness was established in August, 1878, and is man- 
aged by a force of thirty-five men, the capacity 
being 25,000 feet per day. Mr. Smith was bom 
on Blue Grass soil, in 1851 (Hopkins County, 
Ky. ), and was the youngest of a family of five chil- 
dren of W. E. and Sarah (Hicklin) Smith, who 
were also Kentuckians. The father removed to 
Greene County, Ark., in 1885, and now resides in 
Paragould, being senior member of the lumber 
milling firm. E. T. Smith's early days were spent 
in following the plow and in attending the common 
schools of Kentucky. He was married in Hick- 
man County, of that State, in 1880, to Ella Leet, 
a native of Kentucky, and by her has an interest- 
ing little family of three children: Dora, Kenner 
and Charley M. Socially he is a member of the 
Knights of Honor, and in his political views affili- 
ates with the Democratic party. He is enterpris- 
ing and industrious, and promises to become in 
time one of the wealthy citizens of the county. 

S. J. Smith was born about two miles north- 
west of Paragould, Greene County, Ark. , December 
20, 1852, and is one of three surviving members 
of a family of eleven children, born to Charles C. 
and Millie J. Smith, who were Tennesseeans, and 
came to Arkansas by ox team when the country 
was almost a wilderness, inhabited by Indians and 
wild animals, the latter being very plentiful. A 
brother of our subject killed sixteen bear the first 
year. The father cleared the land upon which 



Paragould is now situated, afterward moving to 
Buffalo Island, and still later (in 1861) to the 
farm of 160 acres, on which his sons, John and 
Joseph, are now living. He died in April, 1865, 
still survived by his widow, who is living in Craig- 
head County. When S. J. Smith first came to 
Arkansas his time was about equally divided be- 
tween farming in the summer, and hunting and 
trapping during the cold weather, the latter occu- 
jjation being the more profitable. By industry 
and good management he has become the owner 
of 120 acres of land, the most of which is covered 
with timber, but has forty-five acres under cultiva- 
tion, and sixty-five under fence, improved with 
substantial buildings and good orchard. He well 
remembers the time when there were only two 
farms in a radius of ten miles, and can point out 
hundreds of acres of land then covered with tim- 
ber and water, which is now in dry and well cultivat- 
ed farms. He raises cotton and corn, also horses, 
cattle and hogs. He was married, in 1870, to Miss 
Mary F. Sypes, a daughter of Eli and Christina 
Sypes, natives of North Carolina, who came to 
Perry County, Mo. , at a very early day, where the 
father followed the occupation of farming and 
blacksmithing until his death. Five of their eight 
children are living: Eli J., Calvin L. , George \\',, 
Martha and Charles Andrew. 

W. H. Sollis, a member of the firm of W. H. 
Sollis & Co., merchants, is one among the first 
business men of Paragould, having established his 
business here in July, 1882, when the town was in 
its infancy. The firm was changed to its present 
name in March, 1883. Mr. Sollis was born in 
Duplin County, N. C. , July 31, 1837, and is a sou 
of Luke and Martha (Taylor) Sollis, natives of 
North Carolina, but of French descent. The 
paternal grandfather, Abraham Sollis, was born 
in France, and emigrated to North Carolina at an 
early day. There he passed his last days. Luke 
Sollis was married in North Carolina, and emi- 
grated to Tennessee about 1840, where he fol- 
lowed farming until his death. The mother also 
died in that State. They were the parents of nine 
children, only one now living, W. H. Sollis, who 
is the subject of this sketch. He was reared and 



cr^ 



lil. 



GREENE COUNTY. 



173 



educated in Gibson County, Tenn., and was 
attending school when the Civil War broke out. He 
left the school room to defend his country, en- 
listing in Companj' D. Seventh Tennessee Cavalry, 
in 1861, and served until the close of the war. He 
was at the battles of Belmont, Mo. , Britton's Lane, 
last battle of Corinth, and at West Point, Miss. , 
where he was captured and carried to Memphis, 
thence to Alton, and from there to Camp Douglas. 
He was kept a prisoner for sixteen months, and 
experienced many hardships during that time. He 
had two horses shot from under him while in ser- 
vice, but never received the least wound himself. 
At the close of the war he was paroled, after which 
he returned to Tennessee and began speculating in 
cotton. He was turned loose without a dollar and re- 
mained in that condition for one year, when he went 
to Cincinnati and obtained a position in a whole- 
sale clothing house as traveling salesman. He was 
engaged in this for about one year, after which he 
returned home and embarked in merchandising, 
which he continued until January, 1870, when he 
went to Memj)his, Tenn. , and was here interested in 
the commission business. This he carried on until 
September, 1871, when he was driven out by the 
yellow fever, and again his fiuancial condition was 
in a very low state. He did not despair, luit with 
renewed energy started out and was soon on a 
sound footing. He then decided to go to Greene 
County, Ark., and arrived here September 17, 1871. 
He located on a farm he had previously liought, 
and which was all that he had left, engaged in 
farming and this c6ntinued until 1882, when he 
resumed merchandising. He was agent for the 
Pomona Nursery of Tennessee for two years, and 
has planted more fruit trees in Greene County 
than any two men in it. He is the owner of 610 
acres of land, with about 100 acres under culti- 
vation, which he improved himself. He was mar- 
ried in March, 1868, to Miss Louisa C. Ferrell, a 
native of Tennessee, and the result of this union is 
one child: A\'illie. wife of John Reeves. Mrs. 
Sollis is a member of the Baptist Church. Mr. 
Sollis has erected several houses in Paragould, 
and completed his brick store in February, 1889. 
He is a member of the I. O. O. F. 



John R. Starnes. The growth and jirosperity 
of Greene County, Ark., has been upon a scale 
commensurate with the immigration to this region 
in past years, and this prosperity is largely 
due to the members of the agricuUiiral profession, 
prominent among which stands the name of Mr. 
Starnes. He was born in Lauderdale County, 
Tonn. , in 1829, and there reimiined until 1871, 
having been engaged in farming for himself since 
1861. Since the year 1871 he has resided in 
Greene County, Ark. , and since 1876 has been a 
resident of his present farm, where he is doing a 
prosperous business, and besides being engaged in 
tilling the soil, gives considerable attention to stock 
raising. He was married in 1861 to Miss Eliza- 
beth Lacey, who was born in Henderson County, 
Tenn., in 1838, and is the mother of three chil- 
dren: Josephus, Marshall and Parlee. Mr. and 
Mrs. Starnes are members of the Baptist Church, 
of which he is an active sujiporter, and in his po- 
litical views he is a stanch Republican. His par 
ents. Marshall and Sarah (Golden) Starnes, were 
born in Tennessee and North Carolina, respectively, 
in 1818, and were married on the 6th of Decem- 
ber. 1838. The father was reared in Tipton 
County, Tenn., but when a young man located in 
West Tennessee, on a farm, and there continued to 
make his home until 1871, when he came to Ar- 
kansas, and is now residing in Greene County on 
the farm on which he first settled. He is a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Ejiiscopal Church, as was his 
wife, who died March 21, 184U. They were the 
parents of four children, John R. being the only 
one living. The father took for his second wife 
Parlee Johnson, on the 28th of May, 1851, and 
by her had twelve children, six now living: Mary 
J., Militia E. , Martha F. , Moses. Nancy P. and 
James. The paternal grandfather, Moses Starnes, 
was a Virginian, who became a resident of Tennes- 
see at an early day and died at middle age. having 
reared a large family of children. 

G. AN'. Stevenson has attained wealth as a 
planter and stock raiser by honest labor, and is a 
gentleman who commands the respect and esteem 
of all who know him. He was born in the year 
1831, in Giles County. Tenn.. and is the youngest 



174 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



in a family of ten children born to Elem and Lydia 
(Payne) Stevenson, both natives of the "Old 
North State." They were married there and at an 
early day moved to Tennessee, locating in Giles 
County, where the father opened up quite an ex- 
tensive farm and was a large slaveholder. He died 
in 1876 at the age of ninety-one years, having 
been a minister of the gospel for sixty-seven years, 
being the oldest one in Middle Tennessee at the 
time of his death. His wife died in 1874 at the 
age of eighty-nine years. The paternal grand- 
father was born in Ireland, and was one of the 
early settlers of North Carolina, and a soldier in 
the Revolutionary War. The maternal grand- 
father, also born in the Emerald Isle, was an early 
resident of North Carolina, and was a soldier in 
the Revolutionary War. G. W. Stevenson was 
reared to manhood in Middle Tennessee, and re- 
ceived his education in Forest Hill Acadejuy, and 
Giles College, at Pulaski. At the age of twenty- 
one years he began teaching school, and has fol- 
lowed this occupation very successfully up to the 
present time, being also engaged in tilling the 
soil and raising stock. He was married in Lincoln 
County, Tenn., May 2U, 1855, to Miss M. J. 
Thorp, who was born in that county, and is a 
daughter of Joel and Elizabeth (Osborne) Thorp, 
who were also Tennesseeans. The father was a 
wealthy planter and died in 1847, still survived 
by the mother. In 1861 Mr. Stevenson enlisted 
in Company A, Eleventh Tennessee Cavalry, and 
was mustered into service at Nashville, afterward 
participating in the battles of Corinth, luka, 
Chickamauga, and oth(>rs of minor importance. 
He served as a scout for some time, and after the 
war returned to Tennessee, emigrating in 1884 to 
Greene County, Ark. . where he is now residing on 
a farm of '200 acres, 123 of which are under culti- 
vation. He is interested in buying, selling and 
raising stock. He is a stanch Democrat in politics, 
and was electeil l)y that party to the office of county 
treasurer, and also to the office of justice of the 
peace. Socially he belongs to the I. O. O. F., 
Paragould Lodge No. 13, of which order he has 
been a member for over forty years, having passed 
all the chairs, and was grand lecturer of ^^'est 



Tennessee. He is chaplain in the A. F. & A. M., 
and also belongs to the Center Hill Wheel. He 
and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, and are the parents of eight chil- 
dren, five of whom are living: Margaret Alice 
(Mrs. Huckabay), Louisa A. (Mrs. Dover), Will- 
iam Ernest, Ulpian Baker and Mollie Ann Baxter. 
Mr. Stevenson has been identifi<>d with the county's 
interests for many years, and has always been an 
advocate of churches, schools and temperance. 
He was the first examiner of (ireene County. 

J. R. Taylor, ex-editor of the Paragould Press, 
was born in Williamson County, Tenn.. in 1854, 
and was left an orphan at two years of age. He 
spent his boyhood days in Humphreys County, 
Tenn., receiving an ordinary common-school edu- 
cation, and having no means by inheritance, was 
obliged to start out at an early age to support 
himself. He worked for wages on a farm six 
years, and in 1874 went to West Tennessee, 
where he spent five years teaching in the common 
schools of Obion, Gibson and Madison Counties. 
He was elected to the Academic Chair in Odd 
vFellow's College, at Humboldt, Imt failed to receive 
notice of such election in time to accept the position. 
He commenced the newsjiaper Inisiness at Bell's 
Depot in 1880, and published a paper at Dyers- 
burg one year. He was married in January,- 
1882, to Miss Lucy White, of Jackson, Tenn., 
and in March, 1883, he moved to Jonesboro, Ark., 
where he established the Jonesboro Democrat. He 
was elected mayor of that city in 188f), and re- 
signed the editorship of the Democrat. Before 
the term of mayor had expired he bought the 
Paragould Press, and moved to Paragould. In De- 
cember, 1888, he sold the Press to W. A. H. Mc- 
Daniel, and established the Greene County Record 
in May, 1889. He was a candidate for State 
senator in 1888. but withdrew from the race in 
favor of Hon. B. H. Crowley, an old citizen and 
politician, it appearing that his age. long resi- 
dence and prominence with the people during the 
war, and just afterward, made him a probably 
stronger leader of the Democratic party. Mr. 
Taylor served as clerk of the senate judiciary 
committee of the last legislature, and reported 



GREENE COUNTY. 



J 75 



spuatc |)roce('dings for the Daily Ciazette. Hi' is 
a ])iact.ical printer and journalist, and a stanch 
Democrat, but the nnHinching foe of monopoly. 
He read law but has never entered the i)ractice. 
Having consolidated the Record with the Press, 
he is now exclusively in the line of book and jol) 
printing, liaving the only exclusive job printing 
establishment in Northeast Arkansas. 

James S. Tenisson, a prominent citizen and 
farmer of Greene County, Ark., was born in 
A\"arreu County, Tenn., in 1826, and is the son of 
Abraham Tenisson, a native of Rowan County, 
N. C. His grandfather was a seaman from 1780 
to 1800, when he returned to his home in Missis- 
sippi, where he died in 1847. His father was a 
highly respected farmer and stock raiser, and 
dealt extensively in mules. He died in 1858. 
James S. was educated in Tennessee, receiving all 
the advantages the county afforded. He came to 
this Slate in 1S50, and now owns I'iO acres of 
good land and fine stock. He is the father of ten 
children, seven of whom are living, and six of 
these are married and have families. Five of them 
live in this township, and one is a leading merchant 
of Coquille City, Cove County, Ore. Thomas F. 
was born August 10, 1S5J; John H. , May 12, 
1859; Elizabeth, April 26. 1862; George M., 
March 12, 1865: Martha, August 21, 1867; Julia 
A., January 2, 1870, and Albert N., February 18, 
1875. Albert is still at home and assists his father 
in cultivating the farm. Mr. Tenisson has been 
for six years justice of the peace of Salem Town- 
ship. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, 
having held all of the oilices from worshipful 
master to warden. Both he and his wife are 
members of the Methodist Church, and are liberal 
in their support of all praiseworth}' enterprises. 

\V. F. Thoraj)son. Greene County, Ark., is one 
of the most fertile counties in the State, and in 
this higldy productive region Mr. Thom])son has 
resided since 185'J. becoming well and favorably 
known, for he commenced life a poor boy and is 
now one of the well-to-do citizens of the county. 
He was born in Giles County. Tenn.. in 18;{2, and 
was the second of six children born to John and 
Lucy (Meeler) Thompson, who were natives respect- 



ively of Tennessee and Virginia. They were 
married in the former State, and there the father 
was engaged in wagon making and blacksmithing 
until his death, which occurred in 1841. His wife 
survived him many years and died in 1875. Her 
father was a soldier in the Revolutionary War and 
entered the service at the early age of thirteen 
years. W . F. Thompson has been familiar with 
farming from boyhood, and received his education 
in the district schools of Tennessee. After the 
death of his father the most of the farm work 
devolved upon him, and at the age of nineteen 
years he began tilling the soil for himself. When 
twenty years old he went to Pope County, 111., 
where he was engaged in farming for about seven 
years, moving in 185S to Arkansas, and the follow- 
ing year to Greene County, where he enti'red a 
tract of' 160 acres, and opened up and cleared 
about eighty acres of land. He erected thereon a 
small log cabin, but built twice afterward, and in 
1882 put up a large frame house and set out an 
orchard. He has divided his land, and now owns 
eighty acres, all of which, however, is under cul- 
tivation. He was married in Greene County, Ai-k.. 
in December, 1858, to IMiss Millie T. Hollerman, 
of North Carolina, and a daughter of John and 
Millie (Hartso) Hollerman, who moved from their 
native State to Greene County. Ark., in 1855, both 
of them now being deceased. Mr. Thomp.son has 
resided on his ])resent farm ever since his marriage. 
He assisted in organizing Clay County, Ark. He 
is a member of the Union I^abor i)arty, but is not 
a seeker after office. In„1862 he enlisted in Com- 
pany D, First Arkansas Battery, and went into 
service at Pocahontas, being second lieutenant of 
his company. He was at Fort Farmington, Miss. , 
and received his discharge at Tu)ieloin 1863. after 
which he returned to Greene County, Ark. In 
1865 he went into a cavalry company and served 
until the close of the war. later on returning 
to the farm. He is a member of the Agricultural 
Wheel, and he and wife are members of the Baptist 
Church. Six of their nine children are living: 
William Oriu. who died in 187:?, at the age of 
fourteen years; Sidney Thomas, who is married 
and resides in Greene County: Eliza Jane, wife of 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Elijah Goff, died on the 23d of February, 1883. 
at the age of eighteen years; John AVesley, mar- 
ried and residing in the county; Sebell (Mrs. De- 
Moss), resides in Friendship Township; Mary 
Angeline ( Mrs. Burgess), resides in Lake Township ; 
Emma Elizabeth (Mrs. Peyton), residing on the 
home farm; Lucy, who died in infancy, and Nar- 
cissus at home. Mr. Thompson is rearing a boy, 
named George Thompson. 

Rev. J. T. Thompson, a prominent merchant 
of Marmaduke, and one of the representative 
men of the county, was born near Jackson, West 
Tenn., January 27, 1833, and is of English par- 
entage. His father, James Thompson, was a na- 
tive of North Carolina, in that State growing to 
manhood, and was there married to Miss Lydia Ter- 
rell. He followed the occupation of a farmer, but 
also carried on the blacksmith trade for many 
years. In 1825 he moved to Tennessee, and there 
lost his wife, when their son, J. T. . was seven 
months old. The latter attained his growth in 
Tennessee, attending the common country schools, 
and at the age of nineteen years was united in 
marriage to Miss Mary J. Worrell, who bore him 
eight children, seven of whom are now living; 
James F., married and engaged in the marble 
business at Helena, Ark.; J. P., a carpenter by 
trade, living in West Tennessee, is married and 
has one child; J. J., a carpenter at Marmaduke, is 
married and has one child; Albert Sidney was a 
cari^enter by trade, who, while occupied at his 
work on a house in Rector, in 1887, fell and was so 
injured that he died a few days later; Mary T. is 
at home; Sarah A. married Joseph Conger, of 
Greene County, and is now living on a farm near 
Marmaduke; Susan E. is at home and so also is 
William H. Mr. Thompson enlisted in the Fifty- 
first Confederate Tennessee Regiment, in Novem- 
ber, 1861, at Jackson, Tenn., and was in serv- 
ice in that State, Alabama and Mississippi. His 
regiment was captured at Fort Donelson, but he 
succeeded in making his escape on a steamboat up 
the Tennessee River. His recjiment was reorganized 
at Corinth in the March following, and then in May 
he was sent home on sick furlousrh. Having suf- 
ficiently recovered by August of the same year, he 



enlisted in the Fourteenth Tennessee Cavalry, in 
Gen. Forrest's command, and took part in his 
campaigns through Mississippi, Tennessee and 
Alabama, in 1865. He was detached from his 
command in December, and never returned to his 
regiment until after the close of the war, and so 
was never discharged. After the war he returned 
to Jackson, Tenn. , remained there for some time, 
and then was in Denmark for about four years. 
He moved to Arkansas in 1870, settling within two 
miles of Marmaduke, where he followed farming 



until 1888, and then bought out the drug firm of 
Huckabay & Moore, in Marmaduke. Since then 
he has added dry goods, notions, etc. For his 
second wife Mr. Thompson chose Mrs. Martha A. 
Brand, and four children have been the result of 
this union ; Robert Lee, Rosa B. , Beuna C. 
("Dot ") and an infant, Charles C. Mi-. Thomp- 
son is thoroughly identified with all public enter- 
prises, and a liberal contributor to the same. He 
was licensed to preach in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, in 1874, and has since ministered 
to the spiritual wants of his fellow men in that 
church. He is a member of the Masonic frater- 
nity. Blue Lodge, in which he has filled all the 
chairs. Mrs. Thomjison and most of the children 
are also members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. 

Rev. David Thorne, an extensive farmer and 
fruit-grower, of Greene County, Ark., was born in 
Edgecombe County, N. C, in 1828. His parents, 
Thomas and Morning (Dawes) Thorne, were of 
English descent, and were also born in the "Old 
North State," the former's birth occurring in 
1781. while Gen. Cornwallis was encamped within 
seven miles of the scene. He emigrated to Madi- 
son County, Tenn., in 1831, located, and became 
an extensive farmer, and owned slaves, departing 
this life in his eighty-second year. He and his 
life-partner lived together nearly fifty- five years, 
raising to maturity eleven children, and losing one 
in infancy. His father. Nicholas Thorne, accord- 
ing to family tradition, was liorn in North Caro- 
lina about 1730 or 1740. His father, Richard 
Thorne, was born in England, about the year 1700 
or 1710, and came to America, perhaps, about the 



r'^ 



GREENE COUNTY. 



177 



year 1710 or 1720, serving an apprenticeship 
in Charleston, S. C. His son, Nicholas Thorne, 
was a farmer, and participated in the Revolution- 
ary War, on the side of the colonies. David 
Thorne, the subject of this sketch, attained his 
majority in Madison County, Tenn., and received 
his education in the common schools and the acad- 
emy at Denmark, Madison County, Tenn., his 
instructor in-chief being Dr. William L. Slack, 
now of Friar's Point, Miss. While a resident of 
Hardeman County, Tenn., in the year 1859-60, he 
was elected presiding justice of the county and 
probate court, which position was held two or 
three terms, and was much esteemed by him; 
indeed, with one exception, that honor was held 
par excellence among many favors conferred by the 
grand old county of Hardeman, because it was 
bestowed gratuitously and without solicitation. 
Emigrating to Greene County in 1871, three years 
after, in 1874, he was prevailed upon, by strong 
and urgent solicitation, to become a candidate for 
the constitutional convention, making the race be- 
fore the people in competition with Hons. L. L. 
Mack and B. H. Crowley, and was beaten by only 
fifteen votes, by Mr. Crowley. He was afterward 
elected county and probate judge, and served one 
term. Having been reared by pious and religious 
parents, he naturally felt an interest in Christi- 
anity, and for nearly forty years has had member- 
ship in a Missionary Baptist Church, and since 
18fi8 has been engaged in the ministry. Before 
closing this sketch it is proper to say, that Mr. 
Thorne attributes everything pertaining to what 
he is and has enjoyed, as respects morals and re- 
ligion, to parental training and early impressions 
made In' Christian parents in their work in the 
family nursery; and, in justice to them, whatever 
may have been accom]ilished in the way of good — 
yea. even the hope of Heaven, under the blessings 
of God— all is dedicated in memory to the Christ- 
ian iniluonce of loved parents that have laid their 
armor by. The subject of this sketch is sharing 
the income of a good farm, and is taking a warm 
interest in fruit-growing, for which this section 
seems well adapted. The crowning blessing, re- 
ferred to heretofore, which Hardeman County be- 



stowed, was the gift, in marriage, of one of her 
best daughters, in the person of Miss Mary A. 
Toone, who was a daughter of James Toone, Sr. 
■James Toone, Sr. , was one of the pioneer settlers 
of West Tennessee, and Hardeman County was bis 
adopted home. Before the late war he was one of 
the leading farmers, owning large slave property. 
The marriage i)artnership entered into in June, 
1857, by Mr. and Mrs. Thorne, has culminated in 
quite a family, namely: James L., Thomas L. B. , 
William H., David C. and Wiley, five sons: and 
Mary F. B., JinieB.. Ida R. and AUisE., four 
daughters; all have made the Christian profession, 
and the whole family are members of the same 
church — truly a Baptist family. 

John C. Tredaway is one of the successful 
farmers of Union Township, and one of its oldest 
settlers. He was born in Pendleton District. S. 
C, in 1812, and is a son of Richard and Nancy 
(Smith) Tredaway, who were born in Georgia and 
South Carolina, the former's birth occurring in 
1787. He grew to manhood in his native State, 
was married in South Carolina, and after residing 
in Tenne.ssee for about ten years, returned to 
Georgia, where he was engaged in farming until 
his death in 1851. His wife was born in 1704 
and died in 1871, and both were members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Chiu'ch, South. Of their ten 
children, eight lived to be grown, and seven are 
living at the present time. The maternal grand- 
father came from Europe with two brothers and 
settled in Georgia, but it is not known where the 
others settled. He was a farmer, and lived and 
died in the state of his adoption, his death occur 
ring when between sixty and seventy years of age. 
His wife lived to be nearly 100 years old. and also 
died in Georgia. She was an earnest member of 
the Baptist Church. To them were born five chil- 
dren, the father of our sul)ject lieing the eldest. 
John C. Tredaway, who was the second of his par 
ents' children, grew to manhood in East Tennessee. 
At the age of twenty-one years he commenced for 
himself, engaging in the shoemaker's trade, and 
followed this occupation in connection with farm- 
ing until he went to Georgia, when he opened a 
wagon shop, which he managed with farming for 



<£ k_ 



ITS 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



eight years. In J 85(3 be came to Arkansas and 
located on a farm on Crowley's Ridge in Clay 
County, where he remained for about sixteen 
years, subsequently spc^nding three years in Boone 
County, Ark. Here his wife died on the I'ith of 
November, 1872, her birth occurring in South 
Carolina November 6, 1808, her maiden name 
being Rebecca Chapman. They were married 
August 21, 1834, and became the parents of ten 
children, four of whom are alive. The names of 
the children are: John W., who died in Tennessee; 
Asbury F., who first joined the Confederate army, 
and later, on account of his wife, joined the Union 
forces, went South, and as he was never after- 
ward heard fi'om, was supposed to have been 
killed; Francis M. , who served in the Confeder- 
ate army and died in Mississippi, being buried 
there with 10,000 other soldiers; William B. , also 
a Confederate soldier, was taken sick and died 
somewhere in the South; James R. , who sickened 
and died in Greene County, and was buried at 
Oak Bluff: Nancy E., wife of William Wagner, 
residing in Clay County, Ark.: Sidney S., a resi- 
dent of Clay County; Sarah A., wife of Benjamin 
Copeland, of Clay County ; Mary A. , wife of Buck 
Fain, of Boone County, Ark., and an infant not 
named. Mr. Tredaway was married a second time 
to Amanda Fielder, who was born in Hickman 
County, Tenn. , in 1840. To them six chikken 
have been born: Thomas F. , John W. W. , Edward 
S. , Mary and Martha (twins), and an infant that 
died in childhood, not named. Mr. Tredaway and 
wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, the latter having been a professed 
Christian for fifty-eight years, and an active work- 
er in the church. He is a member of the A. F. & 
A. M. , and in his political views is a Democrat. 

Henry S. Trice, treasurer of Greene County, 
and undertaker, was born in Craighead County, 
Ark., November 'J, 1853, and is the son of Samuel 
T. and Sarah H. (Smith) Trice, both of whom 
were natives of Bedford County, Tenn. The par- 
ents emigrated to Craighead County, Ark. , in 1 853, 
and located on a farm eight miles north of Jones- 
boro. The father was one of the early settlers of 
that county, improved a good farm there, and 



attended to farming until his death, which oc- 
curred at his home, in August, 1861. He was 
county and probate judge of Craighead County 
when he died, and was a very prominent citizen. 
He was also for many years justice of the peace. 
The mother now resides in Jonesboro. They were 
the parents of six children, four of whom are now 
living: Joseph H. , Henry S. , Andrew J. and Sa- 
rah T. (wife of Franklin Lane). Henry S. Trice 
assisted his mother on the farm to make a hard- 
earned living, and received his education in Craig- 
head County. He followed farming until 1885, 
when he moved to Paragould, Greene County, and 
in the fall of 1886 established the undertaker's 
business, which he has since carried on. He was 
elected county treasurer of Greene County in 1886, 
and re-elected in 1888, thus illustrating his popu- 
larity. He was married in 1873 to Miss Margaret 
A. Gamble, a native of Bedford County, Tenn., 
and the fruits of this union are five children: 
Ada P., William F., Joseph T., Mary E. and Sarah 
V. Mr. and Mrs. Trice are members of the Jleth- 
odist Episcopal Church, and he is a member of the 

K. of r. 

William H. Walden, who is not only one of the 
substantial farmers of the county, but also re- 
spected and esteemed for his many good qualities, 
was born near Lexington, Ky., in 1840, and is the 
son of Coleman and Melvina (McKinney) Walden, 
both natives, also, of Kentucky. The father was 
a farmer by occupation, and died in 1878 at the 
age of fifty-five years. He had been twice mar- 
ried; first, in 1839, to Miss McKinsey, who died 
in 1846, leaving one child, William Walden. Mr. 
Walden then selected for his second wife Miss 
Louisa J. Price, a native of Kentucky. The fol- 
lowing children were the result of the second un- 
ion: John, Mollie, Elizabeth, Alice (deceased in 
infancy), Joshua L. (died when grown), George W., 
Mattie C. and Emma. William Walden moved 
with his parents to Haywood County, Tenn., in 
1842, and there remained until 1878, when he 
came to Arkansas and located on his present farm, 
which he cultivates, but also, in connection, is en- 
gaged in running a cotton-gin. When the war 
broke out 'Mv. Walden enlisted in the Confederate 



GREENE COUNTY. 



179 



army, but was rejected on account of a crippled 
foot. During the latter part of the war, however, 
he enli.sted and was wounded at the Battle of 
Perryville, Ky. He was color-bearer of the Ninth 
Tennessee Regiment, Cheatham's division, and 
after receiving his wound he was taken to a hos- 
pital, where he remained about three weeks, fol- 
lowing which he was taken to Danville, Ky. , and 
tliere remained until able to go home. He was 
married to Mis.s Hattie T. Martin, a native of 
Haywood County, Tenn. , bora in 1841, who died 
April 17, 1886, in full communion with the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. Seven children were 
born to this union, all living: Edward C, (who 
married Mattie Russell and lives near the home 
place), John R. L.. James B. , Rosa Lee (wife 
of J. P. Hampton), Freddie, Walter B. and Jes- 
sie T. Mr. Walden was married the second time 
to Mrs. Mollie Bowler, nee Eiberhard, a native 
of New Orleans, who had previously married Eras- 
mus Bowler, who died April 7, 1886. Mr. Wal- 
den affiliates with the Democratic ])arty in his 
political views. 

Dr. Calvin Wall, president of the Bank of 
Paragoukl, and physician, was born in Spartanburg 
District, S. C, October 12. 182-4, and is the son of 
Zachariah and Oney (Clement) Wall, the father a 
native of Wilkes County, N. C, and the mother of 
South Carolina. The parents were married in South 
Carolina and remained there until their deaths, 
the father devoting himself to agricultural pur- 
suits. Their family consisted of ten children, 
only one now living, Dr. Calvin Wall. He was 
reared and educated in South Carolina, assisted 
on the farm until nineteen years of age, and then 
taught school until twenty-six years old, when 
he Vjegau the study of medicine. He graduated at 
the iledical University of Lexington, Ky., in lsr)4, 
and in July of the same year began practicing 
in Polk County, N. C where he remained until 
the latter part of 1857. He then returned to the 
homestead in South Carolina, where he stayed un- 
til Fel)ruary 7, 18ri9, when he started for Greene 
County, Ark. , coming through on horseback and 
arriving March 21). of that year. He located at 
Gainesville and entered upon the i)ractice of his 



profession, in 1S()() he went to Greensboro, Craig- 
head County, remained there six months and then 
returned home, where he practiced until 1886, 
when he came to Paragoukl. Here he has since 
continued to follow his profession. In March, 18Stt. 
he was elected president of the Bank of Paragoukl, 
which position he now occupies. He is also 
president of the Building and Loan Association, 
served two terms as county treasurer while living 
at Gainesville, and has been notary public for over 
twelve years. He owns several thousand acres 
of land in the county, with about 200 acres under 
cultivation. He was married March 18, 1800, to 
Miss Emily A. Gentry, a native of Tennessee, and 
to them have been born six children: Ona J., 
wife of Dr. Kitchen; Elmer S., wife of W. S. 
Ellis; MelvinC, Ethel M., Arthur G. and Ernest 
N. Mr. and Mrs. Wall are members of the Bap- 
tist Church. He is a member of the Masonic 
Fraternity, also belongs to the I. O. O. F., and is 
one of the oldest physicians, in ])oint of residence, 
in the county. 

Rev. Daviil B. Warren, a local minister of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, residing four 
miles south of Gainesville, Ark., was born in Giles 
County, Tenn., October 3, 1827, and is the fourth 
son of John B. and Rachael (Hunt) Warren, who 
were born near Petersburg, N. C. , the former 
February 27, 17'J(), and the latter November 24. 
17U7. They were married about the year 1817. 
and about 1824 removed to Middle Tennessee, set- 
tling in Giles County. He was a farmer, and a 
part of his life worked at the blacksmith's trade, 
but gave up both occupations several years before 
his death owing to the failure in his eyesight, and 
the last five years of his life he was entirely l)liud. 
He was a worthy, good citizen, and in politics was 
an old line Whig. He took no part in the late 
Civil War, but was a soldier in the War of 1812. 
His wife was a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. They both lived to a ripe old age: 
he died February 23, 1884, within only four days 
of being eighty-eight, and she died in March, 
1885, wanting only a few months of being also 
eighty-eight. To them were boru nine children, 
all of whom lived to mature age: Henry J. (who 



180 



HISTOKY OF ARKANSAS. 



died ia 1882), Sarab J. L. (deceased), James A., 
Joseph A., David B., Mary F., Louisa E., Elmina 
M. (deceased) and William W. Rev. David B. 
Warren received a very meager education in the 
old field schools of that day, but after he attained 
the age of twenty-two attended better schools 
awaj' from home. In 1850 he taught his first 
session of three months, being employed by three 
of his neighbors for |25 (which was only 18 J^ per 
month). But this small beginning was sufficient 
to demonstrate his worth as a teacher, and for 
more than twenty years — six in Tennessee, and 
more than fourteen in Arkansas — his labors were 
crowned with great success, and many of the most 
useful and influential men and women in the com- 
munities where he taught in both States were his 
pupils in their youth, and received instruction at 
his hands. In 1854 he made a profession of 
religion, and two years later was licensed to preach, 
and has been a local minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, ever since. In 1870 and 
1871 he was in charge of the Greenslwro circuit as 
a supply. He has been instriunental in doing 
much good, both as a teacher and a preacher, and 
has performed more marriage ceremonies and 
preached more fimeral sermons than almost any 
other preacher in Northeast Arkansas. In 1882 
he was a lay delegate from the White River con- 
ference to the General conference of the Southern 
Mt^thodist Church, which met in Nashville, Tenn. , 
and faithfully represented his constituents in that 
highest and only legislative body of the church. 
He was ordained a deacon by Bishop Marvin, in 
1867, and an elder by Bishop Kavanangh, in 1877, 
and worthily honors the church in the faithful 
discharge of the duties of these important oflices. 
He was married March 4. 1855, to Miss Lucy J. 
Ford, who was born in Giles County, Tenn., 
March 26, 1834, where she grew to maturity and 
was married. Five of the eight children born to 
them are still living: Alice, wife of J. W. New- 
berry ; Ezra, married and living near the old home 
place; Ida, wife of (i. W. Walden, also residing 
near the home place; Osmer, who died November 
11, 1883, aged twenty-one years; Mackey, who 
died February 11, 1882, aged eighteen years; 



Clara, who died December 2. 1871, aged five years; 
Minnie and Albert, who still remain under the 
parental roof. Mr. W'arren has a splendid little 
farm of about KtO acres in cultivation, and a neat, 
comfortable home, and is much beloved and highly 
respected for his sterling integrity as a citizen and 
as a Christian gentleman. He is a distinguished 
member of the Masonic fraternity, and has served 
in several important positions in a local sphere, 
and is now (1889) serving his second year as grand 
lecturer of the State. He takes a lively interest 
in the work and lectures of this ancient and honor- 
able institution, and travels extensively in the dis- 
charge of the duties of his high office. He is also 
an uncompromising advocate of temperance, and 
is opposed to the liquor traffic in all its forms, be- 
lieving it to be the greatest enemy to the pros- 
perity and happiness of the people. In November, 
1872, he was elected clerk of his county, to which 
position he was re elected for ten years in succes- 
sion, and served his people with fidelity and marked 
ability, ]ierforming the intricate and complicated 
duties of the office with satisfaction to the people, 
and in 1882 he voluntarily retired to private life, 
followed In' the good wishes and benedictions of 
all the people, and has well earned their universal 
plaudit, "Well done, thou good and faithful ser- 
vant." 

John E. Watson, father and stockman of 
Greene County, Ark. , was born in Lawrence Dis- 
trict, S. C, July 25, 1841, and is a son of Till- 
man and Sarah (Pape) Watson, who were also 
born in that State. The father was a Democrat, 
a farmer, and he and his wife were members of 
the Baptist Church. They moved from South 
Carolina to Alabama in 1842, remained there un- 
til 1861), and the year following the father's death, 
which occurred in 1875, the mother came to 
Greene County, Ark., where she is still residing. 
The following are their children: William F., 
James H., Martha M., J. E., Sarah J., Elizabeth, 
Israel, and Louis J. , who died when five years of 
age. William F. is a farmer of West Tennessee, 
and he and John E. are the only ones of .the family 
living at the present time. The latter began an 
independent career at the age of twenty years, 



.f 



^ 




aud enlisted in Company D, Twenty-second Ala- 
bama (Day's) Regiment, and Bragg' s division, of 
the Army of the Tennessee, and was in the liattlos 
of Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge 
and Atlanta. He was captured at Atlanta on the 
3d of August, 1804, and was kept in i)rison at 
Camp Chase, Ohio, until the 18th of March, 18G5, 
when he was released on parole, but before the 
parole term had expired the war was ended. After 
his return to Alabama he engaged in farming with 
his father, and in August, 1865, was married to 
Miss Martha P. Grcenway, a daughter of Thomas 
aud Olive Greenway, natives of Georgia, the fa- 
ther a farmer by occupation. Mr. and Mrs. Wat- 
son became the parents of five children: Lugenia 
(Turner), of Greene County, Ark. ; Laura S. 
(Tatum), John H. , living, and Mary Lee and 
James F., deceased. Mr. Watson's second mar- 
riage was to a Miss Smith, in July, 1880, aud by 
her he has one child, Milton. This wife died in 
November, 1885, and in January, 1880, he mar- 
ried his third wife, Mrs. Catherine C. (Lender- 
man) Hyde. To this last union has been born a 
son, William Tell. After his hrst marriage Mr. 
Watson lived one year in Alabama, then removing 
to West Tennessee, where he was engaged in 
farming until the fall of 1869, since which time he 
has been a successful tiller of the soil in Greene 
County, Ark., his first purchase being 120 acres. 
Five years later he traded this farm, which he had 
improved somewhat, for other laud, forty acres of 
which are in the place he now owns. His farm con- 
sists of 140 acres of very finely improved land, and 
the most of this he devotes to cotton, though also 
giving attention to other crops. He is also inter- 
ested in stock breeding. He is an independent 
Democrat in politics, and he and wife are mem- 
bers of the Christian Church. His wife became 
the mother of five children by her first husband: 
Christiana E. , wife of D. C. Smith, a farmer 
residing with Mr. Watson; John Thomas, Edward, 
Jasper E. and Walter, all living with their mother 
and step- father. 

A^'illiam M. Weatherly. In the series of names 
wliich have made Greene County one of the most 
populous and prosperous of the State, Mr. Weath- 



erly' s name holds a prominent place. He was 
born in Madison County, Tenn., in 1834. and is 
a son of Wright M. and Ann (Bryant) Weath 
erly, who were born in North Carolina and Ten 
nessee, in 1805 and 1808, respectively. The father 
came to Tennessee in 1826, where he was mar- 
ried soon after, and then located in Madison 
County, where he remained until 1881, after 
which he moved to Arkansas, and here died, in 
January, 1888. He was a successful farmer up 
to the time of the war, but during that time 
lost his property. He was a Democrat in poli- 
tics, was very active in supporting schools and 
churches, and in early life was a Whig in poli- 
tics, afterward becoming a Democrat. His wife 
was also a member of the Baptist Chiuch, and 
died in February, 1886, mourned by all who 
knew her. They were the parents of nine sons 
and three daughters: John T. (killed at the 
battle of Missionary Ridge), James (killed at the 
battle of Franklin), Thomas, Robert. William, 
Houston S., Rufus A., Richard T., Alexander. 
Wright, Elizabeth C Mary and Nancy A. Will 
iam M. Weatherly attained his majority in Mad 
ison County, and commenced doing for himself 
in 1855, clerking in a dry goods store in Den 
mark one year. He then married and commenced 
farming in Madison County, continuing two years, 
and spent the following three years as overseer 
of a large plantation in that State. In 18()3 he 
enlisted in Company C, Fourteenth Regiment of 
Cavalry, commanded by Capt. Voss. and was at 
the battles of Franklin and Memphis. He was 
wounded at a little fight in Haywood County, 
and was relieved from duty for two weeks. At 
the time of the surrender he was at Gainesville, 
Ala., and returned home, where lie farmed until 
1877, then coming to his present farm in Greene 
County, Ark. On the 26th of January, 187S. 
he was married to Ann Rievely, who was born 
in Madison County, Tenn., in 1835, and by her 
became the father of three ciiildren: Mollie B. 
(who died in infancy), James William (who attend 
ed school in Denmark, Tenn., and at Austin, Ark., 
and has been a teacher of ten years' standing, and 
is now drumming for .i St. Louis grocery ami |iro- 



is-j 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



vision company), ami lvi)l)c(t H. (who is a farmer 
of Greene County, is married and the father of 
two children). Mr. and Mrs. Weatherly are mem- 
bers of the Baptist Church, and he has been a 
member of the A. F. & A. M. since 1873. He has 
always supported the principles of the Democratic 
party. He and wife are rearing a little trjrl l)y the 
name of Ida Davis. 

S. H. Weatherly, a planter, of Friendship 
Township, was born in Madison County, Tenn., in 
1837. being a son of Wright and Aim (Bryant) 
\^'eatherly. the father a native of North Carolina, 
and the mother of Middle Tennessee. They were 
married and resided in the latter State until 1881, 
when they disposed of their large farm, and came 
to Greene County, Ark., and made their home with 
our subject until their respective deaths, in 1882 
and 1885. S. H. Weatherly assisted in clearing 
the home farm in Tennessee, attended the common 
schools, and, while still a resident of that State, 
began doing for himself. He was married in Mad- 
ison County, Tenn., in ]8<)7, to Miss Ann Valen- 
tine, a daughter of William and Charity Valentine, 
who came originally from North Carolina and set- 
tled in Tennessee. They were agriculturalists, 
and the .father died in his adopted State. The 
mother came to Grieene Covinty, Ark., in 1867, 
and is now residing in Friendship Township, being 
the widow of William Burton. Mr. Weatherly re- 
mained one year in Tennessee after his marriage, 
and in 18fi7 came to Greene County, Ark., where 
he bought a farm of 240 acres, only ten of which 
were under ciiltivation. He has since added 360 
acres more to his land, and has 100 acres under 
cultivation, on which are a good residence and 
orchard. He makes a specialty of raising corn and 
hay. He votes with the Democratic party, and has 
ever taken an interest in the political affairs of 
the county. He and wife are members of the Ba]>- 
tist Church, and are the parents of a family of 
seven children, six of whom are living: Texanua 
(Mrs. David Falkner). Mosella, Eldredge M.. 
Florence Ethel, Egbert Eugene and Cornelia A. 
Mr. Weatherly has dom^ a large .share in devolo])- 
ing the coimty, and has always taken an active 
interest in enterprises tending to benefit the same. 



While in Tennessee he joined Company G, Sixth 
Tennessee Infantry, Confederate States Army, 
and was mustered in at Jackson, Tenn., April 22, 
1861, and was at Mi.ssionary Ridge, Franklin, Mur- 
freesboro. Atlanta, and was discharged at Browns 
ville, Tenn. 

Andrew Webb, an enterprising tiller of the soil, 
of (ireene County, Ark., and postmaster of Bethel, 
was born in the State of Tennessee, in 1824, and 
is the fourth of nine children born to James and 
Monnima (Crisp) Webb, who were natives of North 
and South Carolina, respectively. The father fol- 
lowed farming on an extensive scale, and was a 
soldier in the War of 1812. being with Jackson at 
the battle of New Orleans. He died in Tennes- 
see, where he had made his home for many years, 
in 1866, at the age of seventy-six years, followed 
by his wife in 1867. Andrew Webb resided on a 
farm in Tennessee, and vehen twenty -one years of 
age purchased a farm, and began doing for him- 
self. He was married about this time to Miss 
Winnie C. Coburn, a native of Alabama, and re- 
mained in the State of Tennessee engaged in im- 
proving his farm, until 1858, when he sold out 
and came to Greene County, Ark. , where he bought 
a tract of eighty acres of wild land. He cleared 
about forty acres of this farm, set out orchards, 
and put his property under fence, but some three 
years later traded it for a tract containing l'^)0 
acres, on which is now situated the station of 
Bethel. Here he opened up about sixty acres, 
erected good buildings, set out orchards, etc. , and 
when the railroad was established he sold a con- 
siderable amount of his property for business pur- 
poses. In 1883 he received a commission as first 
postmaster of Bethel, and has held this office up to 
the present time. His wife, who died in October, 
1887, bore him five children: Lucinda E., wife of 
\V. A. J. Wood; James W., John William, who 
died at the age of nineteen years; Pamelia E., 
wife of W. O. Lane, and Sarah Ella, who died at 
the age of six years. May 3, 1881t. he was mar- 
ried to Mrs. Mary C. Yepp, a native of Georgia. 
James W. Webb, the only living son of Andrew 
Webb, is at present thirty-seven years of age, and 
is tilling the soil on a portion of his father's farm. 



s-rv 



GREENE COTTNTY, 



and oil 120 acres which he hud purchased. Mr. 
Webb has one of (he best farms in his section, 
al)out sixty acres being under cultivation and fence. 
Ho takes considerable interest in politics, and is a 
Democrat, having been elected on that ticket, in 
1880, to the office of justice of the peace, which 
position he has since held, with th(^ exception of 
two years. He was married in 1869 to Miss Mary 
R. Wood, a native of Mississippi, and a daughter 
of James R. Wood, who came to Arkansas in 18r)9, 
being one of the early settlers of Greene County. 
To them have been born five children: Calador W. 
J. , Sarah Ella, James A. , who died at the age of 
four years and one month, and Mary Lelor. One 
child died in infancy, unnamed. Mr. Webb has a 
pleasant home in Bethel, his lot consisting of two 
acres. He has always been a patron of education, 
and all worthy public enterprises, and his business 
as justice of the peace is quite extensive. He has 
served as school director for six years. 

Dr. Henry McC. AVebb. The name of ^^"ebb , 
is one of the most influential in Greene County, 
Ark. , and Dr. Webb, among its most talented 
^)hy8icians, has obtained a reputation placing 
him in the front rank of the medical fraternity. 
He was born in Madison County, Tenn. , in 1851, 
being a son of Theodric and Elizabeth (Watson) 
Webb, who were born, married and resided in 
South Carolina, and about 1842 settled on a farm 
in Madison County, Tenn., where he is now living 
at the age of seventy-six years. His wife died in 
1 S6 1 . They were members of the Presbyterian 
Church, and the father is now a Democrat in his 
political views, a Royal Arch Mason, and an en- 
thusiastic patron of schools, churches, etc. Dr. 
Henry McC. Webb is next to the youngest of the 
four surviving members of their family of eight 
children. After attending the common schools and 
the High School near Greeneville, he entered the 
I'niversity of Alabama in 1S72. fi'om which insti- 
tution he was graduated in July of the following 
year. He then rtiturned to Lexington, Tenn., and 
being well fitted liy nature for the profession of 
medicine soon entered upon his medical studies 
under Dr. H. W. Wassen. but gave this u]i after 
a short time and entered the law school at Le- 



banon. Tenn.. graduating in June, IS74, later 
practicing this profession for five years in Lexing- 
ton. In the fall of 1879 he entered Vanderbilt 
University, at Nashville, Tenn., attending during 
that year and 1880, and then resumed his practice 
in Lexington, continuing until 188r). when he re 
turned to college and graduated from the medical 
department in the spring of 1886. Since that 
time he has resided in Gainesville, Ark., where 
he has become a leading practitioner, although 
a resident of the county only a few years. He 
is becoming well known, but the heavy calls for his 
services at home prevent him from going much 
abroad. In 1878 he was married to Miss Addle 
E. Smith, who was born in Henderson County. 
Tenn.. and is the mother of three children: Cossy 
T. , Ella Louisa and Robert B. Mrs. Webb is a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
James H. Willcoekson, one of the wealthy resi- 
dents of the county, is a native of Middle Tennes- 
see, where he was l)orn in the year 1845. He was 
the third in a family of nine children born to 
William and Mary (Rose) Willcoekson, who were 
Tennesseeans, the grandparents being wealthy 
farmers of Middle Tennessee. Grandfather Rose 
went to Texas, where he bought a large tract of 
land on which he made his home until his death. 
William Willcoekson engaged in farming for him- 
self after attaining his majority, and resided in 
Tennessee (where he was married about 1841) 
until 1850, then moving to Texas, wiiere he bought 
a tract of 100 acres, which he opened for cultiva- 
tion, improved with good buildings, and on which 
he resided until 1853, then coming to Greene 
County. Ark. After residing here for four years 
on two different farms he returned to Texas, where 
he died in December, 181)0, his wife also dying 
the same month. James H. Willcoekson returned 
to Arkansas after the death of his parents, and for 
some time made his home with his grandmotlu'r. 
In 18(55, at the age of twenty years, he began 
farming for himself on rented laud, and continued 
this for three years, when he married Miss ,\.daliue 
Bowling, a native of Greene County, and a daughter 
of one of the early settlers. After his marriage 
he purchased a small farm whicli he sold later 



184 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



ou, aud then bought an excellent tract of land 
consisting of eighty acres in the Cache bottom, 
which was then wOd land but is now one of the 
finest fanns in the county. He has since purchased 
twenty-six additional acres, and has now seventy 
acres under fence and cultivation, it being devoted 
to raising the cereals and cotton. He is improving 
his grade of stock, and has crossed his cattle with 
Durham, and has some tine Jersey red hogs. Mr. 
and Mrs. Willcockson are members of the Baptist 
Church, and are the parents of the following 
children: William Carroll, Robert Alexander, 
Lawrence Jetferson, and Anna Lee, who died at 
the age of eighteen years. 

Joseph H. Willcockson ranks among the first of 
the many wealthy farmers of Greene Coiinty, Ark. 
He was born in Tennessee in 1845, and is the sixth 
of a family of fifteen children born to the marriage 
of Sam Willcockson and Frances Gibson, who were 
Tennesseeans, and came to Greene County, Ark., 
in 1850. They settled on a tract of land on the 
west side of Crowley's Ridge, but sold this soon 
after and purchased 200 acres near by, on which 
he erected a steam saw and grist-mill in 1853, 
which was the first mill of the kind in the county. 
Mr. Willcockson owned this mill for many years, 
and many of the houses and buildings in this sec- 
tion are made of lumber sawed here. He soon 
had 100 acres of his land cleared, on which he 
erected a nice residence. He became quite wealthy, 
and continued to add to his original purchase until 
he was the owner of about 1,000 acres of land. He 
was a conspicuous figure in the political circles of 
his section, and besides holding man}' minor offices 
in the county, he was elected to the State legisla- 
ture from Greene County, which position he filled 
for two successive terms. He assisted in the or- 
ganization of the school districts of this locality, 
and held the office of school commissioner for 
many yeiirs. In 1870 or 1871 he disj)osed of his 
extensive farming interests in the county, and 
moved to Newton County, where he purchased 
a large milling jiroperty, consisting of a saw and 
flouring mill, and a cotton-gin. Here he did a 
successful business for many years, and sold out at 
a large advance over what he originally paid. He 



next moved to Brown County, where he bought a 
farm, which he managed until his death, in 1886, 
at the age of seventy years. His widow still sur- 
vives him, and resides on the estate left by her 
active and enterprising husband. Joseph H. Will- 
cockson, the immediate subject of this sketch, was 
reared on his father's extensive farm, and in his 
youth received limited educational advantages. At 
the age of twenty years he rented land and began 
farming for himself, and after one year bought a 
tract of wild land ou the St. Francis River, where 
he cleared about fifty acres, erected buildings, and 
made a good and pleasant home. Subsequently 
he married Miss Matilda McDaniel, a native of 
Greene County, and a daughter of John McDaniel, 
who belonged to one of the first four or five fami- 
lies who settled in Greene County. After resid- 
ing one year in Bethel, Mr. Willcockson bought a 
tract of 160 acres of wild land on Crowley's 
Ridge, and here his wife died, at the end of two 
years, leaving two children: John Gibson and 
Virginia C. (wife of John Patton). who resides on a 
farm belonging to Mr. Willcockson. The latter has 
improved his property very much, and has seven- 
ty-two acres under cultivation and fence, on which 
is a good orchard of assorted fruits. In 1888 he 
erected a commodious dwelling, which is fitted up 
with many conveniences. He carries on general 
farming, but makes a specialty of raising corn, and 
this year (1889) has devoted fifty acres to that grain. 
In 1888 he raised 2,000 bushels. Miss Mary Jane 
'Roberds became his wife in 1884. She was born 
in Arkansas, and by Mr. Willcockson is the mother 
of two children : Ovid Clifton and Ota Louisa. 
Mr. Willcockson is a Democrat politically, but is 
not an active politician. 

T. R. Willcockson, sheriff of Greene County, 
Ark., was born in Giles County, Tenn., August 
10, 1848, and is the son of Samuel and Frances 
(Gibson) Willcockson. the father a native of Vir- 
ginia, and the mother of Kentucky. They were 
married in Tennessee, and there remained until 
October, 1851, when they immigrated to what is 
now Greene County, Ark., coming through in 
wagons, and locating near the old Crowley farm, 
in Cache Township. Heje the father bought a 



171" 



foity-acre' tract, which was about the first deeded 
land in this section of Arkansas. He also put up 
the first steam, saw and grist-mill in Greene County, 
and ran this for several years. He also carried on 
farming, and being one of the earliest settlers, ex- 
perienced all the hardships and privations incident 
to pioneer life. In 1808 he removed to Boone 
County, Ark., where he died in June, 1886. The 
mother is still living. They were the parents of 
fifteen children, only six now living: John W., 
Isaac (deceased), William and Mary Annie (twins 
and both deceased), David C. (deceased), James 
(deceased), Joseph, Thomas R. , Sina, Sarah, Sam- 
uel (deceased), Marion and Frances (twins and 
deceased), Polk and Virginia. T. R. Willcockson, 
the subject of this sketch, was but an infant when 
he was brought to Greene County by his parents, 
and here he grew to manhood and received his 
education in the common schools. He was reared 
on the farm, and tilling the soil has been his chief 
pursuit ever since. He owns 241 acres of land, 
with about sixty acres under cultivation. He was 
elected sheriff and collector in 1880, served four 
years, and in 1886 was re-elected to the same office, 
which position he is now filling. He was married 
in 1868 to Miss Mary Bowlin, who bore him six 
children: Callie, Lucy, Deany, Mack, Sudie and 
Nannie. Mrs. AVillcockson is a member of the 
Baptist Church, and Mr. Willcockson is a member 
of the K. of P. 

J. W. Williams is a native of Panola County, 
Miss., where he was born in the year 1859, being 
the eldest of two children born to John and Mary 
J. (Bishop) Williams, the former of whom was an 
extensive farmer of that section for a long time, 
whither he had come with his father at an early 
day. When the war broke out he enlisted in the 
Confederate army in the company known as the 
"Sardis Blues," and was killed in the battle of 
Shiloh, on the 7th of April, 1862. His widow is 
still living, and resides in Mississippi on the old 
homestead. J. W. Williams was reared to farm 
labor and attended the common schools until four- 
teen years of age, when he began working for 
himself, continuing at farm labor for seven years. 
In 1880, at the age of twenty-one years, he came 



to Greene County, Ark., and located at Walcott, 
where he has since been engaged in renting land; 
this year farming on some of Capt. Crowley's 
property. He contemplates entering a tract of 
160 acres in the fall. He is active and enterpris- 
ing and takes an interest in all matters pertaining 
to the good of the locality in which he has made 
his home. On the 7th of October, 1888, he was 
married to Miss Susie Eubanks, a native of Greene 
County, and a daughter of James and Mary E. 
(Gramling) Eubanks [see sketch of Judge Gram 
ling]. The former came to Greene County, Ark., 
at an early day and entered a large tract of land, 
on which ho did extensive improving, clearing 
about 160 acres and erecting excellent buildings. 
He died a few years ago, and is remembered by all 
as an honest gentlemen and an estimal)le citizen. 
A brother of J. W. Williams, Charles H., came 
with him to Arkansas and married Miss Janie 
Eubanks, a sister of Mrs. J. W. Williams. 

William Worrell, stockman and farmer, was 
born in Tennessee in 1839, and is the tenth of 
twelve chikken born to Peter and Martha Nancy 
Worrell, who were born, reared and married in 
Virginia, and emigrated to Madison County, Tenn. , 
in 1833. They purchased a farm of 103 acres, 
which they improved and made their home until 
their respective deaths. The father died in 1871 
at the age of seventy-four years, and the mother 
when her son William was a child. The latter 
was reared to farm labor and attended the public 
schools until the age of twenty, then renting 
land and farming for three years. In 1862 he en- 
listed in Company C, Twenty-second Tennessee 
Infantry, Confederate States Army, and was in 
the battles of Belmont, Richmond and Mur- 
freesboro, where he was captured and sent to 
Camp Douglas, at Chicago, and there he took the 
oath of allegiance and returned home, where he 
was almost an invalid for three years. In 1864 
he purchased a farm of 303i acres, where he 
resided until 1871, making many improvements, 
then sold out and came to Greene County, Ark. , 
settling near Gainesville, where ho lived for two 
years, later moving to a tract of 360 acres, which 
he liad jM-eviously purchased. Here he cleared 



|M> 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



about 150 acres, erected good buildings, set out 
orchards, and now lias one of the most pleasant 
homes in the county, but owns only eighty acres, 
having sold the rest. He has given considerable 
attention to stock raising, and raises a good grade 
of Berkshire hogs. March 20, 1888, he purchased 
a fine Norman- Perch eron stallion, named George, 
which weighs 1,060 pounds, and is finely marked 
in all points. This animal has an excellent record 
from Indiana where it was raised, and shows a fine 
grade of colts from last season. It is undoubt- 
edly one of the best horses in Northeast Arkansas. 
He also owns another horse named Buck, which has 
an enviable record. On the 7th of July, 1859, 
Mr. Worrell was united in marriage to Miss Ann 
Eliza Freeman, a native of Tennessee, and a 
daughter of AVilliam and Nancy Freeman, who 
were also Tennesseeans, coming to Northeast Ar- 
kansas in 1859. To Mr. and Mrs. Worrell have 
been born the following children : John Isaac, who 
is married and resides in Greene County, and 
Loueza, wife of J. R. Hicks, also of this county, 
being the only ones living. Those deceased are 
Newson, who died at the age of twenty years; 
Luhx Bell, who died when eighteen; Willie, at 
the age of sixteen ; Savannah, who died in infancy, 
and Eveline, at the age of eight years. The fam- 
ily attend the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mrs. 
Worrell takes considerable interest in the culture 
of bees, and has forty stands, all doing well. 

Henry Wrape, manufacturer of tight barrel 
staves, at Paragould, was born in Jennings County, 
Ind. , January 15, 1850, and is the son of Henry, 
Sr. , and Ann (Bible) Wrape, the father a native 
of Ireland, and the mother of New York State. 
Henry Wrape, Sr., emigrated from the Emerald 
Isle when a boy, locating for a while in New York 
State, and went from there in 1850 to Jennings 
County, Ind. He became a large railroad con- 
tractor, and was on the I. M. R. R., and on sev- 
eral other noted railroads. Both parents died in 
Indiana. They had four children: John. Robert, 
Kate, wife of Able T. Morgan, and Henry, who is 
the youngest of the family. The latter was reared 
and educated in Indiana, at Notre Dame, the re- 
nowned Catholic school. He assisted his brother 



on the farm until si.xteen years of age, when he 
engaged in merchandising at North Vernon, Ind. , 
and this continued for one year. He then took a 
trip to South America, stopping at Buenos Ayres to 
settle up the estate of an uncle. He was absent 
about eighteen months, and on his return engaged 
in the stone-quarry business at North Vernon, 
which he followed for five years. In 1882 he 
came to Greene County, Ark, and embarked in his 
present business, which he has since continued. 
He has a large factory, and employs about fifty 
men. He makes a good stave, and turns out about 
5,000,000 per year. He is president of the Para- 
gould & Buffalo Island Railroad, which was built in 
1888, and which extends to the St. Francis River. 
Mr. Wrape is one of the prosperous and public-spir- 
ited men of Paragould. He was married in 18S5 to 
Miss Emma Davis, a native of Indiana, and to them 
have been born two children: Harold and Emma. 
Mr. and Mrs. Wrape are members of the Catholic 
Church. He is the owner of 4,000 acres of land 
in Missouri, and a number of acres in this county. 
Hezekiah B. Wright. In reviewing the various 
business interests of Greene County, Ark. , the name 
of Wright is found to be one of the most prominent, 
especially in connection with farming and mer- 
chandising. Mr. Wright was born in Hickman 
County, Tenn. , in 1829, and there made his home 
until 1850. when he came to Arkansas, having 
commenced the battle of life at the age of eighteen 
years. Two years later he located on his present 
farm, and has about 250 acres of land in an excel- 
lent state of cultivation, besides several other 
tracts, all of which he has earned by energy and 
good judgment. He is also engaged in general 
merchandising at Gainesville, the style of the firm 
being H. B. Wright & Co.. and they are enjoying 
a prosperous trade, owing to their thorough knowl- 
edge of the details of the business and the wants 
of the public, combined with honorable dealing. 
Mr. Wright was married to Mrs. Martha J. (Stares) 
Perry, who died in 1863, having borne two chil- 
dren by Mr. Wright: William J. and John N. 
(twins); and one child by her first husband, Mr. 
Perry: Mary, the wife of H. C. Sharer, of Wright 
County, Mo. Mr. Wright took for his second wife 



^- 



^f==± 



GBEENE COUNTY. 



187 



Mr.s. Peimelia E. (Ward) Wood, widow of C. 
Wood. Their iiiiiou has resulted in the birth of 
eight children: Joseph D., Franklin C. , Alvin T. , 
Emma M., Anna A., Revis and Hezekiah B. j 
Addie J. died when two years and nine months old. 
Mr. and Mrs. A\' right are members of the Mission- 
ar}- Baptist Church, to which their childi'en, Jo- 
seph, Frank and Emma, also belong. Mr. Wright 
is a Royal Arch Mason, and in his political views 
is a Democrat; he was elected county coroner on 
that ticket in 1858, and held the position until the { 
breaking out of the late Civil War. He is a strong 
advocate of and a liberal contributor to schools 
and chui'ches. He is the only surviving member 
of a family of three children (Thompson and Re- 
becca being the other two) born to John and Sarah 
( Barr) Wright, who were natives of South Carolina 
and Kentucky, respectively. When a small boy 
the father was taken by his parents to Tennessee, 
and resided first in Robertson County, then in 
Hickman County, where he attained his majority, 
and where his father died at an advanced age. He i 
was the eldest child, and in 1849 moved to Arkan- ' 
sas, and died in Greene County, in 1867, at the 
age of sixty-five years, his wife dying in 1851, 
aged about forty-seven years. 

Christopher C. Wright (deceased) was one of 
the representative citizens of Greene County, and 
followed the occupations of farmer and miller the 
principal part of his life. He was born in Vir- 
ginia in 1S41 and died February 15, 1889, while 
yet in the prime of life. His father, Dr. John 
Wright, is still living in Lunenburgh County, Va. , 
and is a prominent jihysician and farmer of that 
State. Christo])her C. Wright remained in his 
native State \nitil nineteen years of age, and seven 
years of that time were spent at the tobacco-manu- 
facturing Ijusiness. He then went to Missouri and 
remained in Franklin County until the breaking 
out of the late unjjleasantness between the North 
and South, when he went Soutli and joined the Con- 
federate army. He was wounded at the battle of 
Shiloh, and taken to Memphis. Tenn. , where he 
was discharged. He then went to Arkansas, re- 
mained on Crowley's Ridge for a numl)er of months, 
and then re-enlisted in Price's army, with which 



ho continued until the last raid through Missouri. 
After the war he came Ijack to Clay County, Ark. 
(then Greene County), where he remained three 
years, and at last settled on what was known as 
the Meredith farm, at the original site for the 
county seat of Greene County, where his widow 
now resides. The farm was then unimproved, but 
Mr. Wright went to work and soon had it under 
cultivation and in fine condition. In fact he was 
80 industrious and such an inveterate worker that 
he undermined his health, and death was the re- 
sult. Aside from his farming interest he also ran 
a saw and grist-mill, which he conducted until 
within a short time of his death, when he sold 
the saw-mill, and afterward ran a grist-mill and 
cotton-gin. This Mrs. Wright now manages and 
conducts. Mr. Wright was a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, to which he was a 
liberal contributor, and although quiet and unob- 
trusive in his demeanor, not a better man was to 
be found in the county. Well respected and 
cordially liked by all, his death, which was a sad 
blow to his wife and children, was also lamented 
by his many friends. He was married first at Oak 
Bluff, Ark., to Miss Ann Boothe, who died about 
one year afterward. His second marriage was in 
January, 1866, to Miss C. A. Ledbetter, a native 
of Chatham County, N. C, and the daughter of 
Thomas and Frances Ledbetter, also natives of 
North Carolina. Her parents moved to Arkansas 
in 1851 and located in Greene County, within one 
mile of where the mother is still living, at the age 
of seventy-one years. Her father died May 26, * 
1883. To her parents were born nine children, 
two of whom are now deceased. To the marriage 
of Mr. and Mrs. Wright were born eight children, 
seven of whom are living: Charles (died in in- 
fancy), Lillie, Billie, Katy, Thomas M. and John 
H. (twins). Ruby J. and Robert W. Mrs. Wright 
and family have conducted the farm and mill since 
the death of her husband. She and her eldest 
daughter belong to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. 

Dr. T. H. W'yse, president of the Greene 
County Bank, was born in Jones County, N. C, 
April 19, 1827, and is the son of James and Nancy 



^P 



188 



HISTORY or ARKANSAS. 



(Nunn) Wyse, who were natives of North Carolina, 
and who emigrated to Tennessee in 1838, in that 
State passing their last days. The father was a 
farmer by occui)ation. Dr. T. H. Wyse, one of 
ten children, four now living, was reared in what 
is now Crockett County, Tenn. , and received his 
education in the common schools. At the age of 
twenty- four years he began the study of medicine, 
and graduated at the University of Nashville in 
1854. He then came to Greene County, Ark., 
locating at Gainesville, then the county seat, where 
he practiced for about twenty-five years. He was 
also engaged in mercantile business at that 
place for eighteen years. He lias now retired from 
practice. In November, 1887, he moved to Para- 
gould, and in February, 1888, the Greene County 
Bank was organized, with Dr. Wyse for president, 
which position he now holds. In 1861 he was 



elected to the legislature and served one term. 
He served six years as county treasurer of Greene 
County, and has been one of the county's most 
prominent citizens. He owns some 2,000 acres 
of land in Greene County, about the same number 
in Randolph County, and has nearly 400 acres in 
cultivation. He was married first, in 1851, at 
Brownsville, Tenn. , to Mary Williams, and his 
second marriage was to Miss Alice Kibler, of Ran- 
dolph County, Ark. No children have ever blessed 
his marriages. The Doctor is a member of the 
I Masonic fraternity, a member of the I. O. O. V. , 
and also belongs to the Chapter. He has repre- 
sented both of these lodges several times in the 
grand lodges, and takes a great interest in each 
of them. He is also a liberal contributor to 
worthy enterprises, aiding by his influence in all 
laudable movements. 







CLAY COUNTY. 



189 



-4-^-^ 



Clay County— Location and Description— Duainage— Timber— Soil— Natural Resources— Live 

Stock — Taxation — Population— Railroads— Settlement— County Organization— Change 

OF Name— The County Divided— Public Buildings— County Officers— Politics— 

The Courts— Legal Executions— The Civil War— Towns and Villages— 

Newspapers- Education and Religion— Biographical Sketches. 






I love everything that's old — old friends. 

Old times, old manners, old books. o)(lwine. — Ooldsmith. 




J. AY COUNTY lies in tho 
northeast corner of the State, 
and is bounded north by 
Ripley and Butler Counties, 
in Missouri ; east by Dunklin 
County, of that State; south 
by Greene County, Ark. , and 
west by Randolph, in the latter State. 
It is separated from Dunklin County, 
Mo. , by the St. Francis River, and its 
boundary lines are as follows: Com- 
mencing where the line between the 
States of Arkansas and Missouri inter- 
sects the St. Francis River; thence down 
said river, following its meanders, to 
the line between Sections 21 and 28, 
Township 19 north, Range 9 east; thence west on 
the section lines to the range line between Ranges 
2 and 8 east ; thence north on the range line to Black 
River; thence with the meanders of that river to the 
lino Ijetween Sections 15 and 16, in Township 19 
north, Range 3 east; thence north on the subdivis- 
ional lines to the line between Townships 20 and 
21 north; thence west to the range line between 
Ranges 2 and 8 east; thence north on the range 
line to the State line between Arkansas and Mis- 
souri; thence east on the State line to the place of 



beginning. The area of the county is 613 square 
miles, or 392,820 acres, about one-tenth of which 
is improved. 

A strip of broken or hilly lands, averaging 
between seven and eight miles in width, known as 
Crowley's Ridge, extends through the county in a 
southwesterly direction from its northeast corner. 
The summit of the hills in this tract reaches an 
altitude of fi'om 100 to 200 feet above the sun-ound- 
ing country. There are also four or five sections 
of hilly lands in the northwest portion of the coun- 
ty, west of CuiTent River; and all the balance of 
the county varies only a few feet from a level sur- 
face. The village of Knobel, on the St. Louis, 
Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad, is 181 feet 
above sea level, and this is about the average 
elevation of all except the hilly portions of the 
county; hence the highest point in the county 
may reach an elevation of 400 feet above the sea. 
All that portion lying east of the broken or hUly 
tract above described is drained by the St. Francis 
River and its tributaries, a large part of it being 
subject to overflow in the winter and spring, and 
that division located west is drained by Cache, 
Black and Current Rivers and their tributaries. 

Cache River enters the county from the north, 
near the middle of Range 7 east, and flows ou 



^«- 



190 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



through the county in a southwesterly direction 
to Cache Lake, on the southern boundarj' line, in 
the eastern half of Range 5; thus dividing the 
area of the county into nearly two equal portions. 
It drains the western slope of Crowley's Ridge, 
and central portion of the territory. Black River 
enters fi'om the north about two miles east of the 
range line, between Ranges 5 and f3, and Hows, on 
a very tortuous route, toward the southwest, leav- 
ing the county at a point about two miles north of 
its sonthwest corner. Current River enters the 
county from the west, a short distance south of the 
northwest corner, and flows thence easterly to the 
second tier of sections, thence in a southerly and 
finally in a southwesterly direction, passing out at 
the western boundary of Section 80, Township 20 
north, Range 3 east. The bottom lands along the 
St. Francis and Black Rivers usually overflow in 
the late winter and early spring to a depth of from 
one to two feet, and those along the Current River 
from three to five feet. The water, however, re- 
cedes so early as seldom to interfere with the rais- 
ing of summer crops, and the overflow always de- 
posits a sediment which enriches and re-fertilizes 
the land. It has been demonstrated that the river 
beds are sufficiently low to admit of the complete 
drainage and reclamation of nearly all swamp and 
overflowed lands in the county. Such can be done 
by removing the drift and rubbish from the rivers, 
straightening their channels, and constructing lat- 
eral ditches to empty into them. This, however, 
can only be accomplished by a State drainage law, 
which will assess for the purpose the lands alike of 
the non-resident and resident owners. 

The entire county was originally covered with 
a dense forest, consisting of four varieties of white 
oak, several of black and red oak, three of gum, 
several of hickory, a little walnut, cypress, ash, 
maple, honey locust, poplar, beech, elm, sassafras, 
catalpa, etc., with an iindergrowth of dogwood, 
pawpaw, redbud, spice-wood, hazel, privet, horn- 
beam, huckleberry, blackberry,' etc. Some trees 
of the largest kinds of timber measured from 
four to six feet across the stump. Much of the 
timber has been cut into logs and floated down the 
i streams and thus shipped away; and since the 



county has been traversed with railroads, a great 
deal has been cut into lumber and shipped by rail, 
and there is yet a seemingly ine.\haustible supply. 
The average acreage production of lumber is care- 
fully estimated as follows: Cypress, 5,000 feet: 
poplar and sweet gum, 3,000 feet each: white oak, 
2,000 feet; hickory, ash, walnut and black oak to- 
gether, 3,000 feet. Logs can be rafted on all the 
rivers mentioned and on some of their tributaries. 
It is estimated that each acre of timbered land 
will produce from twenty-five to thirty cords of 
wood, after the saw timber is taken away. 

The soil of the entire county is moderately 
rich and fertile, that of the bottom or overflowed 
lands being mostly composed of alluvial deposits; 
the balance is formed of sand, clay and vegetable 
mould, and the whole is imderlaid with a clay 
subsoil. 

At present the cutting and shipping of logs 
and lumber, with the running of the many saw- 
mills in the county, which give employment to a 
large number of men, constitute one of the leading 
industries and form a source of considerable rev- 
enue to the people of the county. This occupation 
will continue for many years, or imtil the supply 
of timber becomes exhausted. The vegetable pro- 
ductions, as shown by the census of 1880, were as 
follows: Indian corn, 343,836 bushels; oats, 
12,406 bushels; wheat, 13,408 bushels; hay, 100 
tons; cotton, 2,307 bales; Irish potatoes, 4,427 
bushels; sweet potatoes, 5,381 bushels; tobacco, 
11,390 pounds. These amounts were then pro- 
duced from much less than one-tenth of the area 
of the county. Considering the large increase of 
the present population over that of 1880, together 
with the advanced improvements, it is certain that 
the amount of vegetable productions now far ex- 
ceeds, and in some things more than doubles that 
of 1880. Surely "Cotton is king" in Clay Coun- 
ty, as it is the moneyed crop, and the source of the 
greatest income. It is raised to the exclusion of 
many other things that might be produced in 
larger quantities. Some of the late immigrants 
have begun the raising of clover and tame grasses, 
for which the soil is well adapted, with a view of 
making the raising of stock a leading industrj-. 



^ 



^1^ 



i£: 



CLAY COUNTY. 



nil 



The numlier of live animals in tlie county in 
ISSO, according to the census of that year, were 
as follows: Horses, 1,444; mules and asses, 832; 
cattle, (i,574; sheep, ],9fiO; hogs, 24,277. The 
number of animals within the county, according 
to late assessment rolls, are: Horses, 1,698; mules 
and asses, 922; cattle, 8.802; sheep, 1.159: hogs, 
1,325; a large gain in all except sheep and hogs. 
The reduced price of wool accounts for the decrease 
in the number of sheep, and the hogs enumerated 
in 1880 were all that were produced and on hand 
during the year, including those slaughtered and 
sold; while those recently enumerated included 
only those on hand when assessed for taxation; 
consequently there is not a decline in this direc- 
tion. As before stated, the county is well sup- 
plied with streams, and an abundance of good well 
water can be obtained almost anywhere at a depth 
of from twenty to forty feet by simply digging, 
without any blasting or boring through rock. 
These facts, coupled with the great adaptability 
for the growing of tame grasses and clover, the 
mildness of the climate, and the good shipping 
facilities, must eventually make Clay one of the 
best stock-growing counties in the United States, 
a truth of which farmers may profitably avail 
themselves. It is also well adapted to the grow- 
ing of all kinds of fruit common to this latitude. 
Fruit-growing however has not been made the 
specialty that it might. Some of the late immi- 
grants have set out, and are preparing to do so, 
large orchards and develop this industry, having 
perfect confidence of success. 

In 18S0 the real estate of the county was as- 
sessed at !?408,561, and the personal property at 
$244,717, making a total of $713,278; and the 
total taxes charged thereon were $10,022. The 
real estate of the county, as shown by recent 
assessment rolls, was valued at $1,211,258, and 
the personal property at $522,227. making a total 
of $1,733,485, upon which the total taxes charged 
were $25, 502. 25. By comparison it will be seen 
that since 1880 the taxable property and taxes 
charged have much more than doubled. The 
county has fair public buildings, is out of debt, and 
its scrip is worth one hundred cents on the dollar. 



There are twenty-six saw mills and eight stave 
factories within the county. 

In 1880 the population of Clay County was 
white 7,191, colored 22, total 7,213. Since that 
time, and especially within the last four years, 
emigration has so increased that the population 
at this writing (1889) is estimated at about double 
that of 1880. 

The St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern 
Railroad runs in a southwesterly direction across 
the western half of Clay County, the length of the 
main line within its territory being about nine- 
teen miles. The Helena branch extends in a 
southeasterly direction from Knobel, and has a 
length of about four miles within the county. The 
St. Louis & Texas Railroad crosses the St. Francis 
River in Section 18, Township 21, Range 9, where 
it enters the county, and run.s southwesterly along 
the eastern side of Crowley's Ridge, departing a 
few hundred yards below Rector. The length of 
its line here is about seventeen miles. The com- 
bined length of the railroads within the county is 
forty miles, not including a few l)ranches extend- 
ing one or two miles out to certain saw mills. 
The main line of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain 
& Southern Railroad was completed through the 
county early in the 70' s. 

The Helena branch of this road, and the St. 
Louis & Texas (Cotton Belt) Railroad were com- 
pleted through this vicinity in 1882. 

The settlement of the territory composing Clay 
County began al)out the year 1.S32, but increased 
very slowly for the first twenty years, after which 
it advanced quite rapidly, until the outbreak of 
the Civil War, when it came to a standstill. Its 
most noticeable growth has l)een within the last 
five years, immigrants having located here from 
Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana. Illinois and other 
States. Among the first settlers in the western 
part of the county were John J. Griffin, who 
located on Black River in 1832, and Abraham Rol)- 
erts, who settled a few years later near the present 
site of Corning. Prominent pioneers in the east- 
ern part of the county — mostly on Crowley's Ridge 
— were William and Elihu Davis, who settled early 
in the 30' s and were soon followed by the Payne, 



i\^L^ 



l'.t2 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Hollis and other families. Among the settlers of 
the 40's were William H. Mack, James Watson 
and others, and during the 50' s the families of 
the Liddells, Millers, J. G. Dudley, Buck Wagster, 
B. H. Mitchell, William Dean, H. M. Granade, 
James Campbell, Singleton Copeland, Edward 
Allen, C. H. Mobley, Dr. Simmons were some of 
those who became settlers. Nearly all of the ear- 
liest comers were from Tennessee. Later immi- 
grants came from other Southern States, and now 
many are entering from the North. 

Clay County was organized as Clayton County, 
in accordance with an act of the General Assembly, 
approved March 24, 1873, and became a part of 
the Third judicial circuit and of the First Con- 
gressional district. That part of it now known as 
the Eastern district was taken from Greene, and 
that known as the Western district was removed 
from Randolph County. The county seat was 
originally located at Corning, on the lot of ground 
now occupied by the present court-house in that 
place. The first term of the coimty court was held 
at Corning, beginning on the 16th day of May, 
1873. Soon after a temporary frame court-house, 
22x40 feet in size, containing two rooms, was built, 
by order of the court, under the supervision of the 
sheriff. A common jail was also erected; subse- 
quently the question of the removal of the coimty 
seat to Boydsville — a more central point — began 
to be agitated, and on the 30th of June, 1874, an 
election was held for the purpose of submitting the 
question to the electors of the county, and when 
the votes were counted it was found, by the court, 
that the people, by a majority of 310. had voted in 
favor of removal. Thereupon the court declared 
Boydsville to be the county seat. However, such 
strong resistance to this decision was manifested 
that no permanent removal of records was made 
for a long time. 

Finally, after a lapse of a few years, the ques- 
tion was again submitted to the people at an elec- 
tion held May 22, 1877, on which occasion forty- 
two votes were cast against the removal and 603 
in favor of it, making a majority of 561 in favor 
of the project, and the court again declared Boyds ■ 
ville to be the county seat, to which place the 



records were soon removed and placed in a tem- 
porary court-house, previously erected by order of 
the county court. The first term of the county 
court was held in Boydsville beginning on Monday 
October 1, 1877. 

By an act of the General Assembly of the 
State, approved December 6, 1875, the name • of 
' ' Clayton ' ' County was changed to ' ' Clay. ' ' 

Having lost the county seat, the people of Corn- 
ing and the western portion of the county, finding 
it difficult to reach Boydsville, commenced to con- 
sider the question of dividing the county into two 
districts. Consequently the legislature, by an act 
approved February 23, 1881, provided that the 
county should be divided into two judicial districts, 
the "Eastern" and the "Western," and that the 
following described line should separate them: 
Commencing at tlie center of the main chan- 
nel of Black River where it crosses the Missouri 
and Arkansas State line; thence down the main 
channel of said river to the range line between 
Ranges 5 and 6, in Township 21; thence south on 
the range line to the west bank of Cache River; 
thence with the west bank of Cache River or lake 
to the line between Clay and Greene Counties. 
The act further provided that the seat of justice 
for the Western district should 'be at Corning; 
that the circuit, chancery and probate courts 
should be held both at Boydsville and at Corning; 
that the circuit courts established in the re- 
spective districts of the county should be as sepa- 
rate and distinct, and have the same relations to 
each other, as if they were of distinct counties; 
that the sheriff, clerk, treasurer and probate judge 
of the county should be the same for both districts; 
that the financial affairs of each district should be 
kept as separate and distinct as though they were 
separate counties, and that the offices for the West- 
ern district should be filled by the deputy county 
officers. 

After dispensing with the temjtorary court- 
house at Boydsville, the present two-story frame 
court-house, with the hall and four rooms on the 
first floor, and court-room on the second, was 
erected, about 1881. The present log and board 
jail, with iron cells, at Boydsville, was erected 



3?11 






CLAY COUNTY. 



l'J3 



immediately after the county seat was perma- 
neutly located there.* The public buildings at 
Corning consist of a court-house similar to the one 
at Boydsville, and the original jail with iron cells, 
which latter were put in immediately or soon after 
the county was divided into districts. The county 
has no ' ' poor farm ' " or asylum for her paiipers. 
The latter are let out separately for their keeping, 
to the lowest responsible bidders. 

Following is a list of the county officers of 
Clay County, from its formation to the present 
time: 

Judges: T. M. Holliiield, 1874-78; E. N. 
Ro^'all, 1878-86; Robert Liddell, present incum- 
bent, first elected in 1886. 

Clerks: T. L. Martin, 1873-74; W. H. Smith, 
1874-78; R. Liddell, 1878-86; W. E. Spence, 
present incumbent, elected in 1886. 

Sheriffs: William G. Akers, 1873-74; E. N. 
Royall, 1874-76; E. M. Allen, 1876-78 ;t J. A. 
McNiel, 1878-86; G. M. McNiel, 1886-88; B. B. 
Biffle, present incumbent, elected in 1888. 

Treasurers: William Little, 1873-74; James 
Blackshare, 1874-78; John Bearden, 1878-80; N. 
J. Burton. 1880-82; W. S. Blackshare, 1882-84; 
J. S. Simpson, 1884-86; A. L. Blackshare, present 
incumbent, first elected in 1886. 

Coroners: J. Cunningham, 1873-74; J. J. 
Payne, 1874-76; J. N. Cummins, 1876-78; H. W. 
Cagle, 1878-84; Dallas Taylor, 1884-86; D. G. 
See, elected in 1886, but failed to qualify; office 
since vacant. 

Surveyors: W. C. Grimsley, 1873-74; E. M. 
Allen, Jr., 1874-76; A. J. Caldwell, 1876-82; E. 
M. Allen, 1882-86; A. Williams, 1886-88; E. M. 
Allen, present incumbent, elected in 1888. 

Assessors: E. N. Royall, 1873-74; J. S. 
Rodgers, 1874-76; W. H. Mack, 1876-78; J. W. 
Rodgers, 1878-82; Henry Holcomb, 1882-86; J. 
S. Blackshare, present incumbent, first elected in 
1886. 

The county at this writing is represented in 
the State legislature by Hon. J. W. Dollison, of 

* The cells were those taken from the jail at Corning. 

+E. X. Royall from September, 1877, I'icc Allen, sus- 
pended by order of circuit court. 



Greenway, and the offices of the Western district 
are filled by the following persons, viz. : E. D. 
Estes, deputy clerk; W. A. Brown, deputy sheriff; 
E. V. Sheeks, deputy treasurer; Jacob Brobst, 
deputy assessor; Z. T. Daniels, deputy surveyor. 
The judge of the county court is also judge of the 
probate court, and the clerk, by virtue of his 
office, is recorder of deeds, the sheriff, by virtue of 
his office, being collector of revenues. The school 
examiner for the Eastern district is R. L. O. Bryen, 
and for the Western district, F. G. Taylor. 

Politically the county of Clay is strongly Dem- 
ocratic. At the State election, held in September, 
1888, J. P. Eagle, the Democratic candidates for 
Governoi', received 1,108 votes, and C. M. Nor- 
wood, the Wheeler, Labor Union and Republican 
candidate, received 717 votes. At the same time 
B. B. Chism, Democratic candidate for secretary 
of State, received 1,121 votes, and G. W. Terry, 
opposition candidate for the same office, received 
697 votes. Only a light vote was cast at the pres- 
idential election. 

The several courts of the county consist of 
the county, probate and circuit courts. The judge 
of the county court is also judge of the probate 
court, and the clerk of the circuit court is also 
clerk of the county and probate courJ;8, and ex-officio 
recorder. 

The county cnurt, which is held only at Boyds- 
ville, meets on the first Mondays of January, 
April, July and October of each year, and the pro 
bate court meets at Boydsville on the third Mon- 
days, and at Corning on the fourth Mondays of 
the same months. The circuit court convenes at 
Corning on the first Mondays of January and 
August of each year, and on the third Mondays of 
the same months at Boydsville. 

The local bar of Clay County consists of G. 
B. Holifield, of Boydsville, F. G. Taylor, G. B. 
Oliver and J. C. Staley, of Corning, John Jones, 
of Peach Orchard, J. A. Barlow, of Rector, and 
H. W. Moore, of Greenway. 

Only two men have been legally executed in 
Clay County for the crime of murder; one of 
these being Bent Taylor, hanged for the murder 
of Rilev Black, and the other Lafayette Melton, 



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194 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



for the murder of Fank Hale. Both were executed 
at Corning, the former in iSSti, and the latter in 
1884. Other crimes have been committed within 
the coimty, for which the perpetrators have re- 
ceived lighter punishments. 

The territory over which Clay now extends 
was but slightly over-run and devastated during 
the Civil War of 1861-65. The citizens at that 
time, having emigrated mostly from Tennessee and 
other .slaveholding States, were in full sympathy 
with the Southern cause, in consequence of which 
a goodly number of soldiers were furnished for 
the Confederate army, while none joined the Union 
forces. Three companies of soldiers, organized re- 
spectively by Capts. F. S. White, Reed and E. M. 
Allen, were recruited principally from what is now 
Clay County. A few also enlisted in the company 
commanded by Capt. G. D. Byers. A company 
of Home Guards consisting of old men was or- 
ganized. In the spring of 1863 Col. Daniels with 
a force of Federal cavalry moved southward on 
Crowley's Ridge, and at a point about two miles 
northeast of the present site of Rector, came in 
contact with this company of Home Guards, firing 
upon and dispersing them. In this action Squire 
George Lynch of the attacked party was killed. 
There was no general biishwhacking here during 
the war, but a number of citizens were taken out 
and ' ' removed ' ' by scouting parties. 

Of the towns of the county, Advance is a post- 
office in the northeastern part. 

Boydsville, the county seat, situated on the 
southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of 
Section 25, Township 20, Range 6, was established 
in 1877. It contains the court-house and jail, four 
general stores, one drug store, one grocery, one 
hotel, two cotton-gins with grist and saw- mills 
attached, one school-house, two churches — Meth- 
odist Episcopal, South, and Methodist Protestant, 
with a hall over the former; a lodge each of 
Masons, Odd Fellows and Knights of Honor, .some 
mechanics' shops, and a population of about 150. 

Corning, the seat of justice for the Western 
district, situated on Section 6, Township 20, of 
Range 5, and on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & 
Southern Railroad, was established in 1873. It 



contains the court house and jail, six general stores, 
two drug stores, one grocery, three saloons, one 
livery stable, four hotels, one stave factory, two 
cotton-gins with grist mills attached, one wagon 
shop, one blacksmith shop, two shoe shops, three 
church organizations — Methodist Episcopal, South, 
Christian and Baptist — with but one church edifice, 
belonging to the Methodists, one school house, 
postoffice, and a population of about 600. It also 
contains a lodge each of Masons, Good Templars 
and Triple Alliance. 

Don is a postoffice in the western part of the 
county. 

Greenway, a town on the St. Louis & Texas 
Railroad, on Section 28, Township 20, Range 8, 
was laid out in February, 1883, by the South- 
western Improvement Company. It contains four 
general stores, one diug store, two groceries, one 
hardware and furniture store, one saloon, two saw- 
mills, two grist-mills, one stave factory, one school- 
house, two church organizations — Methodist and 
Baptist — five physicians, one attorney, the post- 
office, and a population of about 500. 

Knobel, a station at the junction of the St. 
Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad and 
Helena branch, on the south part of Section 36, 
Township 20, Range 4, was established soon after 
the completion of the railroad. It contains three 
general stores, the railroad buildings, a large hotel, 
one school house and about twenty-five residences. 

Moark, situated on the same railroad, near the 
northern boundary of the county, was established 
soon after the road was completed. It contains 
three saw-mills, one of which is located on Black 
River, three miles east, being connected with the 
village by a wooden tramway, one general store, 
one school house, postoffice, and a few residences. 

Peach Orchard, a station on the St. Louis, 
Iron Mountain & Southern Railroad, on Section 
20, Township 19, Range 4, contains one general 
store, one cotton gin, with sorghum and corn mill 
attached, postoffice, and a few residences. 

Piggott, on the St. Louis & Texas Railroad, on 
Section 10, Town.ship 20, Range 8, was laid out in 
November, 1882. It contains two general stores, 
one drug store, three gi'oceries, one, cotton gin and 



^ 



>^ 



CLAY COUNTY. 



iy5 



grist-mill combined, one stave factory, one hotel, 
some work-shops, one school house, church and 
hall combined, a lodge of Odd Fellows, a post of 
the (t. a. R., two physicians, and about 150 
inhabitants. 

Pitman, a postoffiee hamlet, is in the extreme 
northwest corner of the county. 

Rector, on the St. Louis & Texas Railroad, on 
the south half of Section 23, Township 19, Range 
7, was laid out in June, 1882, by the Southwestern ; 
Improvement Company. It contains seven gen- 
eral stores, three di*ug stores, one grocery, two 
(temperance) saloons, one hardware and grocery, 
one harness and saddlery store, some work-shojjs, 
a photograph gallery, one stave factory, two saw- 
mills, two cotton gins, with grist-mills attached, i 
one livery stable, two hotels, one meat market, a 
millinery store, postoffiee, four church organiza- 
tions — Baptist, Cumberland Presbyterian, Meth- 
odist Episcopal, South, and Methodist Protestant; { 
two church edifices, a lodge each of Masons, Odd 
Fellows and Knights of Honor, a public school- ' 
house, two select or private schools, four physi- 
cians, and a population of 700 or over. 

St. Francis, on the St. Louis & Texas Railroad, 
on the west bank of St. Francis River, was laid 
out in January, 1883, by the Southwestern Im- i 
provement Company. It contains six general 
stores, one dtxig store, four groceries, four saw- 
mills, one stave factory, one meat market, some 
work shops, two churches, Methodist and Cum- 
berland Presbyterian, two hotels, one school house, 
restaurant, postoffiee, two physicians, a lodge of 
Triple Alliance, and a population of about 200. 

Thnrman is a postoffiee seven miles west of 
Corning. 

Vidette is a postoffiee ten miles northwest of 
Corning. 

Williams is a postoffiee four miles west of Moark. 
The press of Clay County has ever exerted no 
slight influence in the growth and development of 
this section. While not numerous, those journals 
found here are ever active and energetic in giving 
to the outside unprejudiced, candid facts relating 
to the locality whose interests they represent. 
The Corning Index, a six-column folio weekly 



newspaper, at Corning, was established in the fall 
of 1887. It is published by Clyde C. Estes, and 
edited by E. D. Estes in an acceptable manner, in 
dicating ability and force. 

The Clay County Record, a seven-column week 
ly newspaper published at Rector, was established 
in January, 1889, by its present proprietor, Mr. 
Taylor. This joiu-nal also has at heart the welfare 
of the community, and enjoys a liberal circulation. 
Before the inauguration of the free school sys- 
tem, the educational facilities of the territory now 
composing this county were very meager. The 
old subscription schools taught in the primitive log 
school houses were generally of little benefit to the 
country. The scholastic pojjalation of the county 
in 1882 amounted to 2,863, live of them being 
colored, and in 1886 it reached 3,274, with only 
one colored — an increase, in the four years, of 411. 
In the latter year only 1,791 pupils (all white) 
were enrolled in the public schools, but a little over 
one-half of the scholastic population. This shows 
that the schools were not well attended, or that 
nearly one-half of the children were not compelled 
to attend school. For the year ending June 30, 
1886, there were thirty-four male and eight female 
teachers employed to teach the common schools of 
the county. The male teachers of the first grade 
were paid an average salary of S50 per month . and 
the female teachers of the same grade 137. 50 per 
month. The male teachers of the second grade 
were paid an average salary of $35, and the female 
teachers S32. 50 per month. The male teachers of 
the third grade were paid an average salary of i?25, 
and the female teachers $20 per month. The 
number of school houses re[)orted in the county in 
1886 was thirty-six, both frame and log, valued at 
$6,505. The amount of revenue received for the 
year ending Juue 30, 1886, was $13,224.60, and 
the amount expended for the same time was 
$11, 272.00. leaving a balance on hand of $1,951 .60. 
These statistics have been taken from the last pub- 
li.shed re])ort of the State superintendent of jiub- 
lic instruction. The public schools here, as else- 
where, are improving and becoming more and 
more efficient. 

The first organization of the Methodist Epis- 



196 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



copal Churoh, South, in Clay County was effected 
at Mar's Hill, four miles north of Boydsville, early 
in the 50' s, and the tirst church edifice was erected 
there in 1856. The next society was organized at 
the house of Capt. F. S. White, at Oak Bluff, in 
1856, near where Evans' Chapel was erected the 
next year. There are now three circuits of this 
church within the county, with an aggregate of 
eighteen organizations and about 570 members. 
The circuits are the Boydsville. St. Francis and 
Corning, belonging to the Jonesboro district of 
White River conference. 

Salem Church, three- fourths of a mile south 
of Boydsville, was the first Missionary Baptist 
Church organized within the county, and the num- 
ber has since increased to fourteen, with a total 
membership of 680. Elder Lloyd preached here 
forty years ago, and was probably the first Mis- 
sionary Baptist minister in the county. The Beth- 
lehem Missionary Baptist Association was organ- 
ized at Salem Church in 1868. 

The tirst society of the Methodist Protestant 
Church within the territory of Clay County was 
organized in 1858, at Liberty Hill, five miles north 
of Rector. There are now ten or more organiza- 
tions within the covmty, with a membership of 
about 350. 

The oldest Cumberland Presl)yterian Church 
here was organized at Chalk Bluff", about the year 
1855. There are now four organizations, located 
respectively at St. Francis, Piggott, Greenway and 
Rector. The total membership numbers, perhaps, 
100. 

Within the county there are at least two Regu- 
lar Baptist Churches, with an aggregate member- 
ship of about fifty, and one or more Free Will 
Baptist Churches. There are also a few Christian 
Churches of recent organization. 



S. V»\ Alexander, manufacturer and dealer in 
hard wood lumber, railroad ties, wagons, agricul- 
tural implements, car material, etc. , at Corning, 
Ark., was born in Hancock Comity, Ind., October 
17, 1835, his parents, James and Mary (Mac 
Michael) Alexander, and his grandparents, on 



both sides, being natives of Orange County, N. C. 
They all emigrated at an early day (about 1828) 
to Indiana where they died. The great-grand- 
father was in the Revolutionary War. and fired the 
tirst cannon in that service. James Alexander 
remained in Hancock County, Ind., until the 
spring of 1857, when he emigrated to Polk County, 
Iowa, where he was living at the time of his death, 
in 1882. His wife died in 1872, have borne five 
children: John C, Julia A.. Simeon W., James 
A. and Louisa. Mr. Alexander was a farmer by 
occupation. Simeon W. Alexander, our subject, 
was reared and educated in his native county, and 
from childhood has been familiar with farm life. 
On reaching his majority he was married, and emi- 
grated to Illinois, locating in Cumberland County, 
where he was engaged in the saw-mill business 
until 1859, when he removed to Polk County, 
Iowa, but returned to Illinois in December, 1863, 
and there resided until the fall of 1869. In the 
fall of that year he sold his mill and returned to 
Iowa, where he remained until 1886, being en- 
gaged in both lumbering and farming on an exten- 
sive scale. He owned 400 acres of good land, and 
on coming to Clay County, emljarked in the lumber 
busine.ss, putting i;p a large saw-mill . He still con- 
tinues this business and employs a great many 
hands. He owns about 2,400 acres of land in 
Clay County, some 1,000 of which will make fine 
farming land when improved. He also has one of 
the best houses in the county, situated in Corn- 
ing. October 23, 1856, he was married to Miss 
Mary Faster, a native of Indiana, by whom he has 
seven children: William (in Dakota), Lucy M. , 
Cora (wife of T. J. Conway, of Chicago), Charles 
W., Addie, Freddie and Edward. Mr. Alexander 
is a member of the I. O. O. F., and is one of the 
public-spirited men of Clay County, always being 
ready to advance the interests of the people. 

J. H. Allen, stockman and farmer of Clay 
County, Ark., was born in North Carolina in July, 
1828, being the eighth of nine children born to 
Isaac and Sarah (Hawkins) Allen, who were born 
in North Carolina and Virginia, respectively, the 
latter being a daughter of a Revolutionary i)atriot. 
Both parents died on their home farm in North 



a t- 



CLAY COUNTY. 



197 



Carolina. J. H. Allen attended the public schools 
for some time and remained at home until twenty- 
four years of age, being engaged in overseeing 
the farm until the breaking out of the Rebellion, 
when he gave up this work and began operating a 
grist mill. In November, 1866, he came to what 
is now Clay County (then Randolph County), and 
settled twenty-five miles from Pocahontas, in which 
locality he rented land for some time. He then 
purchased 380 acres of wild land two miles west 
of Knobel, on which he immediately began to 
make improvements. At the present time he has 
150 acres under cultivation, well improved with 
good buildings, orchard, fences, etc. He has 
added 120 acres to his original purchase, on which 
he raises a large number of horses, cattle and hogs 
each year. He has devoted most of his cultivated 
land to corn and stock for his cattle and horses, 
but this year (1889) has put in about lifty acres of 
cotton. He has always been quite active in poli- 
tics, and has held the office of justice of the 
peace for ten years, and has been school director 
a number of years. In 1853 he married Miss 
Margaret Wagner, who was liorn in North Carolina, 
and by her had five children: William, John, 
Isaac, Henry, and Albert, all of whom are dead. 
In 1871 he married Miss Nancy Demaree, a native 
of Illinois, and to them were born three children: 
Amanda, Jesse and David, all now living at home. 
Capt. John J. Allen was born in Lee County, 
Ga., on the 2nd of July, 18-11, and is the son of 
Edward M. and Mary J. (Knight) Allen. The 
father was born in the "Palmetto State" in 1819 
of Scotcli-Irish parents, and was a mechanic and 
ginwright, making machines by hand. He was 
taken to Georgia when small, and was there reared 
to manhood. During the Indian troubles in the 
Southern States, especially in Florida, Mr. Allen 
participated as a private, and received in payment 
for his services a land warrant for 160 acres, and 
in 1853 chose the land on which Capt. John J. Allen 
now resides. Prior to this, however, he took a 
trip through Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi and 
the Indian Territory, making the journey on horse- 
back, a distance of 3.lt00 miles. He then re- 
turned to Georgia, and the following year (1853) 



located in Arkansas, the nearest post-office at that 
time being sixteen miles distant, and the second 
nearest (Pocahontas) fifty miles distant. The 
families of McNiel, Nettles, Wooter, Singleton. 
Copeland, Sexton and White, were the only ones 
within a radius of ten miles. Wild animals 
roamed the country at will, and Indians were also 
very numerous. Schools were almost unknown, 
and Mr. Allen assisted in building many of the 
first houses. John G. Taylor, a Missionary Bap- 
tist minister, came with Mr. Allen to the State;, and 
preached the first sermon in Northeast Arkansas. 
The latter oi)ened thirty acres of land the first 
year, which was heavily covered with timber. He 
was a slave owner, and served for twelve months 
in the Confederate army under Price, holding the 
rank of captain, when he resigned on account of his 
age. He died in 1877. His wife was born in 
Jasper County, Ga., about 1822, and was there 
married to Mr. Allen, by whom she became 
the mother of ten children: William A., John J., 
Elizabeth J., Edward M. , Thomas M. , living to 
be grown, and the following dying in infancy: 
Martha, Stapie, and two infants. Mrs. Allen died 
in 1860, and Mr. Allen then married Sarah J. 
Palmer, who bore him five children: Robert, 
Georgia L., George W., Willie, and Odus. Capt. 
Allen, our subject, has resided in Arkansas since 
twelve years of age, but spent his entire school 
days in Georgia. He was reared on the farm on 
which he is now residing, and remained at home 
until his marriage at the age of eighteen years, 
when he was engaged in farming until 1 86 1 . Then 
he enlisted in Company H, Fifth Arkansas Volun- 
teer Infantry, and ser\'ed until the close of the 
war, participating in many battles: Helena. Fred- 
ericksburg, Boonville, Lexington. Newtonia, and 
many others of less note. He enlisted as a pri- 
vate, but was promoted to captain, and was then 
transferred to the cavalry, serving two years. 
After coming home he engaged in farming, and in 
18*)8 opened a mercantile estaVilishment at Scatter- 
ville, and followed this occupation in connection 
with ginning for four years. He then removed 
to Tilton. where he was occu])ied in business until 
August, 18yy, since which time he has been one of 



A* 



198 



HISTOEY OF AllKANSAS. 



the successful business men of Rector. He has 
been a large speculator in land, and in addition to 
his farm, runs a stave factory and saw-mill. His 
farm comprises about 4.000 acres, and he has 
2,200 acres in Greene County, besides consider- 
able land in other districts, all of which is the re- 
sult of his own labor. He was married to Miss 
Permelia L. McNiel, a daughter of Neil McNiel. 
She was born in Clay County, Ark., and she and 
Capt. Allen are the parents of live children: Mary 
L., James B. , Minnie A., Myrtie, and Charles A. 
In 1872 Mrs. Allen died, and Mr. Allen then mar- 
ried Xancy O. McNiel, a sister of his first wife. 
Their children are: George M., Gertrude, Harry 
P., Carrie, and Leonard W. Capt. Allen has 
never been a political man, the highest office he 
ever held being that of notary public. He is one 
of the best known men in the county, and is a 
member of the I. O. O. F. , the Knights of Pythias, 
and the Masonic fraternity, and has long been con- 
nected with the Missionary Baptist Church. 

Joshua Bare, farmer and stock raiser of St. 
Francis Township, is a fair sample of what can be 
accomplished by industry and perseverance. Al- 
though starting life with a limited amount of this 
world's goods, he is now one of the substantial 
farmers of the county, and is the owner of 240 
acres of land in the home place, with 160 acres 
cleared, on which he has good buildings. Aside 
from this he is the owner of another tract of land 
in the township, one and a (juarter miles from 
the home place, consisting of IBO acres of timber 
land. He also possesses some 320 acres in the 
St. Francis bottoms, with about 100 acres cleared, 
and has an interest in 205 acres of other lands, all 
the result of industry and good management. Mr. 
Bare was born in Crawford County, Ind. , Decem- 
ber 13, 1833, and is the son of Jacob Bare and 
Nancy (Copple) Bare, the latter of German descent. 
The father was born in Virginia but was reared in 
Indiana. After marriage he settled in Crawford 
County of that State, where he followed farming 
until about 1843, when he moved to Illinois and 
settled in Jefferson County. He resided there up 
to 1868, when he came to Arkansas, and located in 
what is now Clay County. Here he died in Feb- 



ruary. 1877. He served as sheriff and deputy 
sheriff in Indiana, and was quite a prominent man. 
Joshua Bare was reared in Jefferson County, 111., 
and came to Arkansas in 1855, locating in Clay 
County, but what was then Greene County, and 
entered eighty acres of land. He then bought 
eighty acres near Brown's Ferry, resided there 
about fifteen years, after which he sold this, and 
bought the place where he now lives. He has 
been four times married; first, to Miss Susan 
Williams; then to Nancy Brown, who bore him 
one daughter, Peggy A., wife of John Nettle: his 
next marriage was to Mrs. Nettle, a widow, who 
bore him four childi-en: Clarissa (wife of Wiley 
Thomas), Joshua, Bettie and Arabella. Mr. 
Bare's fourth marriage was to Mrs. Marietta 
Sarver, a widow, and the daughter of Jacob Sarver. 
Three children were born to this union: Jacob, 
Mattie and John Harry. When Mr. Bare first 
came to the State it was a comparative wilderness, 
and for about eleven winters he was engaged in 
trapping. He has killed bear, wolves, wild cats, 
lots of deer, turkey and small game. He would 
average about $200 worth of furs annually at that 
business. Mr. Bare has been a member of the 
I. O. O. F. for thirteen years. Mrs. Bare belongs 
to the Christian Church. An interesting volume 
might be written of many of Mr. Bare's hunting 
expeditions, but space will permit mentit)n of only 
the following: In 1867, one of his neighbors, Billy 
Maner, a single man, had struck camp some seven 
miles south of where our subject lived, in a wild 
locality on Old River. Mr. Bare went on one occa- 
sion to spend the night with him. but found the 
unsuccessful hunter without food. Starting the 
next morning with a determination to return only 
after he shot something, he traveled some distance, 
occasionally seeing game which could not be se- 
cured. Later on, while not far from camp, he 
killed two wolves, and lieing of a humorous dispo- 
sition, the thought was suggested to pass off this 
meat upon the iinsuspecting Billy as venison. 
Bringing a portion of the animal to headquarters 
(together with a squirrel), and assuring him that 
a large buck had been killed, the mess was eaten 
by the victim of Mr. Bare's joke, with a casual 



CLAY COUNTY. 



ik 



remark as to its toughness, etc. Subsequently 
the truth was toUl. Imagination rather than 
words can jjicture the result of such a revelation. 
In 1876 a three-days" hunt was indulged in by Mr. 
Bare, two of his nephews and a little negro boy. 
Starting with a cart and a yoke of oxen, they drove 
into a bottom farm, proceeding horse-back until 
about a mile from their camping ground, when 
fresh bear tracks were discovered. Before very 
long an effort to secure bruin was commenced, and 
proved fruitful. While waiting for help to remove 
the animal (which weighed about 400 pounds) a 
large buck was killed by Mr. Bare. These furnish 
but mere instances of his good fortune with the 
guu and rifle. 

W. F. Barnes, undertaker and furniture dealer, 
of Corning, Ark. , has been in business here since 
August, 1888, when he purchased his stock of 
goods of Mr. Bishop and continued at that stand 
until June 1, 1889, when he moved to his present 
location. His establishment is a two-story frame 
building, 40x20 feet, now under process of erec- 
tion, which will, when finished, be commodious 
and substantial. Mr. Barnes' success in this line 
has been due to his energy and enterprise, and his 
establishment is now one of the leading concerns 
of this kind in the county. He was born in Law- 
rence County, 111., in 1856, and was the eldest in 
a family of eight children born to John and Jane 
(Thompson) Barnes, who were Kentuckians by 
birth, but emigrated to Illinois in their youth, 
where they grew to maturity and met and married. 
The father settled with his parents in Lawrence 
County in 1826, and afterward became a successful 
farmer and teacher of that region, following these 
occupations for many years in that State. He died 
in 1885, but his widow is still residing in Illinois. 
The paternal gi-andfather was an early settler of 
Illinois, where he also makes his home. Mr. 
Barnes was early inured to the duties of farm life, 
and dui'ing his youth also attended the common 
schools of Lawrence and Wabash Counties, 111. 
He engaged in farming for himself in that State 
and was mamed there in 1882 to Miss Ella P. 
Price, a native of that county. Her parents. Jo- 
seph and Hannah (Dart) Price, were born in Ohio 



and Kentucky, respectively, and are now residing 
in Illinois. In 1887 Mr. Barnes came to Corning, 
Ark., and until 1888 worked at the carpenter's 
trade, but has since been engaged in his present 
business. Politically he is a Democrat, and always 
supports the princijiles of that party. He belongs 
to the K. of H. and the I. O. G. T., and he and 
wife are members of the Methodist Church. Thev 
are the parents of two children: Opal V. and 
Verna D. Mr. Barnes has done well financially, 
is the owner of some valuable town property, and 
predicts a bright future for Corning. 

Zachariah T. Bearderi was born in Montgomery 
County, Tenn. , September 29, 1849, and is the son 
of John and Prudence (Majors) Bearden. John 
Bearden was born in Montgomery County, Tenn., 
and is of Irish-English parentage. He received 
a fair, common-school education, later followed 
farming and emigrated to Clay County, Ark., in 
1851. The county was called Greene County at 
that time, but was afterward changed to Clay. At 
that early day there were but six families in an area 
ten miles square, and all the hardships and priva 
tions incident to pioneer life were experienced by 
Mr. Bearden. Schools were taught on the sub- 
scription plan, and church was held about once a 
month in old log cabins. Mr. Bearden was a slave 
owner but generally preferred white labor. He was 
the owner of a large farm, but was broken up dur- 
ing the war. He died May 10, 1888, being seventy- 
six years of age. During life he was never an 
office seeker, but was elected by the people, with 
out solicitation, to the office of county treasurer. 
Mrs. Bearden was also reared in Tennessee, grew to 
womanhood there, and was man-led in that State. 
Nine children were the result of this union; Rich- 
ard E. , Isom K., Judge H. , Zach. T., Samuel J., 
Susan U., William J., Robert W. and Mary E. 
Mrs. Bearden died in this county, August 16. 1877. 
Grandfather and Grandmother Bearden died in 
Tennessee; she was a native of North Carolina. 
Grandfather and Grandmother Majors were na- 
tives of ^^'est Virginia, and at an early day emi- 
grated to Tennessee. Zachariah T. Bearden came 
with his parents to Arkansas when two years of 
age, settling in Greene County, and there remained 



200 



HISTOKY OF ARKANSAS. 



assisting his father on the farm until twenty-one 
years of age. His educational advantages were 
rather limited, but by self study he became a well 
informed man. At the age mentioned he began 
business for himself by hiring out at a cotton gin by 
the day, and later followed clerking. He then 
bought a tract of land and carried on agricultu- 
ral pursuits for nine years. January 2, 1873, he 
married Miss Elizabeth Harber, a native of Dyer 
County, Tenn. , and the daughter of G. A. Har- 
ber. The fruits of this union were five children, 
four now living: Drewy D., George O., John S. 
and Ethel M. The one deceased was named Dora 
L. Mr. Beardeu engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness at his present stand in 1882, building the sec- 
ond house in Rector, and has been occupied in 
merchandising ever since. He is also interested 
in a large timber business. He carries a stock of 
merchandise valued at about $3, 000, and also buys 
and exchanges cotton. He is a Democrat in his 
political views. Mrs. Bearden is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 

B. B. Biffle, sheriff of Clay County, and one of 
the representative citizens of this section, is a na- 
tive of Humphreys County, Tenn., where he was 
reared and where he received a fair education in 
the common schools. He is the son of William and 
Martha (Skelton) Biffle, the grandson of Nathan 
Biffle, and the great-grandson of Jacob Biffle, who 
came from Germany many years ago. To William 
Biffle and wife were born six children, B. B. Biffle 
being the eldest. He left his native county at the age 
of twenty-one years, or in 1879, and made his way 
to Clay County, Ark. , where he started a store in 
Greenway. and, although a young man, he was the 
first to engage in merchandising at that place. 
After that, in connection with his store, he was for 
some time occupied in running a stave mill, but in 
September, 1888, he was elected to the office of 
sheriff, and then closed out the milling and stave 
business, to give his undivided attention to his 
official duties. He fills that position in an able 
and efficient manner, and to the satisfaction of all 
concerned. He is a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity, of the Blue Lodge and Chapter. For his 
companion in life he chose Miss Ella Turner, 



daughter of Thomas Turner, of Tennessee. He and 
Mrs. Biffle are members of the Methodist Church. 
Sylvanus Bishop, wagon- maker, painter and 
farmer, is a son of Stephen M. and Caroline (Bun- 
nell) Bishop, and was born in Crawford County, 
Penn., March 1, 1841. His parents were also born 
in that State, and in 1837 emigrated to Indiana, 
\ but, after remaining there a short time, returned 
i to Pennsylvania. About 1844 they again came to 
Indiana, where they made their home until 1880, 
then moving to Peabody, Kas. , where Mr. Bishop 
died in 1886. His widow still survives. To them 
were born fifteen children, eleven of whom are 
living: Jefferson, Sylvanus, Stephen W., Adeline, 
David, Elmira J., Merriman, Silas, Delilah, Mon- 
roe and Daniel S. Sylvanus Bishop attained his 
growth in Indiana, and in 1861 enlisted in Com- 
pany E, Twenty-ninth Indiana Infantry, and 
served iintil the close of the war, participating in 
the following engagements: Shiloh, Stone River, 
Chickamauga, Liberty Gap and others. At the 
battle of Shiloh he was wounded by a gun-shot in 
the left arm. At Stone River he was captured, 
but succeeded in making his escape, and. after a 
time, was discharged for disability, owing to the 
effects of small-pox, which he had contracted in 
the service. From that time until 1877 he was 
engaged in learning and working at his trade in 
Indiana, and then came to Clay County, Ark., and 
has since resided at Corning. He owns a small 
farm adjoining the town, which is in a good state 
of cultivation and well improved, and this he con- 
ducts in connection with carrying on his trade. In 
January, 1886, he was married to Miss Mary E. Ben- 
edict, a native of New York State, by whom he has 
five children: Anna M. , John L., Amy W., Elsie 
V. and A. McDonald. Mr. and Mrs. Bishop are 
members of the Baptist Church, and he belongs 
to the Masonic fraternity. He has been a school 
director for about eleven years, and is interested 
in all public enterprises. For some ten years he 
was engaged in the undertaker's business, his 
profits amounting to about $1,500 per year. He 
now gives his attention to his shop, and is doing 
well. His son, John L. , is an intelligent young 
man, and is one of the first teachers in the county. 



CLAY COUNTY. 



201 



James Blackshare. Among all classes and in 
every condition of life where the struggle for a 
livelihood is going on, where will independence 
be found more clearly demonstrated than in the 
life of the honest, industrious farmer? Mr. 
Blackshare, who has followed agricultural pursuits 
for the past tifty-two years, and who has never 
missed a crop during the years thus spent, is a fair 
example of the independent tiller of the soil. He 
was V)orn in West Tennessee, in 1824, and is the 
son of Rev. Jacob and Mary (Berry) Blackshare, 
the father a native of Tennessee, born in 1802, 
and the mother born in 1799. James Blackshare 
was left motherless at the age of ten years, and 
May 27, 1847, he was united in marriage to Miss 
Sarah A. Dines, who bore him five sons: William 
S. , a member of the firm of Blackshare & Co. , 
in the manufacturing of staves and in the gen- 
eral milling business, is married and the father of 
six children: Robert B. (deceased), left a widow 
and five children; Sidney A. (deceased), left a 
widow and five children; James T., lives on a farm 
near Boydsville, is married and the father of three 
sons, and Jacob L., farmer near Boydsville, is 
married, and the father of two sons and two 
daughters. The mother of these children died in 
1857. March 14, 1858, Mr. Blackshare took for 
his second wife Mrs. Ruth E. Evans, of Tennessee, 
and in the fall of the same year he and family 
moved to Clay Comity (then Greene County), 
Ark. , and settled on the farm where he is now re- 
siding, three miles northeast of Boydsville, which 
consisted of eighty acres, to which he added eighty 
more. To his last marriage were born six chil- 
dren, three of whom survive at the present: Mary 
F., wife of Dr. John J. Prince, and the mother of 
one daughter, resides at Bethel Station, Tenn. , 
where her husband follows his profession and is 
also engaged in merchandising; John S., a merch- 
ant at Rector, married and the father of one child, 
a daughter; Ora A., the wife of A. J. Burton, and 
the mother of three children, two daughters and 
a son, is now living near her father, where her 
husband is occupied in farming; Ira E., died in 
his sixteenth year. Mr. Blackshare came to this 
State with his wife and seven children in two 

13 



wagons, drawn by oxen, being the owner of seven 
or eight head of cattle, six or eight head of horses, 
and about $200 in money. The first winter before 
there were gins introduced into the country, the 
cotton, which they picked with their fingers, was 
made into clothing, for the family. There were no 
mills then except little hand mills, which were only 
used to grind corn, and were called corn crackers. 
They would crack the kernel into about four 
pieces. A few years later Mr. Blackshare raised a 
little wheat and ground it in the same mills and 
" sarcht it;" this consisted of a box with a muslin 
cloth over it, opened at one end, on which was 
dropped some of the meal, and then by a rocking 
motion the bran was forced to the top and back 
through the opening at the rear, while the fine 
flour passed through the muslin into the box. At 
that time their trading was done by exchanging 
pelting and furs for salt, sugar, coflPee, etc.. at 
Cape Girardeau, Mo., 100 miles distant, to which 
place they made their trips with ox teams about 
once a year. Mr. Blackshare has not taken a 
drink of liquor of any kind, or a chew of tobacco, 
for over forty years, or since joining the church, 
and has always been willing to render aid, as far 
as he was able, to all laudal)le enterprises. He 
and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. Mr. Blackshare was township 
magistrate for four terms of two years each, and 
was also county treasurer for two teims. He is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity, and is one of 
the representative men of the county. He is now 
the owner of 340 acres of land, after having sup- 
ported his family and settled nine children at an 
expense of $14,000, and does not owe a cent. 

W. S. Blackshare, of the milling and stave 
manufacturing firm of W. S. Blackshare & Co.. 
is a native of Tennessee, born in November, 1849. 
•and came to Clay County, Ark., with his father, 
James Blackshare, when a boy of nine years. 
Here he grew to manhood on a farm, and in 1878 
he was appointed by Gov. Garland to the office of 
sheriff of the county, and for two years he was 
county treasurer, having also filled that office for 
several incumbents. He was deputy sheriff for 
four years, and is consider<»1 •mh' .>f the leading 



'2( 12 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Imainess men of the county. He is the owner of 
aljout 200 acres of land on his home place, which 
adjoins the town of Boydsville, and has about 
1 500 acres in the country, and has the best 
buildings to be found in the count}', all erected 
by himself. The house is a two story frame, 
16x40, with a one story L fifty feet long and 
sixteen feet wide, and a porch running the entire 
length of the L. He also has a very large cistern 
under cover. He has two large frame barns, one 
30x40, two stories high, and the other 80x50 
feet, also two stories high, with out-sheds on the 
sides. On his farm on the Cache he has built 
another house on the same plan as his home place, 
and he is also building a good barn there. He was I 
married to Miss Emily S. Cox. who lived Imt 
eighteen months after marriage, and died in 1871, 
leaving him a son, Arthur Lee, who is attending 
the home school. For his second wife Mr. Black- 
share married Miss Mary A. Ellis, daughter of 
Rev. Ira O. Ellis, who came here fi-om Mississippi, 
where his father, Rev. Reuben Ellis, was an 
itinerant preacher in the Methodist Church, South. 
Mrs. Ira O. Ellis is still living in Missoiui. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Blacksharo were bom these children: 
Ezra O., Annie (who is dead), Edgar M. , Angie, 
Lena and Jennie. Mr. Blackshare belongs to 
the I. O. O. F., and is also a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, into which order he was 
initiated about the time he was twenty-one years 
of age.. In his political views he affiliates with 
the Democratic party. In 1871 he engaged in the 
mercantile business at Big Creek, with his father, 
buying out the interest of Judge Royall, paying 
$500 on time for the goods, and in 1878 removed 
to Boydsville. This business he continued until 
January, 1888, having in the meantime several 
partners: first the firm was J. & W. S. Black- 
share, then for eight years he was in company with- 
his brother, R. B. Blackshare, under the firm title 
of W. S. Blackshare & Co., and was then with i 
Judge Royall for three years, the firm title continu- | 
ing the same. In 1888 he disposed of his stock 
to A. L. Blackshare, who now conducts the busi- 
ness in the same building. In connection with his j 
seventeen years at merchandising, Mr. Blackshare 



devoted some of his time to farming, and is at 
present junior partner of Royall & Blackshare. 
real estate dealers. He is a pleasant, genial 
gentleman, a good conversationalist, and has a 
host of warm friends. He is a splendid man 
physically, and although forty years of age does 
not look a day over thirty. 

A. L. Blackshare, of Boydsville, another prom 
inent and much respected citizen of Clay County. 
Ark., was born in Tennessee, in 1856, and came to 
Clay County, Ark., in 1880. He followed agri- 
cultural pursuits for two years, and in 1885 bought 
out the stock of Mrs. Ella Blackshare, widow of 
R. B. Blackshare, and began business in Boyds- 
ville. This he continued for two years, and then sold 
out to J. S. Blackshare, after which he purchased 
the stock of \V. S. Blackshare & Co., and is now 
engaged in that business, under the firm title of 
A. L. Blackshare. Aside from this he is also oc- 
cupied in milling and manufactimng, under the 
business title of Blackshare & Blackshare. In 
1 886 he was elected to the position of treasurer of 
the company, and was re- elected in 1888. Miss 
Ada Berton, a native of Arkansas, and the daugh- 
ter of Robert Berton, became his wife, and to them 
were born two children, one now living: Robert 
Bascom. The other child, Ernest," died at the age 
of one year. Mr. Blackshare is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity. 

Larry Boshers. This successful young planter 
and stockman, of Clay County, of which he has 
been a resident for seventeen years, is well and 
favorably known to the many citizens of Kilgore 
Township. He was born in the State of Tennesseo. 
in 1802, being the seventh of fourteen children 
of Henry and Tabitha (Stewart) Boshers, who were 
also originally from that State, the former being 
a planter by occupation, and there he died. After 
his death his widow came to Clay County, Ark. , 
and here di(>(l on her farm, in 1882. Larry Bosli- 
ers was early taught the rudiments of farm life, 
becoming still better acquainted with that calling 
as he grew to manliood. and is now considered one 
of the enterprising, thorough and reliable young 
agriculturists of the count}'. In 1880 he made 
his first pui'chase of land, which amounted to forty 



acres, in a raw state, and has since added from 
time to time to tbis tract, until he now has a 
vahiahle farm consisting of 480 acres, with 17^) 
under cultivation, the rest being well adapted to 
raisins' stock, to which Mr. Boshers gives consid- 
erable attention. He devotes seventy hve acres to 
the culture of cotton each year. He votes with 
the Democratic party, is a member of the Agri- 
cultural Wheel, and, personally, is held in high 
esteem by all who know him. Miss Jennie Mont 
gomery, a native of Clay County, became his wife 
in ISSO, and died in 18S4, having borne two chil- 
dren, both deceased. Her parents were Daniel and 
Polly Montgomery. 

Giles Bowers, carpenter and builder of Boyds- 
ville, and one of the successful business men of 
that village, is a native of North Carolina, and 
remained in his native State until twenty-seven 
years of age. He was engaged in gold mining 
until the lireaking out of the late war, when he 
enlisted in the Forty-ninth North Carolina Infan- 
try, in April, 1862, and served until the termina- 
tion of hostilities. He was in Gen. Lee's army, 
in Gen. Matt. W. Ransom's brigade, and partici- 
pated in the seven days' fight at Richmond, at 
Gen. McClellan's defeat, and was in all the tights 
and campaigns before Richmond. He was at the 
second battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericks- 
burg, and was captured at Five Forks and placed 
on Johnson Island. Ohio, as a prisoner of war, be- 
ing discharged there from June IS, 1S(55. He then 
returned to North Carolina, remaining until the 
spring of 1868, when he came to what is now Clay 
County, and, settling on a farm, tilled the soil 
until 1879. He is the owner of 120 acres of land, 
with about seventy acres under cultivation. In 
the last mentioned year he opened up a carpenter- 
shop, having learned the trade in previous years, 
and has erected the principal part of the buildings 
in Boydsville. At one time ho was a member of 
the tirm of Bowers &, Toombs, and later of the 
firm of Bowers & Downs. Mr. Bowers also manu- 
factures seats and desks for church and school 
purposes. He has been married twice; tirst, to 
Miss Elizabeth Almond, of North Carolina, who 
bore him ten children, eight of whom survive and 



are named as follows; Josephine, wife of James 
Mooning, and the mother of two children, ie now 
living on a farm in Sharp County; John \V. is 
engaged in business in Boydsville; Flora J., mar- 
ried to C. M. King, a farmer of Clay County, is 
the mother of three children; Nancy A. is at home 
with her father; Kittie Belle, wife of James W. 
Dobbins, a farmer near Boydsville; Frederick C, 
Giles L. and Brantly H. The mother of these 
children died in September, 1885. For his second 
wife Mr. Bowers chose Miss Maggie J. Matthews, 
who survived only seventeen months after mar- 
riage, and left a child, which followed its mother 
to the grave but a month lat(?r. Mr. Bowers is a 
Republican, and is somewhat active in politics, 
having done valiant woik for that party. Although 
not a member of any church, he works in harmony 
with all good people for the benefit of the commu- 
nity and for his fellow men. 

W. D. Bowers. Among the extensive indus- 
trial enterprises which form the basis of Clay 
County's importance and j)ro8perity is the stave 
and head factory located at Corning, in which 
Mr. Bowers has worked for ten years, and of 
which he has been foreman two years, working his 
way up to that position from a mill-hand. His 
native State is Ohio, his birth having occurred in 
Harrison County in 1851, and his parents wei-e also 
from that State. They were Jacob and Lavina 
Bowers, iiee Downs, the father being a tiller of 
the soil and successful in his calling, which occu- 
pation he continued to follow until his death 
in 1881. His wife is still living and makes her 
home in her native State. W. D. Bowers, like 
the majority of youths, lient his energies to learn- 
ing the occupation in which his father was en- 
gaged, and also acquired a good education in the 
public schools of Harrison County. After the 
late Civil War he joined the regular army of the 
United States, and was stationed at different points 
in the South, but in 1879 he came to Corning, 
Ark., and began working in the mill in which he is 
now employed. His wife, whom he married in 
1879, and who was formerly Miss Lenora Powell, 
was born in Tennessee, and was a daughter of B. 
C. Powell and wife, also of that State, the for- 




mer now residing near Austin, and the latter de- 
ceased. In 1883 Mr. Bowers lost his excellent 
wife, she having borne him two children, one of 
whom is living, Floyd. In 1886 Mr. Bowers was 
married in Union County, 111., to Miss Mary Stew- 
art, a native of Indiana. Her parents. Henry 
and Jane (Pollock) Stewart, were Ohio people, 
who moved first to Indiana and from there to 
Cape Girardeau County, Mo., where they opened 
up a farm in 1874, and later kept a hotel at Doni- 
phan. Here Mr. Stewart died in 1887, his wife 
having died in Indiana, in 1885. He enlisted in 
the Union army from Indiana, at the breaking out 
of the Civil War. Mr. Bowers has never been 
very active in politics. Socially he is a member of 
the K. of H. He is very public-spirited, and has 
always practiced those principles of fairness and 
honesty which are bound to command the respect 
and admiration of all right-minded people. 

C. Fred. Brennecke. editor of the Clay County 
Advocate, at Greenway, Ark., was born in Cape 
Girardeau County, Mo. , December 19, 1866, being 
a son of Frederick Brennecke, a native of Ger- 
many, who came to the United States with his 
parents when a lad of ten years and settled in 
Cape Girardeau County, Mo., where he grew to 
manhood and was married, the latter event being 
in the city of Cape Girardeau to Miss Dena Hunze, 
who was born in Germany. Mr. Brennecke served 
in the Union army during the late war. Since 
about 1865 he has resided in Cape Girardeau, and 
is in the service of Col. Robert Sturdivant. C. 
Fred. Brennecke grew to manhood in his native 
county, and learned the printer's trade in Cape 
Girardeau, commencing when thirteen years of age 
and continuing for about four and one half years. 
From this place he went to Jefferson City, but 
only worked there a short time, when he moved to 
Higginsville, La Fayette County, Mo., where he 
followed his trade for two years. J Subsequently 
he came to Greenway, Ark,, and became asso- 
ciated with Mr. Dollison in the publication of the 
Advocate, having charge of the mechanical depart- 
ment one year. January 2, 1889, he became sole 
proprietor, and is now editor and publisher of that 
paper. It is the leading newspaper of the county 



and is independent in politics. Mr. Brennecke 
receives a liberal amount of advertising, and his 
journal has the largest circulation of any ])aper in 
the county. He is a practical printer, a thorough 
business man, and is of exemplary hal)its and 
character. He was elected a member of the town 
board, and is now town recorder. 

Jacob Brobst, the present mayor of Corning, 
and county jailer of the Western division of Clay 
County, Ark., is descended from a family that has 
held a worthy place in the history of this country, 
and wherever its representatives have settled they 
have became recognized as prominent and influen- 
tial members of society. He was born in Colum- 
bus, Ohio, on the 18th of June, 1839, and of this 
State his parents, John and Catherine (Bachar) 
Brobst, were among the pioneer settlers. The 
father is still living and resides in Upper Sandusky, 
Ohio, but the mother died in 1874. Jacob followed 
the occupation of his father until eighteen years of 
age, receiving in the meantime a good education 
in the public schools of Wyandot County, Ohio, 
and after starting out to fight the battle of life for 
himself he worked at the carpenter's trade and 
taught school, securing in the latter profession the 
reputation of being one of the best educators in 
the county. Miss L. M. England, a native of 
Hancock County, Ohio, became his wife in 1862, 
and their union was blessed in the birth of two 
children: J. K.. who is married and resides at 
home, and Mary Alice, also at home. ]\Irs. 
Brobst's parents, Robert and Ellen (Lape) Eng- 
land, were Ohio people, the former being a farmer 
who died in 1875. His widow is a resident of 
Goshen, Ind. In 1864 Mr. Brobst went to Fort 
W'ayne, Ind., and was engaged in railroading in 
that State imtil 1879, when he took up his abode in 
Corning, Ark., which was at that time a very small 
place, and has since given his attention to carpen- 
tering. He votes with the Democratic party, and 
has been jailer of the West division for three years; 
was first elected to the position of mayor in 1882, 
next in 1883, and is now serving his third term. 
During 1884-85-86 and 1887 he was a member of 
the city council, and has also been deputy assessor 
of the Western division of Clay County. He was 



W*^ li 




foreman of the grand jury that found thp indict- 
ment by which the second man of tlie Ku Klux 
was hung, thus breaking up that gang in this sec- 
tion of the country. He is the owner of some fine 
residence property in the town, and besides this 
has a fertile and well tilled farm of ii'iO acres 
in Nelson Township. He believes in building up 
this place, and has done his full share in this direc- 
tion. He and wife are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 

J. W. Brown, a farmer residing near Vidette, 
Ark., was born in Hardin County, Tenn., February 
"26, 1835, and is a son of John and Sarah (Garner) 
Brown, who were Tennesseeans, the mother dying 
in her native State when the subject of this sketch 
was a small boy. J. W. Brown was reared on a 
farm in his native county and in 1854 emigrated 
to Arkansas, coming by wagon, and located on the 
farm where he now lives. His place was heavilj' 
covered with timber when he located, but he 
soon erected a little log cabin and began clearing 
his land. He was compelled to work very hard, 
but made good headway, and now has one of the 
most valuable farms in the county, consisting of 
'200 acres, with about 100 acres under cultivation. 
Game of all kinds was quite abundant when he 
tirst came to the State, and one time he brought 
down a bear with his trusty rifle. In 18f>2 he 
enlisted in Company B, Col. White's regiment, 
and during six months' service was in the battle of 
(Jrane Hill. Owing to rheumatism he was compelled 
to leave the army. His first wife was Patience 
Vassar, and his second Emily Sloan, by whom he 
had a family of seven children, four now living: 
Henry, Amanda, George "W. and Sarah E. Both 
these wives were Tennesseeans, whom he married 
while living in that State. His present wife, whose 
maiden name was Martha Garner, has borne him 
three children: Minnie A., Ida M. and Reulien A. 
Mr. and Mrs. Brown are members of the Christian 
Church, and he is a member of the Masonic order. 

Andrew J. Brown, merchant and postmaster at 
Piggott, Ark. , is one of the prominent residents of 
the county, and in his business as well as social 
relations has won the confidence and respect of all 
who know him. His birth occurred in Union 



County, 111., Juno 15, 1843, his parents, Samuel 
and Annie (Dillow) Brown, being natives of the 
same State. They reared their family on a farin 
in Union County, and here Andrew J. Brown re- 
mained until twenty-five years of age, enlisting in 
18()2 in the One Hundred and Ninth Illinois 
Infantrj', which was afterward consolidated with 
the Eleventh Illinois, and served until he received 
his discharge at Springfield on the 15th of July, 
1805. He was in the fight at Vicksburg on the 
4th of July, 1868, and was at Yazoo City, Fort 
Spanish, and the surrender of Mobile. He was in 
the hospital at La Grange, Tenn., a short time, and 
in 1868 removed to Arkansas and located in what is 
now Clay County, where he was occupied in farm- 
ing for a few years. In 1879 he embarked in 
merchandising, and in 1882 located at Prggott, 
where he erected a business house and has since 
been engaged in keeping a general mercantile 
establishment, and has built up a good trade. He 
was appointed postmaster of the town in April, 
1888, which office he has since held. He and wife 
are members of the Missionary Baptist Church (in 
which he is a deacon), and he is a member of the 
G. A. R. organization, and is quartermaster of 
his post. He was married on the 28th of Decem- 
ber, 1868, to Miss M. J. Pollard, a sister of W. 
^\'. Pollard, whose sketch appears in this work, 
and they are the parents of the following cbiltb-en: 
Henry O. , a lad of twelve years: Cindona, a 
daughter, who died March 11,1 889, at the age of 
seventeen years, and an infant deceased. 

Hiram Calvin, of the firm of Clemson & Calvin, 
although a young man, is one of the most success- 
ful business men in this portion of the State. He 
has l)een running the business exclusively for six 
and a half years last, having come to this point with 
a stock of goods in December, 1882. He passed 
through the country eightetni months before the 
road was Iniilt, and, from what he reported, his 
partner in Illinois bought 4,200 acres of timber 
land, about half of which still belongs to the estate. 
They commenced business in Clay County, Ark., 
with a stock of goods worth $2,497, which has 
been increased since .then to $3, 500. In addition 
to the store, the firm own a stave-mill, which they 



J'- 



^ 



206 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



operate, and a farm of 120 acres, all under im- 
provement and well stocked. They have also been 
interested in steamboats on the river, and still 
own a small interest there. The original and only 
investment in goods and buildings amounted to 
$3,100, and, at a very low estimate, profits worth 
$10,000, and the first investment, have been paid 
out. Hiram Calvin is the son of K. T. Calvin and 
Angie (Rifner) Calvin, and the grandson, on his 
mother's side, of Peter and Elizabeth (Rockafellow) 
Rifner. Peter Rifner was a soldier in the War 
of 1812, being commissioned by Gen. Harrison as 
commander of a company. R. T. Calvin was born 
in New Jersey, and emigrated to Harrison, Ohio, 
when a young man. There he man-ied Miss Rif- 
ner. Hiram Calvin easts his vote with the Demo- 
cratic party, and is a member of the "Triple Alli- 
ance. ' ' He married Miss Gussie Boren, daughter 
of Cole Boren, of Mound City, 111. , who was a pilot 
on the Mississippi River, and whose father, Mor- 
gan Borenr, was born in Tennessee, in 1789, he be- 
ing a soldier in the Black Hawk War. The latter 
married Miss Anna Lathran, of Tennessee. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Calvin have been born three chil- 
dren: Fannie, Gussie and Aggie. Mr. Clemson 
died March 30, 1889, at his residence near Olm- 
sted, 111. , aged sixty-four years and ten days. 

William A. Campbell was born in Greene 
County, Mo., April 10, 1848, being a son of Will- 
iam and Nancy Campbell, and grandson of James 
and Lucy Campbell and James and Hannie Col- 
lins, who were natives of Patrick County, Va. 
William Campbell, Sr. , was a farmer, and moved to 
Missouri in 1845, residing in Greene County 
until 1852, when he removed to Cass County, and 
two years later to Kansas Territory. He eon- j 
tinned to make this his home iintil 1807, since 
which time he has been a resident of Vernon 
County, Mo., and is now living at Milo, of that 
county, engaged in merchandising. He and wife 
are the parents of the following family: John W., 
a resident of Arizona Territory, engaged in the 
milling business; George W. , who died in Newton 
County, Mo., in 1886; Marthie E., who died in i 
Greene County, Mo., in 1846; William A., James 
E. , who died in Vernon County, Mo., in 1872; , 



Isaac F., a merchant of Arizona Territory; Melissa 
J., who died in Bourbon County, Kas. , in 1859; 
Thomas H. , who died in Crawford County, Kas. , 
in 1863; David H. , a blacksmith at El Paso, Tex. : 
Melissa, married Charles Baker in 1883, and resides 
in Crawford County, Kas. William A. Campbell 
began life for himself in 1863, when only sixteen 
years old, at which time he enlisted in the Federal 
army, in Company B, Fourteenth Regiment of 
Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, under Capt. Charles 
H. Haynes, and Col. C. W. Blair, in which regi- 
ment he served until June 15, 1865, then being 
honorably discharged with the balance of his regi- 
ment, at Lawrence, Kas. He then went to South- 
east Kansas, where he joined his parents, staying 
there until May 20, 1866, the date of his marriage 
to Miss Rebecca A. Cooper, afterward moving 
to McDonald County, Mo., and from there to 
El Paso, Tex., where he lived one year. Going 
thence to Benton County, Ark., he lived there two 
years and later settled in Newton County, Mo., 
but after a residence in that locality until 1S84, 
moved to Clay County, Ark. , reaching this place 
November 17, 1884. Here he still resides. He 
bought 320 acres of heavily timy>ered land, and 
now has eighteen acres cleared and under fence, 
with a young orchard of 100 apple trees of a select 
variety. William A. Campbell was elected justice 
of the peace in his county, October 20, 1888, 
which ofiice he still holds. He is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity. Rebecca A. Campbell, his 
wife, is the daughter of Hiram and Lucinda 
Cooper, and was born in McDonald Coimty, 
Mo. , March 7, 1 848. Her father died when she 
was four years old, and when she was seven years 
old her mother died, leaving her and one sister 
and two brothers to tight the battle of life as best 
they could. The oldest child was only ten years of 
age. She lived in McDonald County, Mo., until 
the spring of 1862, when she moved to Southeast 
Kansas with relatives, residing there until her 
marriage in 1866. AVilliam A. and Rebecca A. 
Campbell are the parents of six children : George 
W., the eldest, died in Jasper County, Mo., in 
1872; John W. died in Mexico, in 1874; Alex- 
ander died in Mexico in 1874; John W. and Alex- 



CLAY COUNTY. 



207 



ander (twins) died on the same day; Lucinda J., 
Martlia E., and Rosa A., the youngt^st child, still 
remain with their pai'ents. 

William C. Cochran, merchant of Greenway, 
Ark., was born in Massac County, 111., September 
4. 1854, his father. Jesse Cochran, being a native 
of North Carolina. The latter went to Illinois 
when a young man, where he was married to Jane 
Sexton, and resided in Massac County np to 1856, 
when he moved to Arkansas and settled in what 
is now Clay County. Here he entered land, made 
a farm, and reared a family. His death occurred 
in September, 1869. William C. Cochran and two 
sisters are the only surviving members of a family 
of six children. He was reared in Clay County, 
his youth being spent on a farm. He was married 
in this county on the 5th of December, 1881, to 
Miss Sarah E. Leeth. a daughter of John A. Leeth, 
formerly from Tennessee, now deceased. Mrs. 
Cochran was born in Tennessee, but was reared 
in Clay County, and by Mr. Cochran is the mother 
of one child, who is living: Lura, now six years 
old. Jesse died in January, 1886, at the age of 
live months. Mr. Cochran had been engaged in 
farming and the ginning business previous to his 
marriage, and afterwards continued the former 
occupation for three years. In August, 1885, he 
commenced merchandising at Greenway and has 
been interested in that business since that time. 
He was appointed deputy postmaster in 1885 and 
served two years. He carries an excellent stock 
of general merchandise, and has built up a good 
trade. He is a Mason and belongs to the I. O. O. F. 

Robert L. Coleman, proprietor of Piggott 
Hotel, Piggott, Ark., and the son of Col. David 
and Sarah (Love) Coleman, was born in Haywood 
County. N. C, March "26, 1823. Col. David Cole- 
man was a native of North Carolina, but moved to 
Tennessee at an early day. locating in Carroll Coun- 
ty, where he followed farming, and there remained 
until his death. He served as colonel of the State 
militia. His wife, Sarah Love, was also a native 
of North Carolina. Her father, Gen. Tliomas 
Love, was in the Revolutionary War as well as the 
M'ar of 1812. Robert L. Coleman was reared to 
manhood on a farm in Tennessee, read law in Car- 



roll County, and was admitted to the bar, after which 
he practiced there until his removal to Missouri 
in 1851. He then located at Hartsville, Wright 
County, practiced there for throe years and upon re- 
turning to Tennessee, engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits until the breaking out of the late war, wlienhe 
enlisted in the Confederate service, in 18(')2. in Col. 
Napier's regiment. He remained in this regiment 
for about eight months, afterward l>eing in Col. 
Green's regiment, where he was promoted to adju- 
tant and served in that capacity. He was captured 
at Parke's Cross Roads by Gen. Sullivan, was held 
a prisoner at Cam]) Douglas for over three months, 
and was then exchanged. He then returned to 
Tennessee and did not enter the service again. He 
resumed the j>ractice of law in Carroll County for 
about three years, l)ut finally gave up law. He 
has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, for many years and was licensed to 
preach in 1868. He was a local preacher in his 
church for some years. He was ordained deacon 
in 1870 at Trenton, Tenn., by Bishoj) McTyre, and 
followed his ministerial duties in Tennessee up to 
1875, when he moved to Arkansas, settling at Oak 
BlufP in Clay County, and there resided for a num- 
ber of years. He taught school for nine months, 
and then engaged in the manufacture of tobacco 
in 1878, which occupation he has followed up to 
the present date. He built his hotel in the fall of 
1888 and moved in December. His is the first 
and last and only hotel in Piggott. Mr. Coleman 
was married in Carroll County, Tenn., December 
4, 1850, to Miss Harriet E. Norman, a native of 
Carroll County, and the daughter of Judge John 
Norman. To this union were born three children, 
two daughters and a son: Sarah N., wife of Albert 
Hubbard, of Piggott; Mollio X.. widow, and John 
R., who died May 7, 1883, in his twenty-fifth year. 
Mr. Coleman was ordained local elder here in 1881 
by the same bishop that ordained him deacon in 
Tennessee. 

G. W. Cook is a successful agriculturist and 
stockman of Oak Blutf Township, Clay County, 
.\rk. , and was born in Weakley County, West Tenn. , 
in 1N4(), being the youngest in a family of seven 
children born to Richard A. and Ann (David) 



208 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Cook, both of whom were born in Old Virginia. 
At an early day they moved to West Tennessee, 
where the father opened up a farm and there died 
in 1860, at the age of fifty-eight years. His widow 
came to Greene County, Ark. , in August, 1874, 
and here died in October of the same year at the 
age of seventy-six years. G. W. Cook grew to 
manhood in his native State, and received his edu- 
cation in Weakley County, being also married there, 
in 1864, to Miss M. M. Jenkins, a daughter of C. P. 
and Mary G. (Boothe) Jenkins, who were born in 
North Carolina, and were early immigrants of Ten- 
nessee, where they became wealthy farmers and 
spent their declining years, the father dying in 1889 
and the mother in 1872. After his marriage Mr. 
Cook settled on the old homestead, aud there made 
his home until 1873, when he came to Greene 
County, Ark., and purchased a timber tract of 
eighty acres, which he cleared and sold in 1888. 
In 1874 he moved to Clay County, and five years 
later purchased the farm on which he is at present 
residing, which consisted of 120 acres, with thirty 
acres under the plow. He has increased his lands 
until he now has 960 acres, 200 of which are under 
cultivation, in the home farm, and 320 acres, with 
thirty-two under cultivation, in Blue Cane Town- 
ship, Greene County. He is interested in stock 
raising, and makes a specialty of Berkshire and 
Poland China hogs. His principal crop is corn. 
He has never been very active in politics, but 
usually votes the Democratic ticket. He is a mem- 
ber of the A. F. & A. M. lodge at Rector, and is 
intere.sted in all worthy public enterprises. He is 
in every respect a self-made man, and all his prop- 
erty has been acquired by his own exertions. He 
and wife are the parents of the following children: 
Ella, now Mrs. Bolton; Daniel Elvis, Joseph, Oda 
and Edar living, and six children deceased. In 
1861 Mr. Cook enlisted in Weakley County in Com- 
pany C, Fifty-second Tennessee Infantry, and was 
mustered into service at Henderson Station, after- 
ward participating in the battle of Shiloh. At the 
end of six months he returned home. 

Fred \V. Cooper, merchant of Green way, Clay 
County, Ark., was born on the 9th of October, 
1866, in Pulaski County, HI., his parents, C. C. 



and Georgia (McDonald) Cooper, being also born 
in that State. Mr. Cooper was a merchant of Cale- 
donia, 111., for a number of years and died there 
in May, 1877. Fred W. Cooper remained with his 
father until the latter' s death -and received his 
education in the common schools of Illinois and in 
Cincinnati, Ohio. After spending about one year in 
the ' 'Lone Star State' ' he located in Clay County, 
Ark. , in July, 1887, where he bought property, 
erected a store building, and engaged in merchan- 
dising, carrying a large and select stock of shelf and 
heavy hardware, farming implements and furni- 
ture. He has built up a good trade and is making 
money. He was married in Pulaski County, Novem- 
ber 9, 1887, to Miss Gertrude Williamson, a native 
of Ohio, who was reared and educated in Pulaski 

] County, 111. Mr. and Mrs. Cooper are the parents 
of one child. Velaria. Mr. Cooper is a young 
man of energy, push and enterprise, and possess- 

I ing excellent business qualifications, is certain to 

; succeed in whatever he undertakes. 

Henry B. Cox, a prominent merchant of Rec- 
tor, Ark., was born February 13, 1843, in Weakley 
County, Tenn. His parents were, William A. 
Cox and Hiley Cox, natives, respectively, of Buck- 
ingham County, Va. , and Giles County, Tenn. 
William A. Cox, the father of our subject, was 
born March 22, 1815. He was of Scotch-Irish 
descent. Remaining in his native State until 
twelve years of age, he emigrated with his parents 
to Tennessee, which State at that time was wild 
and sparsely inhabited, and furnished very limited 
means of education. Still, William A. Cox, in the 
face of every disadvantage, by his own extraor- 
dinary efforts, succeeded in qualifj'ing himself for 
business affairs, and filled various important sta- 
tions. In 1838 he was married to Mrs. Hiley Scho- 
tield, widow of Thomas Schotield, and daughter 
of Asa and Nancy Magee, of Tennessee. Result- 
ing from this union were six children: Ballard C, 
Leamma M. , Henry B. (subject of this sketch), 
William A., Jr., Emily S. and Amanda Cox. Ball- 
ard C. Cox was killed at the battle of Chickamauga 
while in the Confederate sei-vice. Amanda and 
Emily S. , late wife of W. S. Blackshare, are also 
deceased. In 1857 William A. Cox and family 



s.pV 



CLAY COUNTY. 



209 



emigrated from Tennessee to Greene County, Ark. , 
and settled three miles north of the town of Oak 
Bluff. The woods at that time abounded in wild 
animals. School and church privileges were very 
limited. During the late war William A. Cox re- 
mained at home, but he was a Southern sympa- 
thizer. In religion he was a Presbyterian, but was 
identified with the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, at the time of his death, in 1871. Mrs. 
Hiley Cox is still living, and is a resident of Clay 
County, Ark. (Clay County was formerly a part 
of Greene County.) The paternal grandfather, 
John Cox, was a native of Virginia, as was also his 
wife. He was of Scotch descent, and was a farmer 
bj- occupation. The maternal grandparents were 
of Tennessee. The grandfather participated in 
the Indian wars. He was engaged in the memora- 
ble battle of Horseshoe Bend. Henry B. Cox was 
thirteen years of age when the family removed to 
Arkansas. He remained at home on the farm un- 
til March, 1862, when he enlisted in Company D, 
Twenty fifth Arkansas Volunteer Infantry, under 
Capt. G. D. Byers, Confederate army. He was 
elected third lieutenant at Corinth, Miss. At 
Readerville, Tenn., he was promoted to first lieu- 
tenant. He was in the battles at Richmond. 
Ky., and Murfreesboro, Tenn., as well as numer- 
ous smaller engagements. At Murfreesboro he 
was wounded in the right foot, which resulted 
in much suffering and long confinement in the 
Medical College Hospital, at Atlanta, Ga. , of which 
Dr. Willis Westmoreland was chief surgeon. In 
]Sr)3, near GriflSn, Ga. , he was married to Miss 
Addie E. Lavender, daughter of Judge James La- 
vender, a native of Georgia. For two years after 
his marriage he was engaged in farming. In 1867, 
in Carroll County, Ga. , he went into the mercan- 
tile business. He emigrated to Greene County, 
Ark., in 1867, and is still occupied in the same 
business. By his marriage Mr. Cox became the 
father of nine children, as follows: Charles M. B., 
.■Vugusta O., Eugene H. . Cora B. , Mary F., Annie 
L. , Dreas L., Augustus C. and Hubert D. Cox. 
Of these there are surviving only Charles M. B. , 
Cora B., Mary F. and Dreas L. Cox. The wife of 
Mr. Cox, Mrs. Addie E. Cox, passed from this life 



into the future on July 9, 1880, at the age of thirty - 
six years. Mr. Cox afterward married Miss Laura 
I. Cox, a native of Missouri, and daughter of Rev. 
J. W. Cox, of the Methodist Protestant Cliurch. 
To this union were born two children: Addie B. 
and Everett; the last named died at the age of 
four months. Mr. Cox established his business in 
Rector in 1882. He was the purchaser of the first 
lot sold in town, and has l)een quite successful. 
Mr. Cox and family are members of the Methodist 
Protestant Church. He was ordained a minister 
in 1872. He has been a member of the Masonic 
order since 1866, and took the Chapter and Coun- 
cil degrees in 1867, at CarroUton, Carroll County. 
Ga. He is a Democrat in jjolitics; a stanch advo- 
cate of the principles of prohibition, he supported 
Gen. Fisk for president in 1888. In personal ap- 
pearance Mr.. Cox is tall and imposing; is six feet 
and two inches, and weighs 200 ll)s. He has dark- 
brown eyes, and wears a heavy, full beard. 

Thomas J. Crews, farmer and stock raiser of St. 
Francis Township, Clay County, Ark., was bom 
in Bedford County, Tenn., August 1, 1847, and is 
the son of Dr. John Crews, a native of Virginia, 
and Mary A. (Tribble) Crews. Dr. John Crews 
was reared in his native State and was married 
twice, his first wife bearing him two sons and 
three daughters, all now deceased but one, a 
daughter. His second marriage was to the mother 
of our subject, who bore him four children, two 
sons and two daughters, all of whom grew to ma- 
ture years. The Doctor moved from Bedford to 
Weaklev County, residing there some nine years, 
engaged in farming, and then, aliout 187)7, he 
moved with his family to Arkansas, locating in what 
is now Clay County, made a farm and there resided 
until his death, which occurred in December. 1876. 
Thomas J. Crews grew to manhood on the farm in 
Clay County, remaining with his parents until 
''rown, and was married in that county September 
1, 1872, to Miss Mary J. Lively, a native of Ar 
kansas, and the daughter of William Lively, and 
sister of Rev. Lively, whose sketch appears else 
where in this work. After his marriage Mr. 
Crews settled in the neighborhood where he now 
lives, and after his father's de.ith he came to the 



-il 



210 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



old home and bought out the heirs. He has 250 
acres of land with about 125 fenced and under 
cultivation. Mrs. Crews died February 12, 1878, 
and since then Mr. Crews' mother, who is still 
living, has been his housekeeper. Mr. Crews is 
a member of the Masonic fraternity. Wisdom 
Lodge No. 343, and has filled all the official posi- 
tions in his lodge. He has represented the lodge 
in the grand lodge two different times. He is also 
a member of the I. O. O. F., Lodge No. 56, at 
Piggott, and is Noble Grand of this lodge. He 
has served as district deputy for four years, and 
has represented this lodge and Clark Bluff a num- 
ber of times. He is a prominent man and an ex- 
cellent citizen. 

Z. T. Daniel is well known thoughout Clay 
County, Ark. , and for a number of years tilled the 
office of deputy county surveyor, with competence 
and ability. He was born on Blue Grass soil in 
Grant County, in 1848, being the eldest of a 
family of eight children born to Lewis B. and 
Sardinia K. (Canfield) Daniel, the former a native 
of Kentucky, and the latter of Ohio. The father 
was reared in his native State, and in March, 1849, 
moved to Illinois and settled in Schuyler County, 
•where he engaged in farming, continuing this oc- 
cupation until 1862, when he left his farm to en- 
gage in the war, enlisting from Rushville, III., 
in Company B, One Hundred and Nineteenth Illi- 
nois Infantry, and was mustered into service at 
Qujncy. He died in 1863 of disease contracted 
while in the service. His excellent wife still sur- 
vives him and resides at Rushville, 111. Z. T. 
Daniel received excellent facilities for acquiring 
an education, and besides attending the public 
school at Rushville, 111., attended the Washington 
University at St. Louis, in 1874, 1875 and 1876. 
During this time he studied surveying, and in 
March, 1876, he came to Corning, Ark., for the 
purpose of continuing his agricultural operations 
but drifted into surveying, which occuj)ation re- 
ceived the greater part of his attention, his serv- 
ices being utilized in Northern Arkansas and South- 
ern Missouri. He was married in Clay County, 
Ark., in the fall of 1882, to Miss Ellen McClintick, 
a native of Quincy, 111. , and a daughter of Henry 



Clay and Mary Ann (Dilley) McClintick, also of 
Illinois, who came to Corning, Ark., in 1878, 
where they are still residing, the father being the 
proprietor of the Illinois Hotel. Subseqiient to 
his marriage, Z. T. Daniel settled in Corning. 
He worked for the Iron Mountain Railroad Com- 
pany as civil engineer nearly two years. He is 
reporter for the K. of H. , and is an active mem- 
ber of the I. O. G. T. His wife is a member of 
the Baptist Church, and having no family of 
their own they have adopted . a little boy named 
Eddie, 

Elihu Davis, whose success as a farmer and 
stock raiser is well established throughout the 
county, is a native of Hardin County, Ky. , born 
March 11, 1S21. His father, William Davis, was 
also a native of Kentucky, and was married in that 
State to Miss Sarah Hardin, of the same State, 
although her people were from the Carolinas. 
William Davis settled on a faraj in Kentucky, re- 
sided there a number of years, and then moved to 
Wayne County, Tenn., where he purchased a farm 
and here reared his children. He died about 
1835 or 1836. His wife survived him until 1877, 
when she died at the home of her son in Arkansas. 
Elihu Davis was reared in Tennessee and came to 
Arkansas when a young man of eighteen, or in 
1838, locating in Greene County, but now Clay 
County, and finally settled on his present property 
in 1844. His nearest neighbor was three miles 
distant, wild animals were plentiful and many a 
deer and wild turkey fell before his unerring rille. 
Mr. Davis cleared over 100 acres where Greenway 
is now located, and sold forty acres of this in May. 
1889, for an addition to the town. He was mar- 
ried first in Clay County, October 16. 1844, to 
Susan Sites, a native of Arkansas, who died Sep- 
tember 16, 1863. To this union were born seven 
children, who grew to mature years. Mr. Davis 
married his second wife. Mrs. Nancy Boggus, a 
widow, formerly Miss Nancy Sheltou, who was 
born in Alabama. She was the mother of one son 
by her first marriage. This wife died October 23, 
1873, and Mr. Davis married again, in Clay Coun- 
ty, Miss Tennessee Horton, who bore him two chil- 
dren, Joseph and Nancy. Mrs. Davis was born in 



r"^ 



CLAY COUNTY. 



211 



Tennessee, but was reared in Missouri and Arkan- 
sas. To Mr. Davis by his first wife were born 
these children: William A., whose sketch appears 
in this work; Solomon T., John, Elilui, Jr., (Clar- 
issa, wife of T. J. Smith; Sarah, and Mary, wife 
of Lewis Clippard. To his second marriag(> one 
son, Thomas L. , was born. Mr. Davis is a Master 
Mason, and a member of the Baptist Church. 

William M. Davis. Among the worthy resi- 
dents of Clay County, Ark., it is but just to say 
that Mr. Davis occupies a conspicuous and honor- 
able place, for he has always been honest, indus- 
trious and enterprising, and as a result has met 
with more than ordinary success. He was born in 
Georgia, on the 1 5th of August, 1842, and is a 
son of D. D. and Rebecca (Isbul) Davis, who were 
born, reared and married in South Carolina. They 
moved to Georgia after their marriage, where they 
remained about ten years and then located in Ala- 
bama, and afterward in Greene County, Ark., 
where the father is now living. William M. Davis 
remained with his father until of age, and in 
1862 enlisted in the Twenty-fifth Arkansas In- 
fantry. Confederate States Army, and served until 
the spring of 18fi5, when he surrendered at Witts- 
burgh, Ark. He was at Murfreesboro, Chick- 
amauga, Franklin, and the siege and surrender 
of Atlanta, being in about thirteen regular engage- 
ments. After the war he was engaged in farming 
in Greene County, and was married in Dunklin 
County, Mo., on Buffalo Island, September lU, 
1867, to Miss Martha Cochran, who was born and 
reared in Dunklin Coimty, being a daughter of 
Pleasant Cochran. Mr. and Mrs. Davis remained 
in Greene County until 1874, when he moved to 
his present place in Clay County, trading his farm 
there for the one on which he is now residing. He 
has 160 acres, with about seventy-five under culti- 
vation, and has built a good frame residence, 
stables and sheds and otherwise greatly imjjroved 
his jiroperty since locating, Mr. and Mrs. Davis 
are the parents of the following children: Cynthia 
E., wife of James Golden; Pleasant L., James 
E., WUliam David, George F., Samuel A., Lou 
Z., John Henry and Poarlie Gertrude. Two chil- 
dren died in early childhood. Mr. and Mrs. Davis 



are members of the Methodist Episcopal Churcli, 
South, and he is a Master Mason. 

William A. Davis, another prominent farmer 
and stock raiser of Haywood Township, Clay 
County, Ark., was born in the above-mentioned 
county, near Greeuway, April 20. 1853, and is the 
son of Elihu Davis, a Kentuckian by birth, who 
was reared in that State and in Tennessee. The 
father came to Arkansas when a young man and 
was here married. AVilliam A. Davis grew to 
manhood on the home farm, remaining with his 
father until twenty-seven years of age, and was 
married here first, March 10, 1881, to Miss Anna 
Randleman, who died in September, 1881. Mr. 
Davis had boiight and located where he resides in 
1880, and this place he has greatly improved. He 
has fifty-five acres of cleared land, neat buildings, 
a good orchard, and has twenty-five acres in tim- 
lier, all good bottom land, one mile from Green- 
way. Mr. Davis was married, in this county, De- 
cember 29, 1886, to Miss Belle Gorden, a native of 
Tennessee, but who was reared and educated in 
Clay County, Ark. Her father, Jordan Gorden, 
who is now deceased, was one of the pioneers of 
Arkansas. To Mr. and Mrs. Davis have been 
born one child. Myrtle, who is now six months old. 
Mr. Davis is a member of the Masonic Order, 
Wisdom Lodge No. 348, in which he is senior 
deacon. 

James Deniston, who is ])rominently identified 
with the farming and stock raising interests of 
Oak Bluff Township, was born in Ballard County, 
Ky., July 13, 1839, and is the son of John Denis- 
ton, who was born and reared in Washington 
County, Va. He was also married in that State, 
to Miss Dorotha L. Puckett, a native of Amelia 
County, Va. Her father served in the War of 
1812. After man-iage Mr. Deniston settled on a 
farm in Kentucky, and followed tilling the soil 
up to the breaking out of the late war, when, at 
the age of fifty-two, he enlisted in the Twenty- 
third Kentucky Infantry, Union Army, and died 
in Texas. James Deniston spent his youth in 
his native county, in Kentuck)', assisting his father 
on the farm, and when in his nineteenth year, 
he was married there to Miss Eliza Brown, who 



212 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



bore him five children. After marriage Mr. Den- 
istou followed agricultural pursuits iu Kentucky 
until 1868, when he moved to Missouri, and spent 
one year in Cape Girardeau County. He then re- 
sided two years in Stoddard County, and in the 
spring of 1872 moved to Arkansas, bought raw 
land, and there he lives at the present time. He 
is the owner of 280 acres of land, with about 125 
acres cleared, all good bottom land. He served as 
a member of the school board for ten consecutive 
years, and has the confidence and esteem of his 
fellow men. He was married, in Cape Girardeau 
County, to Miss Mary E. Welch, a native of Illi- 
nois, but who was reared near Alton. Obion Coun- 
ty, Tenn. Nine children were born to the last 
marriage: Isabelle, Ada, Bernetta J., Rhoda,Ida 
M. , Stonewall J. , Scott H. , George and Effie W. 
Mr. and Mrs. Deniston are members of the Mis- 
sionary Baptist Church, and he is a deacon in the 
same. He is a Master Mason, and a member and 
treasurer of Danley Lodge No. 800. A. F. & A. M. 
William H. Denny. Among the many sturdy 
and energetic agriculturists of Clay County, Ark., 
who have attained their property by hard labor 
and economy, may be mentioned Mr. Denny, who 
was born in Monroe County, Mo., September 25, 
1856, being a son of William T. F. and Martha 
(Atchison) Donny, who were born in St. Louis 
County. Mo., and Illinois, respectively, the form- 
er's birth occurring September 24, 1828. They 
were married January 1, 1849, and became the 
parents of seven children; "W. H. , Florence, 
Charles E., Andi-ew J., Cory Bell, Samuel W. and 
Lizy Edna. They moved to Monroe County, Mo. , 
in 1854, but returned to St. Louis County in 1861, 
where they are still living, being engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits. The mother is a member of the 
Presbyterian Church, and the father is a Mason, 
and in his political views a Democrat. William 
H. Denny moved from St. Louis County to Howell 
County, Mo., in 1883, and from the latter county 
to Clay County, Ark., where he purchased, in 
1885, a tract of land consisting of eighty acres, 
twenty of which are under cultivation, lying on 
Current River bottom. It is well adapted to cot- 
ton, corn and fruit, and can all be easily put in a 



tillable condition. It is also a fine grazing prop- 
erty, and is in condition to pasture stock the year 
round. Land in this section is valued at from $2 
to f 25 per acre, and cleared land is equal to the 
best in the State. It is usually covered with a 
heavy growth of timber (suitable for all kinds of 
work), among which may be mentioned gum, ash, 
oak, walnut, linn and cj'press. Mr. Denny in his 
political views is a Democrat. 

Hon. Jasper W. Dollison, a resident of Green- 
way, Clay County, Ark., was born in Cambridge 
City, of the "Buckeye State," December 20, 1849. 
His father, William E. Dollison, was born in 
Pennsylvania, but was reared in Ohio, and was 
married there to Miss Susanna Laird, who was 
born in the State. Mr. Dollison removed to the 
State of Indiana in 1857, and located in Clay 
County, where he engaged in farming and stock 
raising and dealing until 1884, then moving to Kan- 
sas, and he has since made his home in Independ- 
ence. Hon. Jasper W. Dollison grew to mature 
years in Clay County, Ind., and received an excel- 
lent education in the Greencastle University. He 
was engaged in teaching in the public schools of 
that State for a number of years, and in 1877 
moved to Missouri, and located in Andrew County, 
moving from there to Union County, Iowa, after a 
short time, where he made his home for nearly two 
years, having been engaged in teaching in both 
places. In 1881 he located at Newport, Jackson 
County, Ark., and for two years was superintend- 
ent of a lumljer mill. He then entered into the 
newspaper business in Greene County, at Para- 
gould. but in 1884 moved to Clay County and 
bought out the proprietors of the Rector Advocate, 
which he changed to the name of the Clay County 
Advocate, and moved the paper to Greenway in 
June, 1887. He continued the publication of this 
paper until .January, 1889, when he sold out to 
the present editor. In his political views he was 
formerly identified with the Democratic party, but 
when the movement known as the Labor movement 
was inaugurated, he recognized the justice of the 
cause and espoused it. In June, 1888, the State 
Union Labor convention, assembled at Little Rock, 
tendered him the nomination for State land com- 




missioner. He decliaed the honor, however, and 
after very urgent solicitation agreed to make the race 
for the legislature, and vfas nominated and elected 
on that ticket as representative of Clay County, 
serving vpith distinction for the term commencing 
January 14, 1889. He vyas married in Clay County, 
Ind., March 30, 1872, to Miss Anna Williams, 
who was born iu Kentucky, but was reared and 
educated principally in Indiana. Her parents 
were Van Buren and Mary Williams, of Clay 
County, Ind. Mr. and Mrs. Dollison are the 
]>arent8 of live childi'en: Lethe, Delia, Vincent, 
Charles and May. Mrs. Dollison is a mem- 
ber of the Christian Church, and he is a member 
of the K. of H. , the K. of L. and the Agricultural 
Wheel. He is engaged at present in real estate 
and timber enterprises. 

W. S. Downs, blacksmith, and one of the skill- 
ful workmen of the county, is a native of Georgia, 
born in 1848, and the son of Shelly Downs, who 
was born in Virginia. The latter was married in 
his native State, and afterward moved to Georgia, 
where the mother died shortly afterward, and 
where the father died in 18fil, leaving a family of 
three children. ^V. S. Downs was but thirteen 
years of age when his father died, and for three 
years after this, and during the war, he drove a 
team from Atlanta to Bowden, Ga. , and was with 
his teams near Franklin, Ga. (which is 100 miles 
from Atlanta), when that city fell into the hands of 
the Federal troops. At the age of sixteen Mr. 
Downs went to work to learn the carriage and 
wagon-maker's trade with the firm of J. W. 
Downs, and afterward with Downs & Langford, 
at Conyers, Ga., remaining in their employ for 
three years. He then came to Clay County, Ark. , 
where he has resided ever since, with the exception 
of about three years, two of which he spent in New 
Madrid. Mo. , and one year at his old home, where 
he worked for Mr. Langford, who was carrying on 
the same business. During his stay here six years 
were spent in the mill business, the second steam- 
mill in the county, and he afterward followed 
farming until about 1888, when he opened up his 
old business in Boydsville. He has built a shop 
for general repair work, and is having a fair 



trade. He was married in 1869 to Miss Martha 
A. Arnold, daughter of Andrew Arnold, of Clay 
County (but which at that time was Greene Coun- 
ty), and nine children have been the result of this 
union, eight now living. They are named as fol- 
lows: Lenora J., wife of J. A. Burton, of Tennes- 
see, and the mother of one child; J. H., at home 
attending the farm; L. E., at home; William E., 
J. B., Florence A.. Matthew A. and Alvin Shelly, 
who is named after his grandfather. Mr. and 
Mrs. Downs are members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, South, and he is a Democrat in jwlitics. 
Joseph Dudgeon. There is nothing which 
adds so much to the prestige of a city in the estim- 
ation of a stranger as first-class hotel accommoda- 
tions, and the Dudgeon House, of which our sub- 
ject is proprietor, has an excellent reputation both 
at home and abroad, although it has been in 
operation only a short time (since February, 
1888). His hotel, so recently completed, consists 
of twenty-three commodious rooms, with a large 
bath-room, all of which are well furnished, and 
supplied with modern conveniences, and he is 
ever coiu'teous and aceommodatintr to his sruests. 
He was born in the "Emerald Isle," County Mon- 
ahan, in March, 1833, and is a son of John and 
Margaret (Mills) Dudgeon, who were of Scotch 
descent, but were born in Ireland, in which coun- 
try the father died. In 1844 Joseph, with his 
mother, went from Belfast to Liverpool, and in the 
latter city took passage for America on the sailing 
vessel "Patrick Henry," and after an ocean voy- 
age of six weeks landed at New York (Jity. Shortly 
after they went to Sullivan County, N. Y. . where 
Joseph received his education, and was reared to 
manhood. He started out to battle his own way in 
the world at the early age of thirteen years, and 
from earliest boyhood his career has been charac- 
terized by hard work, for he was l)rought up as 
a farmer, and received such education as could l)e 
acquired in the common schools previous to his 
sixteenth year. About this time lie and his mother 
went to New Orleans, and there he worked as a 
clerk in a store for about two years, and from that 
time up to ISO") lived lioth in Jri8sissii)pi ami 
Texas. He next located in Saginaw, Mich., where 



214 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



he resided three years, then returning to New York 
State, and the same year located at An Sable, Ulich. , 
being an employe for eleven years of the Loud, 
Priest & Gay Lumber Company, acting as their 
foreman; he was held in tlie highest esteem, and 
commanded the full confidence of his employers. 
He became a noted lumberman of that region, and 
was engaged in the business for himself for some 
time, continuing successfully until 1882, when he 
went to Chicago, and was employed in paving the 
streets for a number of months. In 1883 he moved 
to Randolph County, Mo., but after a short time 
sold all his effects, and returned to Michigan. In 
the spring of 1885 he came to Clay County, Ark., 
and was engaged in tilling a farm near Corning, 
which he had purchased, until February, 1888, 
when he moved to the town, and embarked in his 
present enterprise. In 1860 he was married to Miss 
Amanda Tiffany, a native of Pennsylvania, and a 
daughter of Edwin and Joannah (Parks) Tiffany, 
the former a native of Connecticut, and the latter of 
New York State. Mr. Tiffany is a second cousin of 
George Tiffany, the noted New York City jeweler. 
Mr. and Mrs. Dudgeon became the parents of 
seven children, of whom live are living: Arthur F., 
residing in Michigan; Ella, wife of R. G. Gillard. 
of Ashland, Wis. ; John A., Bertha M., wife of J. 
M. Hawks, of Cotton Plant, Ark., and Pearl A. 
Mr. Dudgeon is a member of the I. O. O. F. , and 
in his political views is a Republican. His mother 
was born in Ireland May 5, 1781. and died at the 
age of 104 years. 

Edward B. Earle, druggist at Rector postoffice, 
was born in Obion County, Tenn. , February 28, 
1858, but was reared at Arlington, Ky. He re- 
mained on the farm until nineteen years of age, 
receiving a common school education, and worked 
in a drug store for some time. October 25, 1886, 
he made his advent in the State of Arkansas with 
$2.85 in cash and worked at the carpenter's trade 
until February 27. 1887, when he began working 
for Mr. Outlaw, with whom he continued for 889 
days without losing any time. Afterward he was 
occupied at odd jobs. He then bought out the 
drug store which he now owns and later purchased 
other property. He is now the most successful 



druggist in Rector, carrying a stock of drugs 
valued at $1,000, and is also a much esteemed 
citizen. September 15, 1887, he married Miss 
Clemmie Trantbam, a native of Clay County, Ark. 
Both he and wife are members of the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church. He is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, and is a Democrat in politics, 
but not a radical one. Mr. Earle' s parents, J. H. 
and Elvira (Ghalson) Earle, were natives of Ken- 
tucky. The father was reared near Barlow, a 
short distance from Cairo, and was quite an exten- 
sive stock man. He was a soldier in the late war 
and is now living in Illinois, aged sixty-six years. 
Mrs. Earle remained in her native State until 
grown, and was married there. To this union 
were born eight children: Sallie. John. Lee, 
Charles, Arthur, Edward B. , Mollie and Leana. 
Dr. Charles Earle, brother of the subject of this 
sketch, came to Rector in 1883, and is a graduate 
of Bellevue College, New York. 

Frederick Ermert is an excellent example of 
the success attending hard work and faithful and 
persistent endeavor, and is now one of the wealthy 
planters of Clay County, Ark. , having been a resi- 
dent of this region since 1856. He is a native of 
Germany, born in 1847, and is the eldest of five 
children born to John and Caroline Ermert, who 
were also natives of that country, and came to the 
State of Missouri in 1850, settling in Madison 
County, where the father engaged in lead mining. 
The following year he took the overland route to 
California, the journey occupying five months, and 
remained in that State for three years. He then 
returned to Madison County, Mo., but shortly 
after moved to Randolph County, and in 1856 he 
settled in what is now Clay County, where he 
followed the occupation of agriculture until his 
death in 1864, Iteing still survived by his ex 
cellent wife. Frederick Ermert received good 
training in growing up, became familiar with the 
details of farm life, and entered actively upon life's 
duties as a farmer after the close of the war, pur 
chasing a piece of raw land, which has since, by 
honest and continued eft'ort on his part, become one 
of the valuable places of the county. This pro- 
perty he sold in 1885, and since March, 1889, has 






CLAY COUNTY. 



215 



resided on bis present farm of 120 acres, sixty of 
which are under cultivation, thirty being devoted 
to the culture of cotton. He has always supported 
the Republican ticket, considering its views as 
sound and well suited to any man. He has been 
married thrice, his first union taking place in Clay 
County, in 1867, to Miss Mary Ann Whitehead, 
a native of that county, whose jjarents were early 
settlers of the locality. He lost his wife in 1875. 
she having borne him one child: Amanda, now the 
wife of William M. Williams, residing in Texas. 
His second marriage took place in Clay County, in 
1878, to Mildi'ed Rhodes, of Mississippi, who died 
in 1879, also leaving one child, William, who is 
residing with his father. His present wife was a 
Miss Sarah Elizabeth Calhoun, of Tennessee, her 
parents, Dunklin and Penelope Calhoun, being 
deceased. To the last union the following chil- 
dren were born: James, Lewis and Fred. Many 
are the changes which have occurred since Mr. Er- 
mert first located here, and he has lived to witness 
the growth of what was almost a wilderness to one 
of the most prosperous counties of the State. 

Watson Forrest, better known as "Patter'" 
Forrest, is one of the oldest settlers in Clay 
County at the present time. He left Gibson 
County, Tenu.. in October, 1832, with his brother, 
Abraham Forrest, and Elisha Fly and their wives, 
all in one wagon drawn by cattle, and they soon 
fell in with James Kennedy, who, with his wife 
and four children, were in a wagon drawn by 
horses. They all settled on Slavin's Creek, in 
what is Greene County now, and there they re- 
mained for three years. During this time Watson 
Forrest was married to Miss Sarah Crafton, of Gib- 
son County, Tenn. , and the daughter of John B. 
Crafton, of Tennessee. Mr. Forrest had returned 
to Tennessee to assist his father, Mark Forrest, to 
move to the farm picked out for him by his son, 
on Slavin's Creek, and here married Miss Crafton, 
and with her and his father he returned to Greene 
County al)out D<>cember 10. 1838. In 1835 he 
and wife moved to what is known as Clay County 
at the present day, settling about one mile from 
where he now lives, and there remained some five 
years. He then moved to Barry County, Mo., 



continued there but thi-ee months and then returned 
and bouglit a log cabin, where his present resi- 
dence is standing. He paid $250 for the log 
cabin and the improvements, and $2.50 per acre 
for forty acres of land. To this he has since 
added 220 acres. The old log house be uses for a 
stable. When Mr. Forrest first came to this State 
there was no market for anything; neither was 
there any law, nor officers neither sejuire, sheriff 
nor constable, and Mr. Forrest assisted in electing 
the first sheriff, Charley Robinson. A man by the 
name of Tucker was the first representative of 
Greene County, and there were only forty votes 
cast in the whole county. Stock had to be driven 
on foot to Memphis. Teiin., 125 miles away, but as 
there was but very little stock in the county, these 
trips were seldom made until about 1845. Pre- 
vious to that time the only way of obtaining 
money was by selling the pelts of animals, deer, 
elk, bear, wildcat, panther, raccoon, mink and 
otter being plentiful at that time. Deer skins 
were the most sought after, and at Cape Girardeau 
were worth from about $1.00 to 12.00 each; coon 
skins fi-om twenty-five to fifty cents each; elks, 
from $1.50 to $2.00 each; bear, from $1.00 to 
$3.00; wildcat, about twenty-five cents; panther. 
fix)m$1.00to $1.50; mink, fi'om $1.50 to S3. 00, 
and otter, from $4.00 to $6.00. Buffalo, in 
rather limited numbers, were in the State also. 
With the exception of the buffalo and elk. all the 
above mentioned animals are still represented in 
the woods, coon and deer being very plentiful. 
The next nearest trading-point was Pocahontas, on 
the Black River, which offered a market for the 
first time about 1835. This was twentj' miles dis- 
tant from where Mr. Forrest lived. The first rail- 
road market to which Mr. Forrest went was Dexter, 
on the Iron Mountain road, in Missouri, and about 
forty miles from his residence. The first church 
built in what is now Clay County was at Salem, 
in about 1842, and was of the Baptist denomina- 
tion. It was constructed by two men. M'illiam 
Nutt and Mr. Winingham, the latter preaching 
the first sermon. He was also the first Baptist 
pnvicher. The first preacher of any kind that Mr. 
Forrest heard was Rev. Fountain Brown, a Meth- 



210 



HISTOKY OF AKKANSAS. 



odist. circuit rider. The first school house in the 
county was l)uilt within a mile of where Mr. For 
rest now lives, and a man by the name of Cyrus 
Owens taught the first session as near as can be 
remembered. Mr. Forrest has in his possession a 
stone which he took fi-om the maw of a spotted 
deer killed by him thirty years ago, and which 
he believes to be a veritable mad stone. It is 
about the size and shape of a chicken's heart, of a 
dull, yellowish or brown color, and resembles a 
well worn molar. On one side is a decayed place 
which appears to be porous in its nature, while the 
stone has a smooth, polished appearance. Three 
people bitten by mad dogs have been cured by 
this stone. In each case, animals had been bitten 
b_y the same dog, and in every case went mad. It 
will also cure rattlesnake bites. In case of the lat- 
ter, or that of a mad dog, the stone adheres to the 
wound until saturated with the poison, when it 
falls, and by placing the stone in warm water or 
milk it will cleanse itself. When there is no poi- 
son in the wound the stone will not take hold. 

John C. Frew. Prominent among the successful 
farmers and stock-raisers of Haywood Township 
stands the name of the above-mentioned gentleman, 
who was born in Wealdey County, Tenn., June 15, 
1843, and is the son of A. and Sarah (Hattler) 
Frew, the former a native of North Carolina and 
his wife of Tennessee. A. Frew went to Tennes- 
see when a young man, was married there and 
afterwards engaged in farming, which he con- 
tinued all his life. He died in November, 1885, 
and his wife died in June of the same year. Their 
family consisted of three sons and three daughters, 
all of whom grew to mature years. One sister 
has since died, but the others are all residents of 
Arkansas. John C, the eldest of this family, re- 
mained with his parents until after his marriage, 
which occurred in Obion County, November 11, 
1866, to Miss Eda Tennessee Rucker. a native of 
Middle Tennessee, and the daughter of Samuel W. 
Eucker. After marriage Mr. Frew raised one crop 
on the old home place, and then moved to Obion 
County, where he farmed for five years. He moved 
to Arkansas in the fall of 1872, and located in what 
is now Clay County, and on the place where he 



at present resides. The place at that time had a 
few acres cleared and on it was a log cabin. Since 
then Mr. Frew has cleared the farm, erected build- 
ings and has greatly improved it. He owns 120 
acres, sixty fenced and under cultivation, and has 
a fine young apple and peach orchard. To his 
marriage were born two children: Laura Victoria, 
wife of J. I. Williams, and Geneva, a miss of ten 
years. Mr. Frew is a member of the Agricultural 
Wheel and served as president of the same one 
term. 

Pierce Galvin. The life of this well known 
farmer and stockman affords an example that 
might well be imitated by the young men of to- 
day, for at the early age of fourteen years he left 
the home place, without means, to battle his own 
way in the world, and his endeavors have been re- 
sultf ul of good, and he is now a well-to-do farmer 
of Clay County. He possesses an excellent plac(> 
of 240 acres, 100 being under cultivation, and con- 
duets his farm in an intelligent manner and has it 
well stocked. He was born in Ireland, December 
24, 1834, and on coming to the United States, in 
1845, landed at New York City, but moved on im- 
mediately to Philadelphia, where he had a sister 
living, and there he made his home until grown. 
He then traveled for some time and was engaged in 
railroading in Ohio for seven or eight months, later 
going to Pittslmrgh, Penn., and in 1852 he com- 
menced braking on a train on the Missouri*Pacifie 
Railroad, remaining with this company until 1S73. 
The following year he came to Arkansas and again 
became an employe of the above named road, and 
continued the occupation of railroading until 1884, 
since which time he has resided on his present 
farm. He was first married to Miss Mary Malony, 
who was born in Ireland, but was brought to the 
United States when a child, being reared in the 
State of Missouri. She died in Augu.st, 1879, 
having borne a family of five children: Mary. Mag- 
gie, Katie, James and Statia. who died at the age 
of two years. The living children are residing 
with their father and he is doing all in his power 
to give then good educational advantages. He 
was nexi married to a sister of his first wife, Kate 
Malony, by whom he became the father of two 



CLAY COUNTY. 



217 



:V£ 



children: Frank, who died at the age of live years, 
and Agnes. Mr. and Mrs. Galvin are members 
of the Catholic Church, but he contriVmtes liberally 
(o all enterprises he deems worthy of support. 
During the war he served in the Twenty-third 
Missouri Volunteers anil did railroad work under 
Col. Crowley. He is now a Democrat in politics. 

John T. Gilchrist, merchant at Knobel, Ark., 
was born in 18(il in St. Charles County, Mo., being 
the eldest of nine children born to Kichard and 
Fannie (Coleman) Gilchrist, who were born in 
Ohio and Illinois, respectively. The former was 
a hotel keeper, and in 1860 removed to East St. 
Louis, III., there following that occupation until 
1S76, when he moved to Knobel and engaged in 
the stock raising and saw mill business for a few 
years; then he retired from the saw mill business 
and settled on his farm, where he died in 1888. 
He had about 1(50 acres of farming land, with some 
eighty acres under cultivation, and had 420 acres 
in a stock ranch. His wife died in 1882. John 
T. Gilchrist attended the schools of St. Louis 
until seventeen years of age, then began clerking 
for the Consolidated Steamboat Company, continu- 
ing one year, and in 1879 came to Knobel, Ark., 
and secured the agency at this place of the Iron 
Mountain Railroad Company, and had charge of 
the office for live years. In 1884 he erected a tine 
building and started a saloon and billiard hall, and 
in 1887 built a large store-house and engaged in 
general merchandising, his stock of goods being 
valued at $6,000, and he has a large and rapidly 
increasing trade. He is a member of the K. of P., 
the K. of H., and the K. and li. of H. He is 
particularly active in politics, and votes with the 
Democratic party. His brother, Richard F., is 
associated with him in business. The latter came 
to Knobel with his father in 1876, and worked on 
the farm until 1886, when he formed his present 
partnership. 

A. W. Gills, one of the most thorough going, 
wide-awake business men of this section of the 
county, and a genial, pleasant gentleman, is a 
native of Fulton County, Ky., and came with his 
parents, who were natives of Virginia, to what is 
now Clay County, Ark., at the age of nineteen 



years. They settled near his present residence, 
where the mother died in 1870, and the father tw.. 
years later. Later A. W. Gills [mrchased this 
farm. In addition to his agricultural interests he 
also erected a cotton-gin, and about the 1st of Octo 
ber, 1886, commenced ginning cotton, with acajjac 
ity of nine bales per day. In September of the 
same year he started a stave factory and corn mill, 
all of which he now runs with steam under the 
same roof, the stave business being the principal 
industry, the factory having a capacity of 8,000 
staves per day. He regularly employs fi-om thirty 
to thirty- five men and ten teams. This has been 
the means of building at least half a dozen houses 
in his neighborhood. He still carries on his farm 
of 180 acres, which he has well supplied with good 
stock. Mr. Gills was married in 1882 to Miss 
Claude Gwin, whom he met in Missouri, and whose 
parents are now living there. He is a member 
of the Masonic fraternity, being attached to the 
Eastern Star Lodge, and is also a member of 
Chalk Bluff Lodge No. 72, I. O. O. F., and of 
the K of H. In politics he votes with the 
Democratic party. 

Marion C. Glasgow, a prominent agricultur- 
ist and stock raiser of Oak Bluff Township, was 
born in Weakley County, Tenn., Augu.st 25, 1842, 
and is the son of Elijah Glasgow, a native of 
North Carolina, where he was reared and where he 
married Miss Jane Jones, a native of Tennessee. 
He and family moved from Tennessee to Arkansas, 
in October, 1854, locating in Clay County, and 
here Mr. Glasgow followed farming until his death 
which occurred in 1875. Mrs. Glasgow died sev- 
eral years previous. In their family were six sons 
and three daughters who grew to mature years, 
but one brother and one sister are deceased. Mar- 
ion C. Glasgow came to this State and county with 
his parents, and here he attained his growth. In 
March, 1862, he enlisted in the Confederate army, 
and served about eight months, when he was 
wounded and returned home. In 1864 he re-en- 
tered the service, remaining until the close of the 
war. He participated in the following battles: Pilot 
Knob, Independence, Sedalia. ainl many minor en- 
gagements. He was paroled at W ittsburg. Ark. , and 



^ 



I 



218 



HISTOEY OF ARKANSAS. 



then came home and engaged in faiminor. He was 
married in Clay County, Ark. , in September, 1863, 
to Mrs. F. S. Stephens, daughter of James 
Nettles, one of the pioneer settlers. Mrs. Glas- 
gow was born in Tennessee. Mr. Glasgow located 
on his present property in 1878, bought raw land 
and has cleared and made a valuable farm of the 
same. He has 1()0 acres, with over 100 acres 
under cultivation, all bottom land situated one and a 
half miles from Hector. He has a good house, 
good out-buildings and a fine'ycmngorchard, etc. 
Mr. and Mrs. Glasgow h^d a famiTy-of eleven 
children, named as follows :"■ Luella, James M., 
Dora J., Levana, Thomas E., Benjamin F., 
George H. . Viora and Columbus L. Three chil- 
di'en died in early youth. Mr. Glasgow lost his 
wife October 2, 1884, and later he married Mrs. 
Emma A. Walker, who bore him one child, Colum- 
bus L. Mr. Glasgow is a Master Mason, is also a 
member of the I. O. O. F. , and is Noble Grand of 
his lodge. His first wife was a member of the Mis- 
sionary Baptist Church. 

John M. Gleghorn was born in Independence 
County, Ark., near Batesville, December 10, 1843, 
being a son of John and Sisley (Coleman) Gleg- 
horn, who were both natives of South Carolina, 
the mother being principally reared in Alabama. 
John Gleghorn removed to Tennessee when a 
young man and there remained until 1842, when 
he emigrated with his family to Independence 
County, Ark., coming on the first steamer that 
sailed up the White Kiver. He entered land 
in that county, on which he remained until 185il, 
subsequently coming to Greene County, Ark., and 
residing on a farm near Gainesville until his 
death, which occurred in April, ISIJd. His widow 
is yet living and resides in Marion County, in her 
eightieth year. The paternal grandfather was 
born in Scotland and emigrated to America at an 
early day. when only twelve years old, locating 
first in South Carolina, then in Middle Tennessee, 
where he spent the remainder of his days. The 
maternal grandfather was born and raised in 
South Carolina, and later spent some time in 
Alabama, dying in Limestone County of that 
State. John M. Gleghorn is one of seven surviv- 



ing members of a family of twelve children, their 
names being as follows: Rhoda E., wife of Samuel 
Pool; Stephen C, Lucretia. widow of William 
Jones; Melissa, wife of J. A. Pool: John M. , 
James K., and Marietta, wife of David Gouch. 
John M. Gleghorn was reared and educated in In- 
dependence County, and was in his sixteenth }'ear 
when he went to Greene County with his parents. 
From early boyhood he has been familiar with 
farm life, and when the war broke out he left the 
plow to engage in that struggle, enlisting in No- 
vember, 1861, in Capt. Morgan's company, in 
which he served until 1863, then being discharged 
on account of disability, at Readyville, Tenn. He 
returned home but afterward enlisted in Mar- 
maduke's brigade, and served until the war 
closed, having taken an active part in the battles 
of Corinth, Fort Pillow, Murfreesboro, Bragg' s 
raid through Kentiicky, Harrisburg, and a num- 
ber of other hard fights. He was wounded by a 
pistol shot while with Price at Big Blue. He 
surrendered at Shreveport, La., June 8, 1865, 
and returned to Greene County, Ark., and was 
engaged in farming there until February, 1871, 
when he came to Clay County, Ark. , and locate<l 
near Knobel, where he farmed on rented land until 
January, 1881, then purchasing his present farm of 
325 acres, about 140 of which are under cultivation. 
He has a good two-story frame house and has 
made other valuable improvements. His princi- 
pal crop is corn, but he also raises some cotton, 
and gives much attention to stock raising, both 
buying and selling. In November, 1865, he was 
married to Mary Arnold, a native of Tennessee, l)y 
whom he has had ten children, five living: Mary J., 
Lindsey C. , Etta, Amanda, and James R. Those 
deceased were : Luther L. , William, Walter, John 
and Anna, the last two twins. Mrs, Gleghorn 
died in November, 1887, having been a worthy 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church for a 
number of years. Mr. Gleghorn is a Democrat, 
but has never been an office seeker. He has done 
a great deal to Ijuild up his section of the countrj' 
and has been the cause of manj' worthy men locat- 
ing here, having furnished them with land, and 
grain with which to make a start. 



si 







i 




Lawrence CourHir, Arkansas 




:i£: 



CLAY COUNTY. 



21U 



I. N. Goldsby, who is classed amoug the lead- 
ing and industrious farmers of the county, was 
born in Kentucky and is the son of Mentor Golds- 
by, and the grandson of Edward Goldsby, who 
took part in the War of 1812. Mentor Goldsby 
died in Kentucky in 1858, and in 1861 I. N. 
Goldsby and his mother came to Clay County, 
Ark., and settled on a farm near his present place 
of residence. He is the owner of 180 acres of 
land, seventy-iive of which are improved, and on 
which he has three houses. He was married in 
18r35 to Miss Minerva C. Liddell, daughter of 
William and sister of Robert Liddell, of Clay 
County. Previous to this he served three years 
in the Confederate army, taking part in the battles 
of Prairie Grove, Rector and Pilot Knob, and was 
all through Price's raid in Missouri. He was 
paroled at Vicksburg in May, 1865, after which he 
returned home, married, and settled down to farm- 
ing, which occupation he has followed ever since. 
Mr. and Mrs. Goldsby were the parents of fourteen 
children, seven of whom died in infancy. Those 
living are: William M. (Charley), who is now deputy 
county clerk under Mr. Spence, at Boydsville, and 
is a young man of ability and promise; Jennie, at 
home; Lora, Ettie, Robert, Florence and Lem- 
mer (a daughter). Mr. Goldsby is a member of 
the Masonic fraternit}', and has ever been a liberal 
contributor to all laudable public enterprises. 

G. G. Green, a farmer residing near Vidette, 
Ark., was born on the ISJth of November, 1831, in 
Montgomery County, N. C, his parents being 
James and Elizabeth (Wyatt) Green, who were 
also born in that State, and removed to Kentucky 
in 1832, locating in what was then Galloway 
County, where they made their home until their 
respective deaths. The father was a blacksmith 
and farmer, and he and wife were the parents of 
eleven children, four now living: George G., 
^larcus M. , Frank and Henry. George G. Greene 
was an infant when brought to Kentucky, and he re- 
mained in that State until 1857, then emigrating 
to Butler County, Mo., where he made his home 
one year; coming thence to what is now Clay Coun- 
ty, Ark., he located on the farm of 120 acres on 
which he is now residing. He has about 100 acres 



under fence ami eighty-tive acres under cultivation, 
which he devotes principally to raising corn and 
cotton, but the soil is well adapted to all cereals. 
He rais(>s considerable stock during the year, and 
is a prosperous farmer, and has shown his enter- 
prise and industry by putting his farm, which was 
heavily covered with timber when he settled, in 
its present admirable condition. In 1850 he was 
imited in marriage to Miss Melvina Hyatt, a native 
of Kentucky, by whom he had three children, only 
one of whom is living at the present time: Delia, 
wife of Albert Rhodenback. His second marriage 
took place in 1863, to Miss Sarah J. Gilbert, by 
whom he has the following family: William, 
Robert, Elizabeth, Vernon E., Ida M. and Rosa L. 
Mr. and Mrs. Green have long been members of 
the Methodist Church. 

John J. (iriffin was born in Greene County, N. 
C, June 1, 1826, being a sou of William and Sa- 
rah Griffin, who were members of the Old-School 
Baptist Church and were born in North Carolina, 
the former's birth occurring in 1784 and his death 
in 1859. Of their seventeen children, John J. 
Griffin is the only one now living. He became the 
architect of his own fortune at the age of twenty- 
one years, and for a number of years was engaged 
in farming and rafting. On the 25th of July, 
1846, he was married to Miss Theresa L. Hicks, a 
daughter of Thomas S. and Jane Hicks, who were 
Tennesseeans, the former being engaged in tilling 
the soil. To this union eleven children were born, 
only four of whom are living at the present time: 
Sarah E. (Winningham), James M. (farmer, of 
Clay County, Ark.), John J. (a farmer of Dunk- 
lin County, Mo.), and T. J., also a farmer of 
Dunklin County. Mr. Griffin took for his sec- 
ond wife Miss Sarah E. Spikes, their maiTiage 
taking place on the 22d of June, 1875. Four 
of the seven children born to their marriage are 
living: Sanford and Adaline (twins), born Sep- 
tember 22, 1875; Lee, born February 27, 1880. 
and Rosa, born September 12, 1887. Mr. Grif- 
fin owns a good farm of eighty acres, sixty un- 
der cultivation, and devotes his land [irincipally 
to raising corn and cotton. His pro|>erty was at 
first heavily covered with timber, but he has made 



220 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



valiiHbli' iinprovoiupnts, and has now a >i;oo(l and 
comfortable Lome. He and wife are members of 
the Missionary Ba]>tist Church, and he is a Demo- 
crat, and a member of tlio Aii;ricnltnial Wliei^l. 
For about, lifteen j'ears after tirst coming west he 
spent the fall and winter months in hunting and 
trappinj^, and has killed at least tifty bear and 
hundreds of deer, and in some of his hunting ex- 
peditions met with many thrilling adventures and 
narrow escapes from death. He was also engaged 
in rafting on Black River. His parents moved 
from North Carolina to Tennessee in 1820, and 
two years later located in Posey County, Ind. , 
and in 1840 in Randolph County, Ark. 

\y. T. Griffith, lumberman and ])ostmaster at 
Thurmau, Ark., was l)oru on Kentucky soil (Mont- 
gomery County) June 11, 1885, his parents being 
JetTer.son and Lydia (Brothers) Griffith, who came 
from the " Old Uoniinion " at an early day with 
their jjarents; David Griffith, the grandfather, be- 
ing one of the tirst settlers of Montgomery County, 
Ky. He located near Mt. Sterling, the county 
seat, and became a very wealthy farmer, but died 
in Fleming County, of that State. Jefferson Grif- 
fith died in Kentucky in 1882, at the age of seven 
ty years, having been a mechanic by trade, and a 
prominent man, serving as sheriff of Nicholas 
County for some time. His wife also died in Ken- 
tucky. Five of their seven children are now liv- 
ing: Samuel, John, Sarah J., William T. and 
Maitha. A\'illiam T. Griffith, our 8ubj((ct, was 
reared in Kentucky until fifteen years of age, and 
there received the greater part of his education. 
In 1853 he went to Union County, 111., and located 
on a farm near Jouesborough, the country at that 
time being in a very wild and unsettled condition, 
and here made his home until 1877, when he came 
to Clay County, Ark., and began logging in H. H. 
Williams' large mills, remaining thus employed 
for five years, then locating on his ])rosent excellent 
farm in Kilgore Township. The ino.st of his at- 
tention, however, is given to lumbering and cotton- 
ginning. He owns a sawmill and employs several 
hands to operate it. In July, 1888, the post-office 
at Thurman was established and he became the 
first jrostmaster, and is now holding that position. 



He has held the office of justice of th(> peace for 
two years, and is a member of the Masonic frater- 
nity and the Agricultural Wheel. In 1855 he 
wedd(Hl Miss Barbara I. Lipe, a native of Illinois, 
and by her became the father of twelve childi-en, 
six now living: AV alter, Emma A., Elsie J., Anna, 
John and Lillie. His wifi> dicnl in October, 1880, 
and in 1881 he married Louisa Carter, who was 
born in Adams County, Ind., and by her had one 
child, Rosa P. He and wife are members of the 
Missionary Baptist Church, of which he is also 
clerk. 

Roliert L. Hancock, agent for the "Cotton Belt" 
Railroad and the Soiithern Exjiress Company, is a 
native of Prentiss County, Miss., where he was 
born on the 15th of March, 1852, being the son of 
Benjamin Hancock, who was born in Tennessee 
and reared in Virginia. When a young man he 
went to Tennessee, where he met and married 
Matilda Rowsy of that State, and afterward moved 
to Mississi})pi, residing on a plantation in Pren- 
tiss County until his death in 1854, followed by 
his wife in 18(57. After coming to years of ma- 
turity, Robert L. Hancock attended school in 
Boonville, Miss., receiving a good education, and 
then clerked for four years. In 1874 he went to 
Tennessee, and was married there on the 4th of 
April, 1884, to Miss Delilah Matbeny, who was 
born, reared and educated in Hardin County of 
that State, being a daughter of James and Eliza 
Matbeny. After their marriage they located in 
Williamsville, Wayne County, Mo., and for two 
years he was engaged in teaching school, and the 
next two years oecupi(>d in farming and teach- 
ing in Hardin County, Tenn. In 187U he came to 
Clay County, Ark. . locating on a farm near Green - 
way, and devoted himself to tilling the soil and 
pedagoguing up to 1884, when he moved to (ireen- 
way and was appointed telegraph operator, depot 
and express agent, which ])osition he is now fill- 
ing. He was also engaged in mercantile business 
for one year, and has served as a member of the 
town board. He is an active worker for the cause 
of temperance, and organized the Hancock Tem- 
perance Club at Greenway, of which he is presi- 
dent. Mr. Hancock commenced life in Clav 



»r^ 



CLAY COUNTY. 



221 



Couuty with litUc or no cupital, Imt. is now ono of 
the substcantial men of the community, and is the 
owner of considorable town i)ro])orty and a good 
farm near Greeuway. 

J. W. Harb, a mercliant of Corning, Ark., 
was born in Wiilshire, Van Wert Connty, Ohio, 
on the 27th of July, 1851), and is the son of W. 
B. and Caroline (Harper) Harb, who were born in 
Franklin and Richland Count i(>s,(^liio, resi)eetivi>ly. 
In 187;i they removed to Blackford County, Ind. , 
locatincr in Hartford City, where Mr. Harb en- 
gaged in merchandising and manufacturing head- 
ings and staves. In 1S7(') he removeil his family 
to Corning, Ark., whore he continued his manufac- 
turing business until 1878, in the meantime con 
ducting a drug store, which in 1885 he enlarged, 
adding general merchandise, and thus being oc- 
cupied until his death. In 1887 he went back to 
Ohio to take a rest and regain his health, and 
died in West Milton, Ohio, September 11, 1887. 
His nmiains were brought to Corning and buried. 
He was one of the founders of the town, and being 
a physician by profession, practiced considerably 
in tlie county. Altliough not a graduate of any 
college, he was one of the most intelligent pupils 
in the Medical College of Columbus, Ohio. His 
wife died December 24, 188(). J. W. Karl), 
whose name heads this sketch, resided in Ohio and 
Indiana until sixteen years of age, and since 1876 
has lived in Arkansas, l)eing first engaged in the 
drug business with his brother (who is now de- 
ceased) at Walnut Ridge, Ark., continuing until 
1884. At the death of his father he and his 
brother, O. C. Harb, liegan managing the business 
at Corning, but since January 12, 1889, J. W.Harb 
has had entire control of the establishment. 

John H. Hardin ileserves to be classed among 
the prosperous farmers and stockmen of Clay 
(-'ounty, Ark. He was born in McNairy ('ouuty, 
T(>nn., January 2fi, IS^S, and is a son of B. J. 
Hardin and Nancy Bennet, who were also born in 
tliat State. After their marriage they st^ttled in 
McNuiry County, whore the father was engaged in 
husbandry until the opening of the late Civil War, 
when he joined the Fed"ral army and served four 
years, coutractiag in his service chronic diarrhceu. 



which afterward caused his death, in Octolier, 1881. 
His wife died here in September, 1884. In the 
summer of 1805 ho mo.ved to Clay County, Ark., 
and engaged in farming. John H. Hardin re 
mained with his father until he attained mature 
years, and was married here, December 25, 187:5, 
to Miss Sarah I. Mayes, who was born in Tennes 
see August 25, 1854, though reared in Clay Coun 
ty, Ark. After their marriage they rented land 
one year, when Mr. Hardin purchased a tract, 
which he began clearing and improving. He has 
opened up about eighty acres, and has 100 acre.s 
under cultivation, besides twenty acres of timber 
land. He has a comfortable frame residence, two 
fair barns, and an apple and peach orchard con 
sisting of three acres. Ho is a member of the 
Agricultural Wheel, and he and wife are members 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. They are the 
parents of live children: Lucy Ann, l)orn Septem- 
ber 9, 1876; Dury J., born November 4, 1878; 
Owen D. , born Aiignst 4, 1881, and died Febru- 
ary 4, 1888; Henry L., born April 18, 1884, and 
an infant, born and died December 12, 1887. 

Robert A. Hawthorne, farmer, and postmaster 
at Don, Clay County, Ark., was born on the 12th 
of August, 1849, in Benton County, Tenn., his 
parents, llol)ert H. and Elizal)eth (Baker) Haw- 
thorne, being born in Ohio and Virginia, respect- 
ively. The paternal grandfather was born in Ire- 
land, locating in Ohio after coming to America, and 
afterward moved to Illinois, where he died. The 
maternal grandfather was born in Virginia, and 
removed from there to Tennessee, in which State 
he died, being engaged in farming. Roljert A. 
Hawthorne was reared and educated in Ohio, and 
removed with his father to Illinois, wiiere he made 
his home until about twenty two years of age, when 
he went to Tennessee and began the study of law, 
being admitted to the bar shortly after. He prac- 
ticed his profession for a number of years, and 
was also engaged in farming. At the age of about 
fifty years he gave up his law practice, and turned 
his attention to obtaining pensions for claimants. 
In the summer of 1861 be enlisted in Forrest's 
cavalry, and was sliortly after transferred to the 
infantry and was sent .south, participatiiii.' in many 



] 



battles, and holding the rank of provost mar- 
shal. He was never wounded nor taken prisoner. 
He died January 1, 1866, his death being deeply 
regretted by his many friends and acquaintances. 
His widow is still living, being in her seventy- 
ninth year, and resides with her children: Robert 
A. and John C. The former obtained his educa- 
tion and rearing in Tennessee, remaining on a 
farm in that State until twenty-one years old, when 
he came to Clay County, Ark., and located at Corn- 
ing, where he was engaged in the sale of liquors 
for six years. He then turned his attention to 
farming, and in 1882 bought the farm of 262 acres 
where he now lives; 110 acres are under cultivation 
and fairly improved. He raises corn and cotton, 
principally, and some clover. The land is well 
adapted for raising all the cereals, and makes an 
excellent stock farm, which industry receives much 
of his attention. October 12, 1888, the postoffice 
was established at his house, and he was made 
postmaster, the office taking the name of Don. In 
1871 he was married to Miss Alice Polk, by whom 
he has two children: Ethel and Mary E. (who is 
deceased). Mrs. Hawthorne is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and he is a member 
of the Masonic fraternity. 

Hon. G. B. Holifield, who stands at the head 
of the legal profession in the Eastern district of 
Clay County, is a native of Graves County, Ky. , 
and the son of T. M. Holifield, who came to Clay 
County, Ark., with his wife and four children, No- 
vember 15, 1855, and settled two miles northeast 
of Boydsville. Here G. B. Holifield was reared 
and here he received the meager schooling afforded 
by the then few subscription schools of the county. 
Later he finished his education by attending six 
months at Gainesville, Ark., and later, after study 
ing law for some time, was admitted to the bar in 
August, 1881, in the Western district of Clay 
County. He has ))een in constant practice since. 
In 1878 he was elected to the legislature, but pre- 
vious to this he had filled the position of justice of 
the peace for three terms. He has always been 
quite active in politics, though as there is nomi- 
nally only the one party, he has made but few 
speeches. His first marriage was to Miss Mary 



Cummings in 1871, and the fruits of this union 
were two children who survive their mother, she 
dying February 4, 1878. They are named as fol- 
lows: William Stanford and Martha J. For his 
second wife Mr. Holifield chose Miss Verdilla P. 
Perrian, of Clay County, and three children, Etta 
Lee, Maiy Susan and Otis Oscar, are the result of 
this union. Mr. Holifield is one of the prominent 
legal lights of the county, and is thoroughly apace 
with the times in every respect. He and wife are 
members of the Methodist Protestant Church. 

James R. Hollis is a Tennesseean, born in 
Wayne County, January 16, 1837, and is a son of 
W. B. and Susan (Meredith) Hollis, both of whom 
were born in Wayne County, Tenn. In 1839 they 
moved to Ai-kansas and settled in what was then 
Greene County (now Clay), where they made a 
farm and resided until their respective deaths, the 
former's demise occurring in 1873. James R. 
Hollis remained with his father until he attained 
his majority and in June, 1861, enlisted in the Con- 
federate service. Fifth Arkansas Infantry, and 
served until the final surrender, participating in 
some of the most important engagements of the 
war, among which were Murfreesboro, Shiloh, 
siege and surrender of Atlanta, Jonesboro, where 
he was taken prisoner, but was exchanged soon af- 
ter, Nashville, where he was also taken prisoner, 
and Franklin, where he was captured and held un- 
til June 21, 1865. After being paroled he re- 
turned home and engaged in farming. He was 
married in what is now Clay County, August 19, 
1858, to Elizabeth Payne, a daughter of Boswell B. 
Payne, whose sketch appears in this work. Mrs. 
Hollis was born in Adair County, Tenn. , and was 
reared in Arkansas. Soon after his marriage he 
located on his present farm, consisting of some 220 
acres, about 120 acres of which are fenced and 
mostly under cultivation, well improved with good 
residence and barns. Mr. and Mrs. Hollis are the 
parents of the following family: William Thomas, 
JaneB. , wife of G. W. Pickens, Joseph E. , Ada 
E. , Mary Alice, Albert Harvey and John Royal. 
Three infants are deceased. Susan was the wife 
of Francis Davis, and died about 1878. Mr. and 
Mrs. Hollis are members of the Baptist Church, 



^^=^ 



CLAY COUNTY. 



223 



aod ho is a Mason aud a member of the Agriciiltu 
ral Wheel. 

G. H. Hovey, cue of the successful and enter- 
prising "sons of the soil," residing near Pitman, 
Ark. , was born in the State of New York, September 
15, 1851, being a son of A. G. Hovey. who was also 
born in that State February 4, 1814. The latter 
was a well-known resident of his county, and while 
residing there held a number of offices, such as 
justice of the peace and postmaster. He removed 
to Newton County, Mo., in 1877, and in 1884 
located in Howell County, where he is still residing, 
being a carpenter by trade. He was married iu 
1841 to Miss Maria Brewer, a native of New York 
State, and by her became the father of three chil- 
dren, two of whom are living: F. A., a farmer re- 
siding in Howell County, the owner of 160 acres 
of land, and George H. , our subject, who is also 
a farmer and owns 200 acres of land, 135 being 
under cultivation, of which 105 have been cleared 
by him in the last three years. He removed to 
this farm from Howell County, Mo., in 1885, and 
here has since made his home, and has one of the 
finest young orchards in the country. He gives 
considerable attention to stock raising and has 
some excellent Durham cattle and Poland China 
hogs. In his youth he acquired a superior edu- 
cation, and in addition to attending the common 
schools was a student in the Tenbroeck Free 
Academy in Cattaraugus County for three years. 
He was then engaged in teaching for twelve terms, 
one term in Pennsylvania, two in New York, and 
nine terms in the public and private schools of 
Missouri. He removed from New York to Penn- 
sylvania in August, 1874, thence to Newton County, 
Mo., in 1876; in the spring of 1883 to Howell 
County, Mo., and from there to Clay County, Ark. 
On the 31st of December. 1871, he was married 
in his native State to Miss Sarah Burns, of New 
York, a daughter of -John and Jiilia (Collins) 
Burns, who were farmei's of that State. Tliey 
have one daughter, born May S, INS I. Mrs. 
Hovey is a member of the Christian Church, and 
he is an earnest worker for education, (>shibiting 
that intelligence and enterprise necessary for the 
successful development of the community. 



A. Hudgeus was born in Robertson County, 
Tenn. , in 1 834, and is the .son of John and Nancy 
(Durham) Hudgens, and the grandson of James 
Hudgens, a native of Virginia. John Hudgens 
was also a native Virginian, but later moved to 
Tennessee, where he married Miss Durham. He had 
limited opportunities for an education, but made 
up for this to some extent by studying at home. 
Besides his work on the farm he conducted a store 
in Marion, 111., and at one time was in quite 
comfortable circumstances, but was obliging enough 
to place his name on a friend' sl)ond, iu consecjuence 
of which he was compelled to pay a large sum of 
money. Thus he was badly harassed for some 
time. A. Hudgens attained his growth in Tennes- 
see, learning the carpenter's trade, and went with 
his father to Illinois in 1852. He was married in 
that State to Miss Harriot IMcIntosh, a native of 
\\'illiam8on County, 111., aud the daughter of 
Benjamin and Elizabeth (Mason) Mcintosh, who 
came from Robertson County, Tenn. After living 
iu Illinois until 1882 Mr. and Mrs. Hudgens moved 
to St. Francis, there being but one dwelling there 
at that time, and ])ut uj) the third house in the 
village. Here they now live and have a very nice 
residence. He has followed his trade and has 
built more than half the houses since he came. 
He has followed contracting and building, and is 
now holding the office of justice of the peace in 
the county. To his marriage were horn seven 
children, all in Illinois. They are named as fol- 
lows: Emma, received her education in the high 
school at Marion, 111., and after teaching in that* 
State for some time is now teaching in .Arkansas; 
Sula, at present finishing her education at Carbon- 
dale, and is studying stenography, having taken 
one course in St. Louis; Minnie, is attending 
school at the State University at Fayetteville, Ark. , 
and will graduate in the class of 1S89; Oscar, is 
also attending the same school and will graduate in 
1889; Frank is at home; Gertrude is also at home, 
and Bessie, an infant. Mr. Hudgens is a ii;,eml)er. 
of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, located 
at St. Francis, as is also his wife, and he affiliates 
with the Democratic party in his jiolitical views. 

Dr. Samuel W. Huston, physician and surgi-on 



'224- 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



of Piggott, Clay County, Ai-k. , was born in Ripley 
County, Mo., February 15, 1847, being a son of 
Dr. William A. Huston, a Missourian, who was 
reared and studied his profession at Troy. He 
was married in Randolph County, Ark. , to Miss 
Vernetta Pittman, a daughter of Dr. Pitiman, of 
Pittnian's Ferry, one of the pioneer physicians of 
Arkansas. After his marriage Dr. Huston settled 
in Ripley Countj% where he practiced a few years 
and afterward moved to Charleston. Mo., and died 
in Perry County, of that State, in 1S50. While 
in Arkansas he represented Randolph County in 
the State legislature. Dr. Samuel W. Huston 
grew to. manhood in Cape Girardeau Count}', Mo., 
making his home with his uncle, M. J. Himes, and 
remained with him until he attained his majority. 
He studied medicine under Dr. Henderson, one of 
the leading physicians of eJackson, and took his 
fir.st course of lectures at the McDowell Medical 
College, of St. Louis, about 1868. He continued 
the study of his profession in Cape Girardeau 
County, and did his first practicing in Greene 
County, Ark., in 1874, remaining there about 
eighteen months, when he moved to his present 
location, where he has built up an excellent prac- 
tice. He was married in the village of Piggott, 
September 23, 1877, to Miss Susan Jane Low- 
rance, a native of Carroll County, but reared in 
Clay County, Ark. She is a daughter of David G. 
Lowrance (deceased), and she and Dr. Huston are 
th(> parents of six children : Lenora M. , Myrtle C. , 
Edna S. , Sam, Oran and Carl. The Doctor and 
wife are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church (in which he is an elder), and are highly 
respected citizens of the community in which they 
reside. 

N. A. Keller, another successful business man 
of St. Francis, was born in Tennessee, but grew to 
manhood in Union County, 111., where he went 
with his father. Rev. Francis F. Keller, when but 
a child. The father was a minister in the Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Church and followed that 
calling for many years. The mother, Elizabeth 
Keller, was a member of that church for nearly 
sixty years. She recently died at the age of sev- 
enty-eight years. N. A. Keller attended the district 



schools in Union County until twenty-one years of 
age, after which he spent a year at Gravel Hill, 
Mo., and then taught school for several years in 
Missouri and Arkansas. After this he went with 
Gregorj', Lasswell & Co., of Maiden, Mo., where 
he remained for about two years engaged in the 
general merchandise business, and then came to 
St. Francis, and after embarking in business for 
some eighteen months, accepted a position on the 
road for Kelley, Goodfellow & Co., boot and shoe 
dealers of St. Louis, with whom he remained for 
about two years, traveling in Southern Illinois 
and West Tennessee. He then returned to St. 
Francis and took a position with Clemson & Calvin, 
with whom he continued until July 1, 1889, when 
he purchased the entire stock of that firm. He was 
married January 20, 1886, to Miss Mattie Calvin, 
daughter of Robert T. Calvin, of Pulaski County, 
111., and the sister of Mr. Hiram Calvin of the 
firm of which Mr. Keller was the trusted employe. 
Two children were born to this union: Tell and 
Pearl. Mr. Keller has been reasonably successful 
since coming to St. Francis, and is the owner of 
three houses and lots in the village. He is a mem- 
ber of Evergreen Lodge No. 581, I. O. O. F.. of 
Illinois, and belongs to the Triple Alliance, in 
which he carries 11,000 insurance, and also $1,000 
in the Globe, of Baltimore, Md. Mrs. Keller is a 
member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 

G. W. Kelley, of Corning, Ark., is now serving 
his second term as justice of the peace of Kilgore 
Township, and no man has ever held the position 
who was belter fitted to discharge the duties con- 
nected with it than he. He was born in St. Louis 
County, Mo., in 1813, being the eldest of six chil- 
dren born to the marriage of William Kelley and 
Nancy Lancaster, who were Virginians, and early 
emigrants to Missouri, where they opened and im- 
proved a farm. In 1837 William Kelley removed 
to West Tennessee, where his death occurred in 
1843, and his wife's in 1858. G. W. Kelley as- 
sisted on the home farm until twelve years of age, 
and was then apprenticed to the machinist's trade, 
which occupation received his attention for a num- 
ber of years. While a resident of Tennessee he was 
married, in 1856, to Miss S. E. Andrews, a native 



y\-. 



CLAY COUNTY. 



of M'est Tennessee, iiud a danghter of Edmond 
and Lanina Andrews, who were born in the ' ' Old 
North State," and there lived, afterward moving 
to Tennessee, where they died. They were en- 
gaged in tilling the soil. After his marriage Mr. 
Kelley settled in Tennessee, and in 1S40 enlisted 
fi'om Adairsburg, of that State, in Company E, 
Second Tennessee, under Gen. Taylor, and was in 
the battles of Cerro Gordo, Monterey, Cheruliusco, 
City of Mexico, and other engagements. After the 
war he returned to Tennessee, and in 1867 moved 
to Hickman, Fulton County, Ky., where he worked 
at his trade, moving from there, in 187-t, to Clay 
Coanty, Ark., where he purchased and began im- 
proving a farm in Bradshaw Township. In 1S84 
he moved to Corning, and although he still owns 
his farm, is living retired from the active duties of 
life. In 1885 he was elected, on the Democratic 
ticket, of which party he is a member, to the office 
of justice of the peace, which position he is now fill- 
ing. He has aided very materially in building up 
Corning and vicinity, and has given liberally of his 
means in supporting worthy enterprises. He and 
his wife are members of the Baptist Church, and 
the names of their children are as follows: Ed- 
ward A., who is married and resides at Tiptonville, 
Tenn. ; A. M., Julia (Mrs. Gills), residing at Buf- 
tington. Mo. ; Ula, Willie, Anton and Kirby. 
During his term of service Mr. Kelley has come in 
contact with many criminals, and has dealt with 
them in a manner highly satisfactory to lovers of 
good law. 

Marcellus Ketchum, hotel- keeper and farmer, 
at Knobel, Clay County, Ark. , was born in Will- 
iamson County, m., in 1852, being the third of 
seven children born to Jesse and Elizabeth (Mc- 
Cowan) Ketchum, who were born in North Caro- 
lina and Illinois, respectively. The maternal 
grandfather, who was a native of Ireland, became 
an early settler of Illinois. Jesse Ketchum fol- 
lowed the occupation of farming throughout life 
and died when his son Marcellus was a child. The 
latter has been familiar with farm life from early 
boyhood, but received little or no educational 
advantages in youth. At the age of nineteen 
years he began farming for himself in his native 



State, which occupation he followed there until 
1877, then coming to Clay County, Ark., where he 
resumed farming near Peach Orchard. In 1887 
he bought property in the village of Knobel and 
opened a hotel, but still continues his agricultural 
pursuits in the vicinity. He has about fifty acres 
devoted to raising such crops as are intended for 
feeding stock, his hogs amounting to about 100 
head and his cattle to thirty. In his political 
views he is conservative, and always votes for whom 
he considers the best man. In 1873 he was mar- 
ried to Miss Mary Jane Fozzard, a native of Illi- 
nois and a daughter of Edward Fozzard, who was 
captain of Company G, Eighty-first Illinois Cav- 
alry. He was a well known farmei' of \Mlliamson 
County and died in 1870. To the union of Mr. 
and Mrs. Ketchum two children have been born: 
Minnie and Lebert Otto. Mr. Ketchum is ant en- 
terprising citizen and is rapidly becoming identi- 
fied with the growth and prosperity of his section. 
Franz Kop]), farmer and proprietor of Kopi)'s 
sawmill, in St. Francis Township, was born in Ba- 
varia, Germany, May 24, 1840, and is the son of 
Philip and Mary Ann Kopp, both natives of Ba- 
varia. Philip Kopp emigrated to the States in 
1848 and nine years later, or in 1857, Mrs. Kopp 
and family arrived and settled in New iladrid, 
Mo., where Mr. Kopp engaged in the lumber 
business, manufacturing for a number of years. 
He died in Octoljer, 1879. Franz Kopp attained 
his growth in New Madrid, Mo., and there followed 
farming and assisted his father in the manufacture 
of lumber until twenty-one years of age. In 
August, 1864, he enlisted in the Federal army. 
First Missouri Cavalry, and served until his dis- 
charge, September 1, 1865. He was stationed at 
Little Kock, Ark., and was mustered out there. 
He then returned to his home and for a niimber of 
years was engaged in farming and in the luml)er 
business. June 3, 1880, he married Miss S. C. 
Morrison, a native of New Madrid. Mo., and the 
daughter of Hon. T. J. O. Morrison, one of the 
pioneers and prominent men of New Madrid Coun- 
ty. After marriage Mr. Kopji followed his former 
business for three years in the county mentioned, 
and then in July, 1883, removed his mill to 



i^ 



226 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Arkansas and located in St. Francis Township, 
Clay County, where he has been manufacturing 
lumber ever since until a short time ago, when 
he leased the mill out. He has been very suc- 
cessful in this business. Mr. Kopp settled with 
his family at Piggott and opened up a farm adjoin- 
ing the town. He now has some eighty acres of 
cleared land and about 800 acres of heavily tim- 
bered land all in a body. He has a neat residence 
and good outbuildings. Mr. Kopp served as al- 
derman while in New Madrid and filled other local 
offices. He and wife are members of the Catholic 
Church. He has cut on an average 500,000 feet 
of lumber per year. 

A. J. Langley, a South Carolinian by birth, 
who is prominently identified with the farming in- 
terests of Clay County, was reared and remained 
in his native State until forty-two years of age. He 
attended the common subscription schools of the 
county of his birth, and in 1862 enlisted in the 
Twenty-ninth Mississippi Regiment, Volunteer In- 
fantry, and served three years. He was under 
Gens. Bragg, Johnston and Hood, in all the prin- 
cipal fights, was captured at the battle at Franklin, 
Tenn., in November, 1864, and was sent to Chi- 
cago, 111. He was held at Camp Douglass as a 
prisoner of war until he was released June 18, 
1865, and then returned to Mississippi, where he 
followed farming until 1869, finally moving to 
his present residence, seven miles west of St. 
Francis, Clay County. He is the owner of 240 
acres of land, 100 under cultivation, and is one of 
the wide-awake, thorough-going farmers of the 
county. His first marriage was to Miss Mary A. 
Pert, of South Carolina in which State Mr. Lang- 
ley first met her, and to them wore born two chil- 
dren, one of whom, Thomas L., now lives near 
Yazoo City, Miss., where he owns a farm, and is 
the father of one child, Mr. Langley was mar- 
ried the second time to a sister of his former wife. 
Miss Elizabeth Pert, who bore him one child, Eliz- 
abeth, who is now married to Willis White, and a 
resident of South Carolina. After the death of 
his second wife Mr. Langley married Miss Mary 
A. Goodman, also of South Carolina, she being the 
daughter of James W. Goodman, of Cross Hill. 



To this union were born eleven children: W. W. 
lives on a farm in Mississippi; Virginia, one of a 
pair of twins, married J. W. Daniels, a farmer of 
Clay County, and is the mother of seven children: 
Andrew W. married Miss Fannie Malone, and is 
the father of three children — he is farming in 
Clay County: Charles married, and died, leaving a 
wife and child: Jackianna, married R. M. Ways- 
ter, of Clay County, where they -now live, and are 
the parents of three children: Samuel, recently 
married to Miss Lula Booth, is now living in Mis- 
souri; Fannie, who married John McLeskey, bore 
two children, and is now deceased: Tollula, mar 
ried D. J. McCleskey, and is now deceased: Eugene 
P. is not married, and lives on a farm in Missouri; 
Ira C, at home, and Robert, at home. Mr. Lang- 
ley is a Democrat in his political views; is a mem- 
ber of the Methodigt Church, and belongs to the 
Masonic fraternity, Blue Lodge and Chapter. He 
is generally identified with all public enterj)rises, 
giving cheerfully as far as he is able. 

W. S. Liddell, postmaster, and one of the 
prominent business men of St. Francis, was born 
in Weakley County, Tenn., and is the son of 
William and Louisa (Mitchell) Liddell, the latter 
a daughter of Archilles Mitchell, of Virginia. 
William Liddell is a native of Tennessee, and im- 
migrated to Arkansas, settling in Clay (then 
Greene) County, in 1852. There Mrs. Liddle died 
in 1881. and he in 1887. W. S. Liddell remained 
on the farm until he enlisted in the Fifth Trans- 
Mississippi Regiment, commanded by R. A. Hart, 
and was in the battle of Helena, Ark., July 4. 
1863. where he was captured and carried to Alton, 
111., and there held as a prisoner of war until 
March, 1864, when he was removed to Fort Dela- 
ware, Del. There he was held until the close of 
the war. After this he returned to Clay (then 
Greene) County, Ark., continuing on his father's 
farm, and was united in marriage to Miss Sarah J. 
Dalton, in 1867, a native of Clay (then Greene) 
County, and the daughter of Timothy Dalton. 
Mr. Liddell continued farming until 1832, and in 
connection with it he found time to assist in con- 
ducting a store and attend to his duties as post- 
master of Chalk Bluff. AVhen the " Cotton Belt " 



^ 



:i^ 



CLAY COUNTY. 



227 



Route was opened through the county in 18S2, 
Messrs. Liddell & Sons built a storeroom in St. 
Francis, which was just started, and moved their 
stock of goods. The original firm, up to the time 
of the death of Mr. Liddell, Sr. , was Liddell & 
Sons; since then it has been changed to Liddell 
Bros. They carry a stock of goods valued at 
$2,000 during the busy season, consisting of gen- 
eral merchandise. AV. S. Liddell is at this time 
postmaster, which office he has held since 1878, 
beyond the existence of St. Francis as a town. 
Since coming to this place he has built a nice 
house, which he now occupies. To his marriage 
were born seven childi-en, four now living: James 
Albert, who assists his father in the postoffice and 
store; Stella May, at home attending school; Fan- 
nie E. and Thomas. In polities Mr. Liddell affil- 
iates with the Democratic party. He is a mem- 
ber of Eastern Star Lodge of the A. F. & A. M. , 
also of Chalk Bluff Lodge No. 72, I. O. O. F. 
In the former he has held the office of secretary 
for about eight or ten j-ears, and has also served 
as treasurer and junior warden. 

Robert Liddell, judge of the county and pro- 
bate court of Clay County, Ark., was born in 
Tennessee, in 1850, and is the son of William and 
Louisa (Mitchell) Liddell. and a grandson of Fran- 
> eis Liddell. In 1852 the parents emigrated to 
Greene County, Ark. (which was afterward formed 
into Clay County), and made their home at what 
is now known as Chalk BlufF. Clay County, 
where they continued to pass the remainder of 
their days. Judge Robert Liddell was but two 
years of age when he came with his parents to 
Greene County, and here he grew to manhood. 
He received a practical English education in the 
common schools of the locality, which he supple- 
mented by attending two terms in ^[issouri. He 
then followed agricultural pursuits until 1878, 
when he was elected clerk of the circuit court, and 
held this position with honor and credit until Octo- 
ber, 1886. He was then elected judge of the 
county and probate court, and has served in that 
capacity ever since. He takes a deep interest in 
all laudable and worthy enterprises, and is a liberal 
contributor to the same. He is a genial companion. 



an intellectual associate, as his many warm friends 
can testify, and is in every way fitted to till liis 
present position. He was married in 1873 to Miss 
Mary Crawford, of Butler County, Mo., and the 
daughter of P. P. and Margaret (Hudson) (Craw- 
ford. Mrs. Liddell was but a child eight years 
old when her mother died, and her father died 
soon after her marriage. To the Judge and wife 
eight children have been born, five of whom sur- 
vive: Clara, Willie, Beulah, Finis and Eunice. 
The others died in infancy. The Judge is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic Order, the I. O. O. F. and K. 
of H. , and he and his wife are members of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church, located at St. 
Francis. 

Rev. Garland Lively, a successful merchant of 
Piggott, Ark. , was born in Monroe (Jounty, Ark. , 
February 10, 1848, and is a son of William R. 
Lively, who was born, reared and married in Mis- 
sissippi, the latter event being to Miss Elizabeth 
Hall of the same State. They moved to Arkansas 
in 1852, but after some time went back to Mi.ssis- 
sippi, and there the father died in De Soto County 
in 1858. His widow returned to Arkansas, and 
after living for three years in Phillips County, 
moved to Tennessee, locating in Dyer County. 
Here our subject was reared, and when in his 
eifhleenth year was married January 30, 1866, to 
Miss Martha J. Hall, a native of Tennessee, and a 
daughter of Jesse Hall. After their marriage 
they resided in that State up to 1 870, then moving 
to Arkansas, and in October of that year settled on 
a farm near the town of Piggott, where he was en 
gaged in tilling the soil up to 1888. Since 1872 
he has been a member of the Missionary Baptist 
Church, having previously been a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Cliurch for eight years. In 
1878 he was licensed to preach, and was or 
dained a minister the following year, and has had 
charge of a number of churches since that time. 
In 1880 he engaged in the mercantile business, and 
carries a good stock of drugs and groceries. He is 
a Mason, a member of the I. O. O. F. . in which he 
has been Noble Grand, and has represented the 
former order in the Grand Lodge. One son, Will- 
iam J. , is married and resides in Clay County. 



.^r 9 



228 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



Loda & Bro. , proprietors of the Knobel House 
at Knobel Station, Clay Count}', Ark. This is one 
of the finest hotels in the State, and was erected 
in 1884 by the Iron Mountain Railroad Company 
at a cost of about $10,000, and was first opened 
to the public in June of that year, being placed 
under the management of the Loda Bros. , who are 
experienced hotel men. Eli, the elder member of 
the firm, was born in Cape Vincent, Jefferson 
County, N. Y. , in 1853, and is the seventh of 
twelve children born to Leision and Adelaide 
(Boler) Loda, who were natives of Lower Canada. 
The father was a ship builder by trade, and later 
followed the business of hotel keej)ing, which oc- 
cupation received his attention until his death, 
which occurred in 18G5. His wife died in 1871. 
Eli Loda attended school until his father's death, 
and then secured employment on the lake steam- 
ers for several years, and after that was engaged 
in the railroad business for three years as fireman 
and engineer. In 1874 he came to St. Louis, 
Mo. , securing employment on the Iron Mountain 
Railroad, and ran the engine of the pay-car for 
several years, and in 1884 made a ruQ of over 
3,900 miles with engine No. 380, of the Missouri 
Pacific, which is the longest run ever made by an 
engine; and on this trip he hauled the general 
manager of the road, Mr. A. A. Talmadge. He 
gave up railroad work in June, 1884, leaving an 
excellent record behind him, for during his experi- 
ence on the road he never had an accident happen 
to one of his trains. In 1883 he assumed the 
management of the Belmont Hotel, at Belmont, 
Mo. , it being conducted by his wife (whose maiden 
name was Miss Ida Cloud, and whom he married 
in 1877) and by his brother, Darius. The follow- 
ing year he and his brother assumed the manage- 
ment of the Knobel House, which they have since 
carried on with the beat of success. The younger 
member of the firm, Darius, was also born at Cape 
Vincent, N. Y. , in the year 1857. He was en- 
gaged in steamboating for about nine years, act- 
ing as steward the most of the time, but in 1878 
he gave up this work and went to Colorado and 
opened a restaurant at Georgetown, where he re- 
mained for about three years, being also occupied 



in mining to some extent. He next went to Wyo- 
ming Territory, and was engaged in hotel keeping 
at Laramie City for several months. In 1882 he 
came east as far as Missouri, and in partnership 
with his brother soon after opened the Belmont 
Hotel. These gentlemen are extensive stock raisers 
and farmers, but devote the most of their fine farm 
of 120 acres to stock raising, and give their prin- 
cipal attention to the propagation of horses. They 
purchased their tine Norman-Pereheron stallion, 
St. John, in Illinois, in 1887, at a cost of f(500. 
He is a draft horse of about 1,800 pounds, and is 
a colt of St. Benoit, Jr., by the imported horse 
St. Benoit, owned by the Browns. St. John is 
one of the best animals ever brought into Northeast 
Arkansas. The Loda Bros, also keep twelve 
breeding mares. Owing to the enterprise of these 
men, there is a growing desire among the citizens 
for a better grade of stock, and this feeling is being 
shown by an improved class of stock on the farms. 
Eli Loda has about 140 acres of land under culti- 
vation, which he devotes to raising such ciops as 
are needed for his stock. In 1888, in partnership 
with W. P. McNalley and Harry Flanders, he pur 
chased 100 acres of land adjoining the station and 
railroad land at Knobel, and they immediately had 
their land surveyed and laid out into city lots, antl 
their enterjjrise will secure a fine town here as soon 
as this point is made the terminus of a division. 
Mr. Flanders is master of transportation for the 
South Division of the Iron Mountain Railroad, and 
Mr. McNalley Is passenger conductor for the same 
division. Three children have been born to the 
marriage of Eli Loda and wife: Guy, who is de- 
ceased; Mabel, and Nellie Irene. 

W. R. Looney, a popular druggist of St. Fran- 
cis, Ark. , and one of the most successful in the 
county, was born in Tennessee in 1853, and on ac- 
count of poor health in youth received Imt a lim 
ited education, although he has in late years made 
this up to a great extent by observation and study. 
At the age of seventeen he came, with his father,_, 
mother, and brother, James W. (who died in 1873), 
to Clay County, Ark., and settled near Chalk 
Bluff on the 10th day of January, 1870. Here he 
remained until twenty-two years of age. and Fel)- 



^ 



'\(S 



^y 



— ► 



CLAY COUNTY. 



•J'JU 



ruary "23, 1875, he married Miss Susan E. Leigh, 
dauirhter of J. H. ami Susan E. (Long) Leigh. 
,4ftpr marriage Mr. Looney remained on the farm 
iu Clay County until March, 1881, when he moved 
to Dunklin County, Mo. , and was there engaged in 
the drj-goods store of Sheldon & Wright Bros., 
at Maiden. Afterward, in June, 1883, he was em- 
l)loyed by J. S. Kochtitzky & Co. to run a steam 
corn-sheller, and on the 20th of November met 
with a very serious accident. Having been caught 
ill the main shaft of the machinery, his clothing 
\v;is wound so tightly about him that it dislocated 
his left arm at the shoulder. He suffered excru 
ciatingly from this, failed to get a night's rest for 
forty days, and is now a crijij^le in that arm. Em- 
barking in the grocery business, iu partnership 
with Mr. John Allen, under the tirm title of Allen 
& Looney, six months later he bought Mr. Allen 
out and continued the business until April, 1886, 
when he sold out, and came to St. Francis May 
19 of that year, then starting a drug and grocery 
store. One year later he closed out the groceries 
and now has the finest drug store in the county. 
The firm name is W. R. Looney & Co., and they 
enjoy a profitable, legitimate trade. Mr. Looney 
has been generally identified with the enterprises 
of the town and county. He is the owner of about 
I'iO acres of land adjoining his father's place, 
some four miles from St. Francis, and is paying 
particular attention to the raising of clover, which 
he tliinks is a successful crop and also renews the 
laud. Mr. and Mrs. Looney became the parents 
of six children, all of whom died in infancy. He 
is a Democrat in politics. 

Samuel W. McDonald, a progressive farmer 
and stock raiser, and one who has kept thoroughly 
apace with the times, was born in Randolph 
County, Ala., in December, 1844, being the sou of 
Sebbon McDonald, who was born and reared in 
Georgia, but wlio was married in Alabama to Miss 
Rhoda BIack.ston, a native of the last mentioned 
State. Mr. McDonald served in one of the old 
Indian wars. He was a farmer, and followed this oc- 
cupation in Alabama until his death, which oc- 
curred about 1864. Samuel W. McDonald at- 
tained his growth in Alabama, remained with his 



father until grown, and in 1862 enlisted in the 
Confederate army. Seventeenth Alabama Infantry, 
serving until the final surrender of the Confed- 
eracy. He participated in the fight near Daltou, 
and was stationed nearly all the time at Molule. 
He surrendered in 1865, and after being paroled 
returned to Alabama, where he engaged in farming 
in Randolpli County. He moved to Arkansas in 
1876, located in Clay County, remained there two 
years, and then moved to Boone County, Ark., 
whence after a residence of two years he returned to 
Clay County, and settled on his present farm in 
1881. He has 120 acres of land, with about sev- 
enty-five fenced, and some forty under cultivation. 
Mr. McDonald has been married twice; first, in Clay 
County, in 1874, to Miss Elizabeth Sexton, a na- 
tive of Illinois, who was reared in Arkansas. She 
died in 1885, and was the mother of four children, 
who ai-e named as follows: William B., Riley S., 
Samuel W. and OUie B. Mr. McDonald took for 
his second wife Mrs. Adaline Melton, in September. 
1886, and the results of this union are two chil- 
dren: John E. and Reuben H. Mrs. McDonald is 
a native of Clay County, Ark., where she gi'ew to 
womanhood. She is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. Mr. ilcDonald is a member of 
the Baptist Church. 

Thomas Cary McGuire was born in Carroll 
County, Tenu. , June 9, 1850, and is a son of Dr. J. 
M. McGuire. mentioned elsewhere in these pages. 
He became the architect of his own fortune at the 
age of twenty years, and was actively engaged in 
tilling the soil until twenty-seven years old, when 
he was married to Miss Louisa Jane Gossett, a 
native of Jefferson County, 111., and a daughter 
of William and Maiy Gossett, who were farmers. 
To Mr. and Mrs. McGuire have l)een born the fol- 
lowing family of children: America Leota, born 
February 21, 1875, and died Fel)ruary 7, ISM: 
Melissa J., born November 18, 1877; William Mar- 
tin, born March 25, 1879; Dora, born Septemlier 
4, 1880, and died Sej.tember 30, 1884; Mary J., 
born March 21, 1882; Louella. born January S, 
1884; John H., born December 18, 1885; Fred, 
born February 14, 1887, and died June 11, ISsS, 
and Ida May, born November IS, 188S. Mr. 



•^h — ^ 



2:^,0 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



McGuiie has a good farm of eighty acres, twenty- 
live of which are under cultivation, on which he 
raises corn and cotton. This farm is well improved 
with good buildings, fences and orchard, and in 
fact is one of the best improved places in the 
county. He also devotes a considerable amount 
of time to raising cattle and hogs, and is active in 
furthering the cause of education. He belongs to 
the Masonic order, is a member of the Agricultural 
Wheel, and in his political views is a Democrat. 

George M. McNiel, ex-sheriff of Clay County, 
Ark., was born in this county February 28. 1847, 
and is the son of Neal McNiel, who was a native of 
Tennessee. The father left that State about fifty 
years ago, emigrating to Arkansas, and settling in 
what is now Clay County. He was here married 
to Miss Nancy Thomas, daughter of Matthew 
Thomas, one of the earliest settlers of Arkansas. 
Mr. McNiel was for many years a leading stock 
dealer of Arkansas, and died in 1857, at Helena, 
Ark., while on a trip to New Orleans, with a large 
drove of hogs and cattle, valued at $5,000. After 
the stock was sold in New Orleans the money was 
sent to his widow. She is still living, is eighty 
years of age, and has resided near Rector for the 
past thirty-eight years. George M. McNiel re- 
mained with his mother until his marriage, which 
occurred in 1880, to Miss Clara Rosaline Seegraves, 
daughter of J. H. Seegraves, of Oak Bluff, Clay 
County, Ark. Mrs. McNiel died in September, 
1888, leaving three children: Ruth Edith, George 
A. and Ethel. The mother was a worthy and con- 
sistent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and died in that faith. The childi'en are now liv- 
ing with Dr. Seegraves, in Rector. In 1874 Mr. 
McNiel engaged in business in Oak Bluff, remain- 
ing there about a year, and then went to Bollinger 
County, Mo., where he accepted a position in the 
firm of Eli Lutes, and there continued eight years. 
He then left and took a place as deputy under 
his brother James, who was sheriff of Clay County, 
and filled this position for eight years. He was 
elected sheriff' in 1886, and his brother was deputy 
iinder him for two years, ending in 1888. Mr. Mc- 
Niel is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and is 
also a member of the K. of H. , in which he has 



filled many important offices. During the late war 
he was a member of Capt. J. J. Allen's company, 
Davis' battalion, Clark's brigade, under Gen. 
Price, and surrendered at Shreveport, La., in 
1865, this command being the last army of the 
Confederation to surrender. 

James A. McNiel, ex-sheriff, and one of the 
sturdy sons of toil of Clay County, Ark. , was born 
in Ihis county at Oak Bluff', near where Rector 
now stands, February 7, 1849, his parents being 
Neal McNiel and Nancy (Thomas) McNiel. natives 
of East and West Tennessee, respectively. The 
maternal grandfather, Matthew Thomas, was a na- 
tive of North Carolina. James A. McNiel attended 
such schools as the country afforded, which were 
very primitive up to the breaking out of the late 
war, when all the schools were closed. During 
that time he remained at home with his mother, 
and still continued with her until 1878, when 
he was elected to the office of sheriff of the 
county. He was re-elected four consecutive terms, 
holding that office until 1886, when his brother, 
George McNiel, was elected to the same office. 
Mr. McNiel was married November 19, 1879, to 
Miss Mary Luella Brake, daughter of Jesse Brake, 
of Clay County, and five children were the result 
of this union, four now living: Jesse McNiel, Lil- 
lian Lee, Ralph Alonzo and Rudy Eugene, all now 
at home. Since retiring from office Mr. McNiel 
has followed agricultural pursuits, and has been 
paying considerable attention to trading in stock. 
He has an excellent farm of 580 acres, is the 
owner of one and a half blocks in Rector, and is 
also the owner of his residence in Boydsville. He 
is an honest, upright citizen, and stands in the 
front ranks of his townsmen. He is a member of 
Boydsville Lodge No. 75, A. F. & A. M. , is also a 
member of Boydsville Lodge No. 16, I. O. O. F., 
and is a member of the local Knights of Honor. 
Mr. McNiel is a Democrat in his politics. His wife 
is a member of the Christian Church. 

Daniel W. McPherson, who is recognized as 
one of the county's best citizens, was born March 
25, 1853, in Lee County, Miss., and received a 
good practical education in the common schools. 
At the age of about seventeen, he began working 



CLAY COUNTY. 



231 



oil bis own responsibility as clerk in a grocery 
store, and this continued until coming to Clay 
County, Ark., in 1879. After reaching this 
county he had $2.75 in ready cash, and as soon as 
possible he began clerking for G. W. Spraygins, 
remaining with him and Capt. John J. Allen, for 
about fifteen months. He then engaged in mercan- 
tile pursuits on a limited scale, having but $77 in 
cash, and doing business on a cash basis, as his cap- 
ital would indicate. He thus continued for about 
five years, meeting with merited success from the 
beginning. He is now conducting a general mer- 
cantile business, and is also engaged iu the liquor 
trade. Mr. McPherson is the son of William 
B. and Fidelia W. (Ringo) McPherson. The 
father was born in 1797, in Blount County, Ala., 
was of Scotch parentage, and after growing up 
followed the occupation of a farmer. In 1849 he 
moved to Lee County, Miss., where he died in 
1881. His wife was a native of Kentucky, and to 
them were born ten children: Frank, Lot W. , 
Wallace W., Charles. James M.. Dauiel W., Mary, 
Josephine, Ellen and Catherine. Daniel W. Mc- 
Pherson was married in October, 1881, to Miss 
Lura Johnson, a native of Middle Tennessee 
(where she received her education), and the daugh- 
ter of John R. Johnson. She came to Arkansas 
when grown, and by her union to Mr. McPherson, 
thi'ee children were born, two now living: Ella 
and Lena. Mr. McPherson is one of the pro- 
gressive young men of Arkansas, and is doing 
well at his adopted calling. He is a Democrat in 
politics. 

John S. Magee was born in Pope County, 111. , 
September 19, 1833, being a son of Thomas and 
Nancy Magee, who were born respectively in Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky. John 8. Magee began work- 
ing for himself at the age of eighteen years, first 
as a farm hand, and was married in that State to 
Miss Abbie, a daughter of Austin and Louisa 
Williams, who were farmers of Illinois. They 
were married March 21, 1850. and about a year 
later the mother and an infant died. Mr. Magee 
remained single three years, then moved to Clay 
County, Ark., and was again married, September 
17, 1854, his wife's maiden name beinj; Luvina 



Watson, of Kentucky. She bore him four cliil- 
dren, two of whom are living: W. R., born August 
7, 1855, and Nancy J., who was born Ainil 1(5, 
1861, and is the wife of Robert Hasten, a farmer 
of Louisville, Tex. Eliza A. was born June 28. 
1859, and died January 1, 1883. May 19, 1881. 
Mr. Magee wedded his present wife, Elisabeth 
Tittle, a daughter of Peter and Rachel Tittle of 
Missouri. The last marriage has been blessed in 
the birth of one son and one daughter: John H., 
who was born March 13, 1882, and Mary E., born 
August 6, 1885. Mr. Magee has made the fol 
lowing changes of residence: From Kentucky to 
Arkansas, in 1854; to Illinois, in 1863; to Kansas, 
in 1867; to Illinois, in 1868; to Clay County, Ark., 
in 1869; to Boone County, Ark., in 1875, and back 
to Clay County, Ark., in 1877, where he has since 
made his home, being the owner of 120 acres of 
laud, forty-five of which are under cultivation, the 
rest being heavily timbered. He has good build- 
ings, orchards, and fences, and is considered one 
of the prosperous farmers of the county. He and 
wife are members of the Missionary Baptist Church, 
and he is a Republican in his political views. Dur 
ing the late war he served the cause of the Con 
i'ederacy in the Home Guards. 

J. F. Mahan is one of Clay County's worthy 
tillers of the soil, residing near Vidette. He was 
born in Ozark County, Mo., on the 30th of May. 
1841, and is the eldest of eight children, five now 
living, of the family of Noah and Oriuda Mahan. 
who were born in Tennessee and Missouri, respect 
ively. The father emigrated with his parents to 
Missouri in 1840, locating iu Ozark County, where 
he and his wife died, as did also his parents. They 
were among the early settlers, and e.\perienced 
many hardships and privations in their endeavors 
to obtain a home. Noah Mahan cleared several 
farms, and became quite wealth}-. His children 
who are living are: James F., William, Cynthia. 
Mary, Hansen. James F., the eldest child, was 
reared on a farm in Ozark County, but owing to 
poor school facilities at that day, received a some- 
what limited education. In 1882 he enlisted in 
Company F, Greene's regiment, and served a little 
over two years, participating in the battles of Ht>li> 



232 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



na. Little lioek, Camden, Shreveport, Gaines' Fer- 
ry and several skirmishes. In the fall of 1804 he 
stopped on furlough in Clay County. Ark. . having 
but 110 in Confederati' monej', and without a whole 
garment on his bfick. He fell into the hands of 
strangers, but was kindlj' cared for l)y his future 
wife's father. After recovering, he worked out for 
some time, and in 1869 bought a farm in Rich woods, 
on which he lived until 1884, when he sold out and 
bought the place where he now resides, consisting 
of 160 acres, about 100 of which are under cultiva- 
tion and finely improved. He has put over 11,000 
worth of improvements on his farm in the last five 
years, and it is now one of the finest places in the 
coimty. He usually devotes about thirty acres to 
cotton, and raises about one bale to the acre. He 
was married, in 1867, to Miss Susan J. Cleveland, 
a native of North Missouri, and by her has five 
children: William T. , Don, Mary, Hugh and 
Edna. Mr. and Mrs. Mahan are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and he belongs to 
the Masonic order. He lias been a resident of Clay 
County for twenty- three years, and is considered 
one of its best residents. 

W. S. Malone is an agriculturist of prominence, 
who, notwithstanding many reverses and discour- 
agements, has ever come l>oldly to the front, and, 
with the push and energy characteristic of him, sur- 
mounted all difficulties. He is a native Tennes- 
seean, moving with his parents to Mississippi when 
nine years of age, or in 1841. They settled in 
Yalobusha County, and here W. S. Malone remained 
until twenty years of age, after which he went to 
Panola County. He continued in this county until 
1859, subsequently locating in Texas, where he re- 
mained until the breaking out of the late war. Then 
he came to Oak Bluff, in what is now Clay Coun- 
ty, and enlisted in the Fifth Arkansas Regiment, 
Col. Cross commanding, and was elected lieutenant 
of the company. He served in that capacity until 
the winter of 18<)2, when he was discharged at 
Bowling Green, Ky. , but re-enlisted in Capt. 
Allen's company, of which Mr. Malone was first 
lieutenant. Later he was put into Col. Hart's regi- 
ment, and took part and commanded the company 
during the battle of Helena, Ark. He was with 



Gen. Price on his raid through Missouri, and took 
part in all the fights that occurred, always having 
command of the company. At one time he was 
shot in the mouth, and lost two teeth. He was dis- 
banded at Cane Hill, and was paroled at Vicks- 
bnrg. In 1863 he was united in marriage with Miss 
M. A. C. Daniels, daughter of John Daniels, of 
Clay County. They settled on a farm of 1 20 acres, 
where they have remained ever since. Shortly 
after marriage they were burned out, losing all their 
possessions and the first crop they had, and for a 
time had nothing but dry corn bread as food, and 
straw, with a limited amount of covering, for a bed. 
Now they are very nicely fixed, having a comforta- 
ble house and good outbuildings, and are prepared 
to enjoy life. In their family were seven children, 
two having died in early youth. Those now living 
are: Fannie L., married Andrew Langley, and is 
the mother of three children ; she now resides near 
the home of her father; Margaret L., married 
Wade Thomas, a farmer who lives in Clay County, 
and is the mother of two children; Willie Genoa, 
a daughter, is now deceased; Lucy Ila, at home; 
H. Eddie, at home, and Bob L., an infant. Mr. 
Malone is a member of the Masonic fraternity; is 
an elder in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 
and a Democrat in politics. He is now fifty- 
nine years of age, and never sued nor was he ever 
sued. He has not been in a fight since the war, 
but at the battle of Joneslioro, Ark. , was shot in the 
mouth. During the entire time he has been en- 
gaged in farming Mr. Malone has never bought a 
pound of bacon, nor has he ever bought corn to 
eat, always raising sufficient for his family. Mrs. 
Malone, who is a daiighter of Louisa and John 
Daniel, was born near Cottage Grove, Henry 
County, Tenn., and remained there until 1859, 
coming then to Arkansas. Three of the children 
which she has borne, as well as herself, are mem- 
bers of the Cumberland Presbyterian ChiU'ch : 
Maggie, Fanni(> and Ila. The two sons, still small 
children, are lieing train(<d in the right way, the 
hope of their parents being to see them embrace 
religion before they enter their teens. Mrs. Malone 
carries them to Sunday-school each Sunday, where 
she has a class of fifteen scholars. Her father is 



CLAY COUNTY. 



rm 



deceased. Her mother, seventy-eigbt years of. age, 
but still quite cactive, resides with the oldest daugh- 
ter, Nancy. Mrs. Malone has three sisters and 
one brother. 

Patrick Martin's name is well known through- 
out Northeast Arkansas by the traveling ])ublic, 
for since September 10, 1885, he has been the 
proprietor of the City Hotel at Corning, which 
establii^hment, situated opposite the depot, is one 
of the best of its kind in Clay County, and is 
quite commodious, consisting of thirty good-sized 
rooms, with a large sample room. In addition to 
managing the hotel, he keeps a fine stock of liquors 
and cigars, having l)een engaged in this business 
since coming to the county, in the fall of 1888. 
He was born at Donegal, in the North of Ireland, 
March 17, 1858, his parents, Francis and Ann 
(Monday) Martin, being also natives of that coun- 
try, where they are still living. In 1880 Patrick 
Martin emigrated to the United States, and landed 
at New York City in the month of May, but went 
directly from there to Philadelphia, where he re- 
mained throe years, acting as clerk in a wholesale 
and retail liquor store, also serving part i^f the 
time as manager. Since coming to Clay County. 
Ark., in 1883, he has made bis home at Corning, 
but September 7, 1885, was married, at Pocahon- 
tas, Ark., to Miss Nannie B. Lansdell, a native 
of Virginia, as were also her parents. Her father 
was a teacher of high standing in his nativ<' State, 
and there spent his life. After the war her mother 
came to Randolph County. Ark. After his mar 
riage Mr. Martin o])ened his present hotel, which 
he has since very ably conducted. He possesses that 
feeling of kindly hospitality which characterizes the 
people of Arkansas, and has rendered the City 
Hotel a comfortable and desirable hostelry. He 
has always been quite active in politics, and has cast 
his vote with the Di'mocratic party. He and his 
wife are the parents of one child, Andrew, and are 
rearing another child by the name of Hattie Lans- 
dell. They are members of the Catholic Church. 

Robert I. Masterson (deceased) was born in 
Cape Girardeau County, Mo., June 25, 183f). be- 
ing a son of Samuel Masterson, who was a farmer 
l)y occupation. Roliert I. served a short time in 



the late war, and in 18(50 removed to Clay County, 
Ark., locating where his widow and children are 
now living. At that time there was only a small 
portion of the farm under cultivation, and but few 
imi)rovements made, but previous to his death, 
which occurred May 19, 1878, he did much to bet 
ter the condition of his farm. He was married, 
about 1857, in Ca]ie Girardeau County, Mo., to 
Miss Mary Collins, by whom he became the father 
of eight children, four of whom are living: Sarali 
I., Mary L., Robert F. and John H. After his 
death his widow, in 1878, married Elias Cunning 
ham, who was shot December 2, 1878, by outlaws, 
while sitting by a window in his home, and died 
on the 8th of that month. The widow and family 
now live on the old homestead, which consists of 
U)< I acres, about eighty of which are under culti- 
vation. Robert F. and John manage the farm, 
and are experienced and intelligent young men. 
They give the most of their attention to raising 
corn and cotton, their annual yield being very 
large. It is one of the best fai-ms in the northern 
part of Clay County, and the house, which is on a 
high elevation, is surrounded l)y natural shade 
trees. 

Joseph Mellert, hotel jn-oprietor and farmer of 
Kuobel, Clay County, Ark., was born in Germany, 
in 1836, and is the fifth (with a twin brother) in a 
family of twelve, born to F. and Mary Mellert. 
Joseph was reared on a farm and attended school 
until fourteen years of age, when he began learn- 
ing the cigar maker's trade, and in 1859 came to 
the United States and settled in St. Louis, where 
he worked at his trade for about ten years, six 
years of that time being engaged in b\isiness on 
his own account. In 1870 he moved to Illinois, 
remaining there for six years: then moved to 
Randolph County, of the same State, where he 
remained six years more. He then located in 
Cape (Tirardeau, Mo., and after working at his 
trade there for three years, went to Pilot Knob 
for about one year, and in 1881 came to 
Knobel. Ark. . and opened his present hotel. He 
farms about twenty- five acres of land and keeps 
quite a number of cattle and hogs. In 18()1 he 
married Miss Wilhelmina Branica. a native of 



:!4 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



St. Louis, and by her has two childreu: August 
and Louisa. Mr. Mellert is not very active in 
politics, but usually votes vpith the Democratic 
party. Although he has only resided in the county 
a short time, he has seen many improvements 
made, and has aided materially in advancing all 
enterprises for the good of his section. 

Stephen C. Michell was born in Obion County, 
Tenn.. September 21, 18fiO, and is the third of 
nine children, four now living, l)orn to the mar- 
riage of Stephen Michell and Emeline Watts, who 
were born in Tennessee and Indiana, in 1829 and 
1844. respectively. Their marriage took place in 
1 857, and they removed from Tennessee to what is 
now Clay County, Ark., at an early day, and be- 
came the owners of a good farm comprising 160 
acres of land, eighty of which they succeeded in 
putting under cultivation, and greatly improved 
their property by good buildings, fences and or- 
chards. During the Rebellion, Mr. Michell served 
for aViout six months in the Confederate army, and 
after the surrender returned home, where he re- 
sumed farming. He was a member of the Grangers, 
the Masons, and the I. O. O. F., and he and wife 
were first members of the Methodist Church, but 
afterward became connected with the Christian 
Church. His death occurred on the 1st of Novem- 
ber, 1884. The following are his children: Docia 
(Deckard), who died at the age of twenty years; 
Wapallan. who died in Arkansas when fifteen 
years of age; James D. , who was accidentally 
killed by a pistol shot when twelve years old; 
Margaret E., who died at the age of eight; Will- 
iam, who is now twenty years of age and resides 
in Clay County: Mary T. (Moran): Elizabeth, who 
died when five months old; Robert Theo. , who 
lives at home, and Stephen C. The latter owns a 
farm of 120 acres in Clay County, on which he 
has resided for the past fifteen years, and has fifty 
acres under cultivation, and devotes much of his 
time to raising cattle and hogs. He is a member 
of the Christian Church, a Mason, a member of 
the Agricultural Wheel, and in his political views 
is a Democrat, having been elected on this ticket to 
the office of justice of the peace, on the Hd of Sep- 
tember, 1888. He has also been constable of the 



same district a number of terms. April 10, 1S87, 
he married Miss Alice Dennisou. a native of Ar- 
kansas. 

J. T. Miller is a substantial farmer of Clay 
County, who has become well known for his hon- 
(!sty, energy and intelligence. His birth occurred 
in Hardin County, Tenn., in September, 1844, his 
parents, James and Jane (Black) Miller, being also 
natives of that State. In 1850 they emigrated to 
what is now Clay County, Ark., coming through 
in wagons, and located on the Little Black River, 
and here the father died in the fall of 1866, his 
wife's death occurring in Tennessee. They were 
the parents of two children. John T. being the only 
one now living. He grew to manhood on a farm, 
and received such education as could be obtained 
in private schools. In 1882 he purchased the farm 
where he now lives, consisting of 160 acres, about 
seventy of which are under cultivation. He has 
made a great many improvements since locating, 
and devotes the most of his land to corn and 
cotton, but also gives much attention to stock 
raising, being extensively engaged in this business 
at times. He is intelligent and enterprising, and 
is counted one of the influential and jirosperous 
farmers of his locality. He was married, in 186'), 
to Miss Amanda Mulhullen, -who bore him three 
children: Pauline I., Lewis A. and Vandella, who 
is deceased. In 1877 Mr. Miller wedded Miss 
Sarah M. Mulhullen, and by her is the father of 
six children, five of whom are living: Lucy I. 
(deceased), John R. , Leoter, Rosa M. , Gertie C. 
and Thomas J. Mrs. Miller is a member in good 
standing of the Christian Church. 

Harvey W. Moore. Among the prominent and 
numerous attorneys of Clay County may be men- 
tioned Mr. Moore, who was born in Fulton Coun- 
ty, Ind., May 27, 1864, his ])arents being Milton 
M. and Mary A. J. (Stone) Moore, natives, respect- 
ively, of Indiana and Ohio. They were married 
in Montgomery County. Ind , in 1855, and in 
1863 located in Fulton County, where they made 
their home until 1881, removing in January, of 
that year, to Randol[)h County, and in the fall of 
the same year to Clay County. Ark. For five 
years young Moore was here engaged with his 



:^ 



CLAY COUNTY. 



235 



father in changing ii dense forest into a fiirni, ami 
during this time all of his spare moments were 
s])('ut in the study of those branches that were re- 
(luiidd to be taught in the common schools. After 
having taught school successfully he entered the 
('orninghigh school, where ho took a course in the 
highiM- branches of study, commencing the study 
of law in February, 1888, with F. G. Taylor, the 
leading attorney of Clay County, and after reading 
until August, 1888, he was admitted to the Clay 
County liai'. He located in Greenway, in the fall 
of 1888, where he has since been actively engaged 
in the practice of his profession and is doing well, 
giving fair ])romise of becoming one of the lead- 
ing lawyers of N.ortheast Arkansas. He is well 
versed on all of the general topics of the day, is a 
hard .student, and is a young man of exemplarj' 
habits and character. 

John H. Mowls, Jr., a farmer of Clay County, 
Ark., was born in Roanoke County, Va. , March 
29, 1858. and is a son of Henry and Polly Mowls, 
the former of Scotch Irish and the latter of Dutch- 
English ancestry. The father was a colonel in the 
(-'onfederate army during the Rebellion, and acted 
as recruiting officer, and throughout life has fol- 
lowed the occupations of farming, distilling, mer- 
chandising and mechanics, he and wife being now 
losidi'uts of California. John H. Mowls began 
fighting the battle of life for himself at the age of 
I'ighteen years, working as a teamster at the Can- 
iu'lton Coal Jlines of We.st Virginia for one year, 
after which he moved to Portsmouth, Ohio, where 
he was engaged in engineering a tugboat. He 
nest moved to St. Louis, thence to Kansas City, 
and from there to Topeka, where he joined a' trad- 
ing expedition, being thus connected for eighteen 
months. The following two years he spent as a 
cow- boy at Galveston. Tex., and then returned to 
St. Louis and made three trips on the Mississippi 
River as engineer on the tow-boat " Elliott.'" He 
next operated a shingle-yard and farmed in Missis- 
sippi, spending one year at each occupation, liut 
was inundated hy the great overflow of 1873, 
which compelled him to move. He went first to 
C!ape (iirardeau. Mo., then to Union County, 111., 
and was engaged in farming four years. He was 



married there on the 13th of February, 1870, to 
Miss M. A. , a daughter of Daniel and Ann Cook, 
natives of North Carolina and Australia, respect 
ively. On the 10th of August, 1877, Mr. Mowls 
left Illinois and located in Nevada City, Mo., 
where he worked as a painter and mechanic until 
February 27, 1878, when his wif(> died, leaving 
him with an infant only two months old to rear. 
He took the child to his mother, who cared for it 
until its death at the age of si.\ months. Mr. 
Mowls next went to Chicago, and from there to 
Waterloo. 111., where he was occujjied in engineer- 
ing throe months. He ne.vt began railroading, con 
tiuuing this three years. The nuptials of his sec- 
ond marriage were celelwated on the 2r)th of De 
cember, 1870, his wife's maiden name b(>ing Miss 
Emma A. Griffith, of Union County, 111., a 
daughter of W. T. and Jane Griffith, who are 
natives, respectively, of Kentucky and Illinois. In 
1880 Mr. Mowls removed to Butler County, Mo., 
and in 1881 came to Clay County, Ark., and is 
the owner of a saw, grist and cotton- mill in Kil- 
gore Township. He has been engaged in man- 
aging various mills ever since removing to Mis- 
souri in 1880, and has also been interested in 
farming some of the time, and is at present fol 
lowing this occupation, his principal crops being 
cotton and corn. He is a Mason, a member of 
the Agricultural Wheel, is independent in politics, 
and he and wife are members of the Missionary 
Baptist Church. The following are their children: 
Elmer R., born February 11, 1882: Lily M., born 
February 3. 1887, and Joseph J., born July 13, i 
1887. Mr. Mowls was educated in the common 
subscription schools, and expects to give his chil- 
dren good educational advantages. 

J. M. Myers, mayor of St. Francis, and one of 
the most enter])rising men of the town, was Iwrn 
in Upper Sandusky, Ohio, and is the .son of Mich- 
ael Myers, who came with his father from Penn- 
sylvania, settling in Ohio, and was there married 
to Miss Susan McClane. a native of Ohio. J. M. 
Myers remained in Sandusky until 1880, when he 
came to St. Francis, where he engaged in the lum 
ber busine.ss and has continued this calling since. 
He is the owner of 380 acres of land in his na 




five State, and 8,000 acres of timber and coal 
land in Morgan County, Ky. After arriving in 
Clay County, Ark., Mr. Myers joined the firm of 
Juvenall, Myers & Co., operating Mr. Ro.sen- 
grant's mill. Afterward in company witli W. S. 
Bryon, of St. Louis, he built a mill and opened 
under the firm name of J. M. Myers & Co. This 
he still contimies and has now completed one of 
the largest and best equipped mills in the county 
or State. When the town of St. Francis was or- 
ganized in 1888 Mr. Myers was elected to the 
office of mayor to fill the interim until the first mu- 
nicipal election, when he was re-elected, and is now 
holding that position to the entire satisfaction of 
all concerned. He has built, in addition to the 
two mills, the finest residence in the county. Al- 
though not a member of any church he has assisted 
materially in the building of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South, to which he contributed very 
liberally. He was married in Ohio to Miss Ella 
Bair. who came fi'om Pennsylvania with her pa- 
rents, Jacob and Amy (Uber) Bair, a number of 
years ago. To Mr. and Mrs. Myers have been 
born five children: Edith Floy, Sadie Grace, Gail 
Roena, Grover C. and an infant unnamed. Mr. 
Myers is a Democrat in politics. 

Bertrand Nicolas, farmer and stockman of Clay 
County, Ark. , was born in France in 1844, being 
the second of a family of eight children born to Ber- 
trand and Catherine (Johnson) Nicolas, who were 
also born in France and came to the United States 
in 1847, landing at New Orleans, and afterward set- 
tling at St. Louis, Mo. , where the father engaged 
in weaving. In 1858 they moved to the country 
about twelve miles from the city, where they lived 
ten years, and afterward located about six miles 
north of Kirkwood, where both parents died. 
Bertrand Nicolas, whose name heads this sketch, 
was reared to a farm life and attended the schools 
of St. Louis, receiving a good education. At the 
age of twenty-eight years he began working for 
himself, and was married at the age of thirty-two 
to Miss Rebecca Towe, a native of Missouri, by 
whom he became the father of two children, and 
at the birth of the second child Mrs. Nicolas died. 
George, the elder, is attending school in St. 



Louis. Katie died in infancy. In 1884 Mr. Nic- 
olas married his second wife, whose maiden name 
was Miss Julia Mercillo. a native of Missouri. 
After his second marriage he remained in Missouri 
one year, and then came to Arkansas in the spring 
of 1885, settling near Peach Orchard, and at the 
end of two years located upon his present farm, 
where he is now tilling an excellent tract of fifty 
acres. 

Dr. J. Marshall Orr, physician and surgeon of 
Greenway, Ark. , is a native of Lee County, Miss. , 
where he was born on the 5th of August, ISfil. 
He was reared to manhood here, and received 
a good English education, at the age of eight 
een years, commencing the study of medicine un 
der his father, Dr. Harvey C. Orr, and took his 
fii'st course of lectures in the University of Louis- 
ville, Ky., in the winter of 1882-83. After fin- 
ishing his course, he returned to Mississippi, and 
practiced his profession with his father one year, 
when he located in the county and began practicing 
on his own responsibility, continuing there up to 
February, 1886. He then took another course of 
lectures in the Hospital College of Medicine, at 
Louisville, Ky., and graduated June 17, 1886. 
After completing his course, he located at Green- 
way, Ark., and has built up a large and paying 
practice, which is increasing steadily and profitably. 
His father was born in the " Palmetto State," and, 
after receiving his education and residing there 
until reaching manhood, he went to Mississippi, 
where he met and wedded Miss Mary E. Weath- 
erall. who was born and reared in Mississippi. Dr. 
Orr became settled in Lee County of that State, 
where he has practiced for over thirty years, and 
is still successfully following his calling. 

W. R. Paty, of Corning, Ark., was born in Hum- 
phreys County, Tenn. , August 28, 1849, his parents 
being Matthew and Priscilla Roberts, of Tennessee. 
The former's birth occurred about 1814, and in 
1838 he was married to one Miss Hendi'ix. They had 
three children born to them, of whom two are yet 
living. The wife died in 1845, and in 1847 he was 
maiTied to Miss Priscilla Roberts. They had nine 
children, of whom W. R. Paty is the only living 
member. Matthew Paty was a land holder in his 



CLAY COUNTY. 



237 



native State. In the spring of 1S58 he moved to 
Kipley County, Mo., where he bought a tract of 
land, consisting of 120 acres, on which he resided 
three years, and then moved to Butler County, of 
the same State, where he made his home until his 
death, on the ITjth of February, 1865. He was a 
Democrat in his political views, and he and wife 
were members of the Methodist Church. In the 
spring of 1N07 the widow, with seven children, 
moved to Randolph County, Ark. , and by the 
10th of May, 1884, they all had died, except 
W. R. Paty. On the 30th of November, 1873, he 
was married to Miss Caroline Watson, of Clay 
County, a daughter of Rev. Peter Watson. They 
had five children born to them, all of whom died 
in their infancy. Caroline Paty died October 12, 
1883. On the 14th of September, 1884, W. 
R. Paty was married to Mrs. Ruth A. Alexander, 
a native of Tennessee. She was a widow with one 
child. Mr. Paty now owns a farm, and lives on 
the same, ten miles west of Corning, in Clay Coun- 
ty, Ark., where he intends to remain the rest of 
his days. He received very little education in his 
youth, just learning the forms of the letters, but 
by self application he has made rapid strides in 
the acquirement of knowledge and acquaintance 
with current events. He is independent in his 
political views, and has served as school director 
and road overseer. He is a member of the Agri- 
cultural Wheel. 

Boswell B. Payne, Sr. , retired farmer, is a 
native of Rutherford County, Tenn., born Febru- 
ary 1, 1815, and is a son of James and Permelia 
Ann (Hitchcock) Payne, born in North Carolina and 
Ireland, respectively, though they were reared, mar- 
ried, and resided in Tennessee, and died in that 
State about 1827 and 1828, respectively. Boswell 
B. Payne grew to manhood in Madison County, 
Tenn., and was married in Dyer County, March 
4, 1836, to Miss Nancy Nettle, a daughter of 
Jesse and Catherine (Derosett) Nettle. Mrs. 
Payne was born in Franklin County, Tenn., July 
30, 1817, and she and Mr. Payne reared a family 
of nine children, all of whom are manied and the 
parents of families. They have forty-seven grand- 
children and about eight great-grandchildren. 



After their marriage they farmed in Tennessee for 
seven years, then moving to Poinsett County, Ark. , 
in 1843, where they were engaged in farming for 
about four years, coming thence to what is now 
Clay County, and in 1847 locating near Green way 
on the farm which he now owns. He built a good 
double log house, cleared a farm of sixty-five acres, 
and reared his family. He was a great hunter in 
his day, and has killed many bear, elk, deer, and 
a great amount of small game. He and wife are 
members of the Missionary Baptist Church. 

John H. Payne. The genealogy of this family 
can be traced directly back to two brothtn-s who, 
on coming to America, settled on James River, Va., 
and were among the early colonists. This family 
is among the old and much respected ones of the 
country. J. H. Payne was born in Greene County 
(now known as Clay Count}'), Ark., Aj)ril 20, 1850, 
and is the son of B. B. and Nancy (Nettle) Payne, 
and grandson of James Payne and wife, nee 
Hitchcock, the latter being of Irish extraction. In 
1844 B. B. Payne came to Clay County, Ark., with 
his wife and family consisting then of three chil- 
di'en, and is now living one and a half mile from 
Greenway. There were nine childjreu in the 
family, five daughters and four sons, all now mar- 
ried, and six of whom were born after their parents 
came to Arkansas. There are seventy five descend- 
ants to this family in children, grandchildren and 
great-grandchildren, living at the present time. 
Jesse Nettle, the maternal grandfather of the sub- 
ject of this sketch, was of Welsh descent, and his 
wife, Polly (Derosett) Nettle, was of French ex- 
traction. J. H. Payne, one of the rising young 
men of the county, has filled the office of magis 
trate for three consecutive terms, and in 1885 he 
was elected to the XXVth General Assembly of 
Arkansas. At the present time he is occupied in 
timber speculations, but previous to this he had 
made farming a specialty. He is a member of the 
Missionary Baptist Church, holding credentials as 
a preacher in the same, and at present is study- 
ing for the legal profession. He chose for his wife 
Miss Susan D. Nettle, a native of Clay Coiuity. 
Ark., and the daughter of William R. Nettle, of 
Tennessee. She died September 16, 1888, and 



^1 

SI p 



238 



HISTORY OF ARKANSAS. 



-i£: 



left five children: J. H. , Jr., Laura J., David L., 
James C. and George. He is a Democrat and 
takes considerable interest in politics. He lives in 
Piggott, and j)ractices in the inferior courts of the 
State. 

Thomas L. Pierce, M. D. , one of the many emi- 
nent practitioners of Clay County, who has min- 
istered to the wants of the sick and afflicted of 
Clay County, Ark., is a native of Tennessee and 
went with his father, John J. Pierce, to Illinois in 
the spring of 1806. The father was a Union 
man in sentiment, but during the war he re- 
mained in Tennessee, and sided with neither the 
North nor South. After moving to Illinois he 
settled near Vienna, the count}' seat of Johnson 
County, where his son, Thomas L., grew to man- 
hood. The latter received a good practical edu- 
cation in the schools of Johnson County, and in 

1878, when twenty- two years of age, entered the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons at Keokuk, 
I<jwa. Previous to this he had studied in the 
office with Dr. T. L. Grissom, of Samoth, 111., and 
after retm-ning from Keokuk he commenced prac- 
ticing with Dr. J. H. Norris, of Metropolis City, 
III. After remaining there one year he came to 
Boydsville, Ark., whe